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«Automated Tourist Decision Support Wouter Souffriau Dissertation presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor in ...»

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The choice of an adequate metaheuristic framework is important, as a good balance between intensification and diversifications is a key success factor in finding high quality solutions. The Ant Colony Optimisation framework, as described in Chapter 2, is a pure constructive method, and appeared to be less suitable for tackling TTDPs. However, its multistart character provides good diversification, and very good results could be obtained if the result of each ant was to be optimised by a local search procedure. Guided Local Search and Skewed Variable Neighbourhood Search are both local search based methods that perform a single walk. They achieve very good results for the TOP, but they do not sufficiently explore large parts of the solution landscape. A strong diversification mechanism is provided by the GRASP / Path Relinking framework, which combines a constructive heuristic, an intensive local search and a multistart evolutionary mechanism. This combination leads to world–class results. However, the Path Relinking extension comes with a serious computational cost, which is uneconomical in the tourist application as “real–time” response is needed. Therefore, when tackling problems with time windows, the Path Relinking procedure is left out. Moreover, developing a recombination operator is not straightforward when dealing with time windows. The Iterated Local Search framework is a good choice for the TOPTW, as only one neighbourhood, insert, is available. Encapsulating this approach in a multistart procedure, leads to better results for problems with multiple constraints, again at a computational cost.

Fine–tuning parameters still requires a lot of work. Automated parameterisation methods can be used to partly relieve the algorithm developer from this burden.

MAIN CONTRIBUTIONS 125

8.1 Main Contributions While realising the main objective, this work has led to a number of significant

contributions to the field of O.R.:

• Chapter 2 presents two new, multi–level metaheuristic approaches to tackle the OP. O.R. techniques are combined with techniques from the field of information retrieval in order to calculate tailored city tours on–the–fly.

• Chapter 3 presents three new TOP solution approaches: Guided Local Search, Skewed Variable Neighbourhood Search and Path Relinking. The latter achieves very good solutions in a small amount of computational time, or world–class results in a reasonable amount of computation effort, compared to other state–of–the–art approaches.

• Chapter 4 presents, to the best of the author’s knowledge, the first “mobile metaheuristic”, capable of successfully solving OPTW instances up to 50 POIs in an acceptable execution time on a mobile phone with very limited computational power.

• Chapters 2 to 4 combined, provide a survey on the different aspects of the (Team) Orienteering Problem (with Time Windows).

• Chapter 5 presents a generalisation of the OP that focuses on multi–constraint selective vehicle routing problems with time windows. A hybrid solution mechanism efficiently tackles a set of different problem formulations.

• Chapter 6 presents a web–based tourist expert system, named City Trip Planner, that proposes custom–made city trips, tailored to the user’s interests and context.

• Chapter 7 presents a novel path finding problem and solution for recreational cyclists in East Flanders. A web–based planning application provides planning support, and an SMS–based application allows to plan and navigate a cycle route using only a mobile phone instead of an expensive GPS device.

All this work is published, accepted or under review for publication.

8.2 Research Opportunities

–  –  –

Public Transportation integration is identified as one of the most appreciated functionalities of an MTG [Schmidt-Belz et al., 2003, Stroobants, 2006, Beer et al., 2007]. Fomin and Lingas [2002] present the Time Dependent OP (TDOP), an OP extension in which the travel time between i and j depends on the leave time from i, resulting in a three dimensional cost matrix. Each element of this matrix is the result of solving an “Earliest Arrival Problem” between i and j, leaving on time l [Pyrga et al., 2008]. The solution methods presented in this work need to be adapted to incorporate time dependency. A simple approach for calculating an entire time dependent cost matrix would take too long. For instance, this matrix for a medium-sized instance with 50 POIs and 8 hours, has a size of 50*50*8*60=1.200.000, when a time precision of 1 minute is used. This number of Earliest Arrival Problem calculations is not realistic to perform in real–time.

Besides, the evaluation of an insertion becomes much more complex when public transportation is included. A small increase in the planned leave time from one POI can cause a significant increase in the arrival time at the next. For instance, when a tourist just misses the bus and has to wait for the next one or walk to the next POI.

In order to handle the public transportation difficulty, the average travel times between all pairs of POIs can be calculated, resulting in a regular two–dimensional cost matrix. This way, the problem can be solved by a regular “time independent” solution method. A repair procedure needs to adapt the arrival and leave times of the visits of the resulting trip according to the differences between the average travel times and the real travel times. As a consequence, one or more visits can become infeasible and it may be necessary to remove them.





Hotel Selection. The TOP with Hotel Selection generalises the TOP, in which the start and end of each tour are fixed, by making the end location for each tour, except for the last tour, a decision variable. The length of each tour is still restricted to the predetermined time budget, but the end location can be chosen from a set of hotel locations. Only the start of the first tour and the end of the last tour are fixed. Tour i + 1 has to start where tour i ended. An instance of the problem is presented in Figure 8.1.

Mixed Orienteering. The combination of the well-known Vehicle Routing Problem and Arc Routing Problem is defined as the “general routing problem” [Muyldermans et al., 2005]. In the same way, the combination of the OP and the arc routing problem with profits can be defined as the “Mixed Orienteering Problem” (MOP), with scores associated to vertices as well as arcs. Since the name Generalised Orienteering Problem is already assigned [Wang et al., 1996, Ramesh and Brown, 1991, Zong et al., 2005, Wang et al., 2008, Silberholz and Golden, 2009], the name “Mixed Orienteering Problem” is chosen for this new type of problem. To the best

RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES 127

Figure 8.1: The Team Orienteering Problem with Hotel Selection of the author’s knowledge, the MOP has not been subject of scientific publications.

This new problem offers many research opportunities.

Appendix A Real–World Case A.1 Tourist Trip Design Problems A.2 Results

–  –  –

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