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«End-to-End QoS Provision over Heterogeneous IP and non IP Broadband Wired and Wireless Network Environments A dissertation submitted in satisfaction ...»

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University of the Aegean

Karlovasi, Samos

End-to-End QoS Provision over Heterogeneous

IP and non IP Broadband Wired and Wireless

Network Environments

A dissertation submitted in satisfaction of the

requirements for the degree

Information & Communication Systems Engineering


Thomas Pliakas

c Copyright by

University the Aegean

Dept. of Information and Communication Systems Engineering

The dissertation of Thomas Pliakas is approved.

Sokratis Katsikas (Professor, University of Piraeus) Vassilis Loumos, (Professor, National Technical University of Athens) Iakovos Venieris (Professor, National Technical University of Athens) Dimitrios Vergados, (Lecturer, University of Piraeus) Ioannis Anagnostopoulos (Lecturer, University of the Aegean) Aggelos Rouskas (Assistant Professor, University of the Aegean) George Kormentzas, Assistant Professor, University of the Aegean, Committee Chair University of the Aegean, Karlovasi, Samos ii To Justina iii Table of Contents 1 Introduction................................ 1

1.1 Contribution of the dissertation................... 4

1.2 Organization of the document.................... 6 2 Essential Background Information.................. 9

2.1 Introduction.............................. 9

2.2 Scalable Video Coding........................ 11 2.2.1 MPEG-4 Scalable video................... 13 2.2.2 Scalable Extension of H.264/MPEG-4 AVC........ 16

2.3 Prioritization of video packets.................... 18

2.4 Network-Adaptive Media Transport................. 19 2.4.1 Rate-Distortion Optimized Streaming............ 21 2.4.2 Congestion-Distortion Optimized Scheduling........ 25

2.5 Inter-domain techniques for providing traffic differentiation at the network level............................. 26 2.5.1 IP Domain - Differentiated Services............. 26 2.5.2 DVB Domain - Bandiwdth Management.......... 28 2.5.3

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2.3 Four-level hierarchical-B prediction structure............ 16

2.4 A directed acyclic graph captures the decoding dependecies for an SNR-scalable encoding of video with I-frames, P-frames, and Bframes. Squares represent data units and arrows indicate decoding order.................................. 22

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6.5 SSIM measurements of scalable video transmission over DiffServ/802.11e Heterogeneous Networks....................... 110

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7.4 SSIM measurements of scalable video transmission over DiffServ/802.11e Heterogeneous Networks....................... 127

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4.10 Packet/Frame Loss for the Highway video sequence for DiffServ/UMTS classes coupling of Setting II..................... 74

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5.5 Quality Results for all experimental cases for DiffServ/UMTS classes coupling for one-to-one mapping................... 92

5.6 Quality Results for all experimental cases for DiffServ/UMTS classes coupling for many-to-one mapping.................. 93

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I would like to acknowledge the valuable advice and guidance of Assistant Professor George Kormentzas, committee chairman, without his knowledge and assistance this study would not have been successful. I would like also to thank Dr. Anastasios Kourtis, member of my PhD committee, Principal Researcher at NCSR Demokritos for his guidance, suggestions and financial support.

Special thanks to Dr. Sofia Tsekeridou for her advices and continuous encouragement all these years and Dr. Charalabos Skianis, Assistant Professor at University of Aegean and Associate Researcher at NCSR Demokritos for his assistance and guidance. I would like also to thank my colleagues, at the NCSR Demokritos, Mr. George Xilouris, Dr. Harilaos Koumaras, Dr. George Gardikis, Prof. Evagellos Pallis, Mr. Nikolas Zotos. Furthermore, I would like also to thank Prof. Tasos Dagiuklas, Prof. Ilias Maglogiannis, Mr. Ilias Polits and Mr.

Chalarabos Doukas for our valuable discussions and work in common areas.

Finally, I would like also to thanks my family and all those people that support and encourage me all these years, in order to successfully complete this study.

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Meeting the Quality of Service requirements in a heterogeneous content delivery system is an end-to-end issue. It is important that all end-to-end components of a heterogeneous content delivery system work together in order to achieve the desired user application/network quality level. Significant amount of work has been undertaken within the areas of video coding, flow synchronization, scheduling and transport support, in order to deal with the heterogeneous content delivery over the Internet, at the application level. At the network level, research has focused on providing appropriate and efficient prioritization schemes. It is necessary to develop an overall architectural framework that blends well existing cross-layer QoS notions in the view of heterogeneous types of network technologies. Building on the different application and network perspectives concerning end-to-end QoS provision for content delivery systems, this thesis identifies key items for the xiii development of an overall framework that achieves inter-working between the existing separate perspectives. Towards this goal, this dissertation combines recent QoS multimedia streaming techniques and coding methods and recent work on QoS support in the network layer, considering wired and wireless networks, and proposes techniques for mapping application QoS related semantics with the appropriate network low-level description themes in the context of state-of-the-art proposed QoS architectural frameworks.

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Παροχή από Άκρο-σε-Άκρο Ποιότητας Υπηρεσίας σε Ετερογενή Ευρυζωνικά Ενσύρµατα και Ασύρµατα Δικτυακά

Περιβάλλοντα IP και µη IP

Θωµάς Πλιάκας

Τµήµα Μηχανικών Πληροφοριακών και Επικοινωνιακών Συστηµάτων

Πανεπιστήµιο Αιγαίου, Καρλόβασι, Σάµος, 2008 Συµβουλευτική Επιτροπή Γεώργιος Κορµέντζας (Επίκουρος Καθηγητής, Πανεπιστήµιο Αιγαίου) Άγγελος Ρούσκας (Επίκουρος Καθηγητής, Πανεπιστήµιο Αιγαίου) Αναστάσιος Κούρτης (Ερευνητής Α, ΕΚΕΦΕ Δηµοκριτος) Η ικανοποίηση των απαιτήσεων QoS σε ετερογενή συστήµατα παράδοσης πολυµεσικού περιεχοµένου είναι ένα από άκρη-σε-άκρη πρόβληµα. Για εφαρµογές συνεχούς ροής, η ποιότητα υπηρεσίας πρέπει να είναι προβλέψιµη και παραµετροποιήσιµη για όλα τα επίπεδα του OSI, µε έµφαση στην συσχέτιση της δικτυακής της αντίληψης (network QoS) µε την ποιότητα υπηρεσίας που λαµβάνει τελικά ο χρήστης (application QoS).

xv Είναι σηµαντικό ότι όλα τα µέρη ενός ετερογενές πολυµεσικού δικτυακού συστήµατος θα πρέπει να συνεργάζονται µε τέτοιο τρόπο ώστε να επιτυγχάνουν το απαιτούµενο επίπεδο ποιότητας. Σε επίπεδο εφαρµογής, αξιοσηµείωτη έρευνα έχει γίνει τα τελευταία χρόνια σε περιοχές που αφορούν την κωδικοποίηση κινούµενης εικόνας (video coding) και τον συγχρονισµό των ροών (flow synchronization). Σε επίπεδο δικτύου, η έρευνα έχει επικεντρωθεί στην παροχή των κατάλληλων µηχανισµών διασφάλισηςδιαφοροποιούµενης ποιότητας υπηρεσίας ανάλογα µε την προτεραιότητα

µιας πολυµεσικής ροής. Είναι απαραίτητο να αναπτύξουµε ένα µοντέλο για να

επιτυγχάνεται η συνεργασία της διαφορετικής αντίληψης που αφορά την ποιότητα υπηρεσίας στα διαφορετικά επίπεδα ενός πολυµεσικού συστήµατος για διαφορετικούς τύπους δικτύων. Στο πλαίσιο αυτό, η διδακτορική διατριβή αναπτύσσει και αξιολογεί µέσω εξοµοιώσεων σε NS-2 και µετρήσεων σε πειραµατική υποδοµή, ένα γενικό πλαισίο παροχής από άκρο-σε-άκρο ποιότητας υπηρεσίας σε ετερογενή δικτυακά περιβάλλοντα IP και µη IP. Το προτεινόµενο πλαίσιο ενσωµατώνει πρόσφατες τεχνικές κωδικοποίησης video και διάφορα µοντέλα διασφάλισης ποιότητας υπηρεσίας σε επίπεδο δικτύου.

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Nowadays, Internet exists over different types of network technologies and carries various applications that require different quality of service levels. In particular, multimedia streaming applications have much stricter bandwidth requirements than the conventional Internet applications (ftp, email, web browsing). In order to guarantee end-to-end Quality of Service (QoS) for streaming applications we must take under consideration both network heterogeneity and application requirements in terms of bandwidth, error and delay parameters.

One approach to emerging multimedia applications is to provide guaranteed network bandwidth while maintaining best-effort protocols. However, despite the astounding rate at which processing speed and link capacity are increasing, anyone can see congestion in many places in networks today and expect to see similarly situations in the future. There will be more and more new bandwidthdemanding applications as connectivity and services of broadband networks expand. In addition, there is no guarantee that the Internet topology will be free of bottleneck links even if the transmission speeds of physical networks keep increasing. TCP congestion control and the best-effort IP by themselves seem to be inadequate to satisfy the diverse network applications of the future. Also, from the standpoints of network pricing and the network service providers’ economics, the same service for all paradigm seem inadequate for the expected future of network evolution.

Another approach is: (1) to allocate network resources to different types of network traffic on the basis of their performance requirements by using more effective network protocols; (2) perform careful management of network resources.

It is important today that a network should provide, to some extent, different qualities of service to different applications in accordance with their performance needs. QoS provision and effective resource management will continue to be important even in the broadband area because a greater variety of applications demanding widely different levels of network performance will be created as network speeds increase.

Simply speaking, QoS provision can be viewed as the ability of network service providers to handle the performance needs of different types of application traffic by allocating network resources appropriately. This report explores the network provider’s QoS provision mechanism, the end-system application’s mechanism for adapting to the temporal variation of the network service quality, and the interaction and cooperation of the two mechanism.

Different kinds of traffic streams are aggregated at the gateways to the service providers’ networks and intelligent packet management schemes can be used to provide QoS. QoS provisioning is one of the critical issues in networked multimedia applications. As the Internet evolves, the number of diverse applications will require more stringent performance guarantees in terms of bandwidth and end-to-end delay than the current Internet and its best-effort service can provide. Since the best-effort service in place today cannot provide these expected application requirements, a great deal of effort must be expended to construct additional services to meet the demand of emerging applications.

For the most multimedia applications, the QoS performance measure in the application layer is actually a subjective one based on human perception. It is often assumed that a subjective QOS measure can be translated some objective measures such as average delay, delay jitter, loss rate, etc. However, multimedia applications can have very diverse requirements. For example, applications such as medical images for remote diagnosis demand extremely reliable information delivery. Additionally, remote real-time control messages for some applications demand reliable and timely information delivery. Thus, it is critical to guarantee that no packet is lost or delayed in the network for such applications. On the other hand., other multimedia applications such as entertainment audi and video can tolerate some fraction of lost or delayed packets. Thus, it is important for a network service provider to meet the diverse QoS requirements presented by different applications.

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