FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Abstract, dissertation, book

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 13 | 14 || 16 | 17 |   ...   | 20 |

«Automated Tourist Decision Support Wouter Souffriau Dissertation presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor in ...»

-- [ Page 15 ] --

The City Trip Planner tourist decision support system suggests personal trips by first capturing the tourist’s trip constraints and interests through a small questionnaire. These interests are used to predict a personal interest score for each POI that a tourist can visit within the constraints. The GPS coordinates and opening hours of the POIs, the personal interest scores, the tourist’s location and available time give rise to a specific instance of a TTDP. Next, a heuristic algorithm solves this instance, resulting in a personal trip, that is tailored to the user’s interests, current location, destination, available time and the opening hours.

Finally, the trajectory can be printed or downloaded to a GPS navigation device.

Figure 6.2 overviews the different components of the system.

Figure 6.2: The City Trip Planner - System Overview

Section 6.2.

1 describes the structure of the tourist POI database, Section 6.2.2 describes how to synthesise personal tourist information into the user profile. Next, Section 6.2.

3 matches this user profile to the pre-determined POI database in order to predict personal interest scores for the different POIs, making the formulation of a tourist trip design problem instance possible. The algorithm presented in Section 6.2.4 solves this instance and proposes a trip to the user. When the tourist is happy with the proposal, the trip can be finalised, as is explained in Section 6.2.5.

6.2.1 POI Database

–  –  –

109. Every POI is characterised by its GPS coordinates, a calendar of opening and closing hours, an average visiting duration and textual descriptions in English and Dutch. A POI belongs to exactly one ”type”: abbeys, beguinages, castles, churches, musea, etc. Each city defined at most ten POI types that are very relevant for the city concerned. Moreover, the POIs have been classified manually using the following categories: archaeology, architecture, classical art, “local markets and streets”, modern art, nature, religious art and science. A system administrator of the local tourist office determined membership degrees to each category: not at all, a bit, mostly or absolutely. The system administrator can mark at most five POIs as “not to be missed”. These POIs will always be included in the initial trip that the expert system suggests to the tourist, provided that the time requirements are met.

All the data is provided and kept up–to–date by the tourist offices of the different cities. A web–based authoring tool supports this process.

6.2.2 Personal Data

The tourist first enters a number of trip contraints that restrict the possibilities and chooses one of the five cities to visit, the date of arrival and the number of days the trip will last. Next, for each day of the trip, the tourist chooses a starting and ending location, and a start and end time. The starting and ending locations can be chosen from a predefined set of locations, e.g. the railway station or a parking lot. It is also possible to enter any address, e.g. the address of a hotel. The user can request a (lunch) break of a certain duration to be scheduled in an interval during the day. E.g. a tourist prefers to have a one hour lunch break between one and three pm. Based on this information, the database is queried and only the set of POIs that can be visited within these trip constraints, based on distance and opening hours, are retrieved.

Next, the system queries the user for his or her interests and creates a user profile.

This profile is composed of three parts, namely types, categories and keywords. The tourist states his degree of interest in the different categories mentioned above: not at all, a bit, mostly or absolutely. Degrees of interest should also be expressed for the POI types. Furthermore, the user may refine his profile by means of arbitrary keywords, e.g. football, war, Dark Ages, etc. All this does not take much more than a minute. Finally, the tourist is offered the possibility to create an account in order to reuse his input for future visits to the web application.


6.2.3 Interest Estimation

After a tourist entered the trip constraints and preferences, the system estimates the personal interest in each POI that can be visited, resulting in a score for each possible visit. This interest score is the sum of three components: the type score, the category score and the keyword search score. Every POI category membership, not at all, a bit, mostly or absolutely, is quantified as 0, 1, 2 and 3 respectively.

This is also done for the tourist’s type and category interests.

The type score of a POI is set equal to three times the interest degree of the tourist for that particular type. If the tourist is not interested in the type, the total score will be set 0, and the POI will be removed from the set of POIs. If a POI has a type score of 9, the POI is a must for the tourist and a bonus of 3 is added to the type score, in order to reinforce its possible selection. This bonus increases the attractiveness of top POIs.

For the sake of clarity, Table 6.1 presents an example of the interest score calculation of a POI, which is an abbey in this case.

In order to calculate the category score of a POI, the numerical degree of membership in each interest category is multiplied by the user’s interest for each corresponding category. Similarly, if this product is 9, an additional bonus of 3 is awarded. The category score for a POI is the sum of the three highest scoring categories, resulting in a maximum of 36.

The keyword search score is calculated using the Vector Space Model of Baeza-Yates and Ribeiro-Neto [1999], an Information Retrieval technique widely applied by search engines. Every full text description in the POI database is preprocessed and indexed, resulting in a document vector. The user formulates interests as a number of arbitrary chosen keywords, which form a query vector. This query vector is compared to the document vector of the corresponding POI. This comparison forms the keyword search score, which is then normalised between 0 and 36. The keyword search scoring procedure is described in detail in Section 2.7.1.

The three scores are added and form the personal interest score of the tourist in the POI.

Finally, each POI that has been marked by the city’s tourist office as “not to be missed”, receives a score equal to the sum of all the POI’s interest scores plus one.

6.2.4 Tourist Trip Design Algorithm

–  –  –

once. A GRASP procedure performs a number of independent iterations each consisting of a constructive procedure, which is described in Section 3.5. The neighbourhood consistency algorithm (described in Section 5.3) is used when an insertion is performed. The importance of the extra constraints, however, is not taken into account when evaluating the neighbourhood. This process repeats until a fixed number of iterations without improvement is reached.

In order to take the lunchbreak into account, the insertion step of Section 4.3 is extended, allowing the possibility of insertions without locations. The original insertion step tries to add, one by one, new visits to a tour. Before an extra visit can be inserted in a tour, it should be verified that all visits scheduled after the insertion place still satisfy their time window. A quick evaluation of each possible insert move is required to reduce computational efforts. Checking the feasibility of all the other visits would take too much time. This can be avoided by recording W ait and M axShif t for each already included visit, as previously described in Section 4.3. A visiting duration Ti has to be taken into account. leaveid = sid + Ti is the leaving time at location i.

In order to extend this insertion step to deal with the lunch break, three cases can

be distincted when the insertion of visit j is considered between visits i and k:

1. i and j have a location, while k is a break. This case is covered by the standard formulas of Section 4.3.

–  –  –

When after a sequence of proposals and alteration requests, the tourist is satisfied with the latest proposal, the trip can be finalised. The user can print a detailed schedule of the trip, composed of all the visits with their arrival and leaving times, full text descriptions of each POI and detailed maps of the route between the POIs.

This information can also be downloaded to a mobile GPS device, allowing the tourist to track his route accurately. Moreover, the final trip can be shared with family and friends using social networking sites.

6.3 Implementation

The expert system is implemented as a web application. All data is stored in a Postgres database with spatial PostGIS extensions. User interaction is achieved via dynamic web pages using PHP and Java scripting, in an Apache web server.

The score prediction and tourist trip design algorithm was coded in Java 1.6 and exposed to the web server via a web service.

In order to demonstrate the different planning steps of the City Trip Planner expert system, a short planning case is discussed and illustrated. A one day trip to Bruges is planned, starting from the railway station and ending in the centre of Bruges at the “Markt”. A 60 minutes lunch break is requested between noon and 2 pm (Figure 6.3).

Concerning the categories and POI types, a large interest in “monumental buildings” and “city palaces” is entered together with no interest in “statues” or “city parks” (Figure 6.4). The tourist, in this example, has a large interest in “architecture” and “local market and streets” and inputs “music” as a keyword.

The resulting trip proposal is presented in a table (Figure 6.5) and on a map (Figure 6.6). In this case, the trip contains no statues or city parks, but a number IMPLEMENTATION 103

–  –  –

of squares, architectural buildings and city palaces. The POI with the highest score is the “Concert Hall”. It is strongly related to the given keyword, to architecture and to monumental buildings. Although only a small interest in beguinages was given, a visit to the “Beguinage–inside” is included, since the local tourist office indicated this visit is a “not to be missed” for a tourist. Obviously, the tourist can still decide to omit this visit from the trip plan.

–  –  –

Figure 6.6 presents part of the map of the trip, i.

e. the end of the trip and the arrival at the “Markt”. After finalising the trip, the user can download or print a complete map with detailed POI information.

6.4 User satisfaction

–  –  –

6.4.1 Usage Statistics The data is collected by means of Google Analytics1 ; an on–line tool providing traffic statistics to a web site. Data is collected for a period of two months after the public launch of the system (July 7 till September 6, 2009).

17,510 unique visitors used the system 21,498 times, resulting in an average of 1,946 visitors per week or 282 visitors per day. Visits originated from 87 different countries, half of which from Belgium, 20% from the Netherlands, 7% from Spain and 6% from the UK. The United States, Germany, France, Italy, Japan and Canada complete the top ten. 80% of the users visited more than one page and can thus be considered as “real” users. Only 3% leaves the site while completing one of the interest measuring forms. Two third of the users starting the trip planning wizard, also complete it. 20% of the tourists receiving a trip suggestion, decided to use the print or download functionalities. It is clear that many users just try out the web site or use it to get a first idea about the touristic opportunities of the city. The local tourist offices are enthusiastic about the number of visitors of the expert system.

An average visit took four minutes and 19 seconds and was composed of 8.07 page views. This is rather high in comparison to other web sites, which experience a lot of accidental visits. Inputting user data takes on average one minute and a half.

The user spends two minutes on average checking his personal trip proposal and reading the detailed POI information.

20,395 trips were proposed in total. In descending order, 7,313 were planned in Antwerp, 4,098 in Bruges, 3,335 in Leuven, 2,904 in Ghent and 2,745 in Mechlin.

1 http://www.google.com/analytics, last accessed November 23, 2009 106 THE CITY TRIP PLANNER 15,748 were single–day trips, 2,067 were composed out of two days, 1,213 of three days, 289 of four days, 107 of five days, 21 of six days and 143 of a whole week.

Averaged over all trips, one day of a trip consists of 26 activities on average, including start, lunch break and end. Many of these activities are only short visits (five minutes or less) to look at a statue or at the facade of a building.

6.4.2 User Feedback The website allows the users to give feedback using a questionnaire. First, the user can disagree completely with, disagree with, agree with, agree completely with or

have no opinion about the following statements:

S1 Completing the forms to construct my profile took too much time;

S2 The whole process to receive a personal trip took too much time;

S3 I had to change a lot before receiving a satisfying trip;

S4 The proposed attractions meet my interests;

S5 It was always immediately clear what was expected from me;

S6 The City Trip Planner is very clear and easy to use.

Next, the user is asked for remarks, suggestions for extra functionalities, or other suggestions. During the first two months, 43 visitors have filled in this form, of which 20 reported small technical malfunctions right after the launch. The results of the other 23 are summarised in Table 6.2.

–  –  –

(very) positive about the required input (S1), the response time (S2), the quality of the proposal (S3 and S4) and the user friendliness (S5 and S6). It is interesting to note that most people disagree with S1, as Davies et al. [2001] reported that a time–comsuming input of preferences is a source of negative reactions when proposing custom–built tours.

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 13 | 14 || 16 | 17 |   ...   | 20 |

Similar works:

«Married Adolescents: An Overview Nicole Haberland, Erica Chong, Hillary Bracken Paper prepared for the WHO/UNFPA/Population Council Technical Consultation on Married Adolescents WHO, Geneva 9–12 December 2003 CONTENTS Acknowledgments Introduction: In No One’s Sphere Early Marriage Remains Extensive Marital Patterns Are Diverse Early Marriage Is an Abuse of Rights Social and Economic Dimensions of Married Adolescent Girls’ Lives The Transition to Marriage: A Confluence of Profound Changes...»

«COOPERATION, NEED FOR COMMUNICATION AND RESUMPTION OF DIALOGUE IN RELATION TO AGE-GROUPS Proceeding of conferences This project is carried out with the support of the European Community as a part of the Lifelong Learning Programme, Sub-programme GRUNDTVIG, Action Partnerships. COOPERATION, NEED FOR COMMUNICATION AND RESUMPTION OF DIALOGUE IN RELATION TO AGE-GROUPS COORDINATOR Alumni Club of the Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Slovakia Department of International Relations of...»

«Unit operations for the integration of laboratory processes in the field of nucleic acid analysis based on centrifugal microfluidics Dissertation zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades der technischen Fakultät der Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg im Breisgau vorgelegt von Dipl.-Phys. Daniel Mark Freiburg im Breisgau, 2013 i Dekan Prof. Dr. Yiannos Manoli Referenten Prof. Dr. Roland Zengerle Prof. Dr. Ulrike Wallrabe Tag der Prüfung 26.09.2013 Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg Technische...»

«Langfristszenarien und Strategien für den Ausbau der Erneuerbaren Energien in Deutschland bei Berücksichtigung der Entwicklung in Europa und global FKZ 03MAP146 Arbeitsgemeinschaft Deutsches Zentrum für Luftund Raumfahrt (DLR), Stuttgart Institut für Technische Thermodynamik, Abt. Systemanalyse und Technikbewertung Fraunhofer Institut für Windenergie und Energiesystemtechnik (IWES), Kassel Ingenieurbüro für neue Energien (IFNE), Teltow Entwicklung der EEG-Vergütungen,...»

«DFG Senatskommission für Agrarökosystemforschung Nachhaltige ressourceneffiziente Erhöhung der Flächenproduktivität: Zukunftsoptionen der deutschen Agrarökosystemforschung Grundsatzpapier (Stand: 14. Februar 2014) Am Grundsatzpapier haben mitgearbeitet: Mitglieder der Senatskommission für Agrarökosystemforschung und weitere Experten Prof. Dr. Regina Birner, Universität Stuttgart-Hohenheim Prof. Dr. Nicolas Brüggemann, Forschungszentrum Jülich Prof. Dr. Bernd Diekkrüger, Universität...»

«THL Schutzjacke und Schutzhose Protective jacket and Protective trousers Verwenderinformation User information Verwenderinformation D User information GB Rosenbauer THL, Schutzjacke / Schutzhose THL Schutzjacke / Schutzhose zur technischen Hilfeleistung Die Schutzjacke und Schutzhose sind eine Feuerwehrschutzbekleidung ▪ gemäß EN 469:2005+A1:2006 Die Feuerwehtschutzjacke THL muss immer gemeinsam mit der ▪ Feuerwehrschutzhose THL oder einer anderen Rosenbauer Schutzhose gemäß EN...»


«SÉRIE ANTROPOLOGIA Continuity, integration and expanding horizons Stanley J. Tambiah (interviewed by Mariza Peirano) Brasília Stanley J. Tambiah is the Esther and Sidney Rabb Professor of Anthropology at Harvard University. He received his undergraduate education at the University of Ceylon (Sri Lanka) and his Ph.D. from Cornell University (1954). Having served as a UNESCO technical assistance expert in Thailand from 1960 to 1963, he joined the faculty at the University of Cambridge, where he...»

«OPTIMAL PRODUCTION OF POTABLE WATER CASE STUDY: AGONA SWEDRU GHANA WATER COMPANY LIMITED (GWCL) BY NYAME, MOSES (B.Ed. Mathematics) A thesis submitted to the Institute of Distance Learning to the Department of Mathematics, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology In partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Science Industrial Mathematics September, 2011 DECLARATION I hereby declare that this submission is my own work towards the MSc. And that, to the best of...»

«The Dark Red Amulet The Dark Red Amulet ORAL INSTRUCTIONS ON THE PRACTICE OF VAJRAKILAYA by Khenchen Palden Sherab Rinpoche and Khenpo Tsewang Dongyal Rinpoche Samye Translation Group Snow Lion Publications Ithaca, New York SNOW LION PUBLICATIONS P. O. Box 6483 Ithaca, NY 14851 USA (607) 273-8519 www.snowlionpub.com Copyright © 2008 Khenchen Palden Sherab Rinpoche and Khenpo Tsewang Dongyal Rinpoche Previously published as a commentary by Dharma Samudra in 1992. All rights reserved. No part of...»

«Barrio Logan Harbor 101 Community Plan Barrio Logan Harbor 101 Community Plan City of San Diego Planning Department 202 C Street, MS 4A San Diego, CA 92101 Printed on recycled paper. This information, or this document (or portions thereof), will be made available in alternative formats upon request.-iBarrio Logan / Harbor 101 Community Plan The following information has been incorporated into this November 2005 posting of this Plan: Date Approved by Resolution Date Adopted by Resolution...»

«    Conference Proceedings Graz, March 30th and 31st, 2016 organized by the Institute of Paper, Pulp and Fibre Technology Institute of Process and Particle Engineering Programand Organizing Committee: Wolfgang Bauer Wolfgang Fischer Thomas Gamse Ulrich Hirn Peter Loidolt Jakob Redlinger-Pohn Stefan Radl Adela Roller Kerstin Schefzik Titlepage Source of Figures: Campus „Alte Technik“: © Graz University of Technology Simulated Particles: Loidolt, P., 12th Minisymposium VT, Graz, 2016...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.abstract.xlibx.info - Free e-library - Abstract, dissertation, book

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.