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«MUSICOLOGICA OLOMUCENSIA VII Univerzita Palackého v Olomouci Olomouc 2005 The present volume was submitted to print on 6 April 2005. Dieser Band ...»

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fidar, o misera,” “Dalla sua pace,” “Batti, batti,” “Eh, via buffone,” and “Deh, vieni alla finestra,” the second then, above all, the closing parts of both acts. The finale of the first act and also the finale of the whole opera logically become, due to their extent and variety, the most suitable for changes by the arrangers.

Here there is a noticeable difference between the work of Vent and that of Triebensee:

for example, the famous minuet from the end of the first act of Don Giovanni was nearly copied by Vent, while Triebensee disturbs the repetition of both parts. There follow two repetitions of the given dance as a whole, which is presented the whole time by first clarinet (with the support of the second clarinet), to which, in the first repetition, the second oboe joins in with its own melody and in the further repetition, with yet another different melody, the first oboe joins in as well. The whole, then, formally corresponds to a dance, very popular in its time, the so-called contredanse, which is danced in Mozart’s original by Don Giovanni with Zerlina. In this way, Triebensee combines elements of both the minuets. Vent, on the other hand, does not arrange this further presentation of the minuet, which had been distributed among three orchestras by Mozart.

Even in the finale itself, each author uses a different part of the original. Vent not only rewrote the instrumentation of Mozart’s wind arrangement using fragments of three other operas, but in the end even ended his entire transcription of Don Giovanni with a motive from The Marriage of Figaro. On the other hand, Triebensee avoided this section altogether and his arrangement approaches the end by gradual stages during the last one hundred bars, approximately in agreement with the way it was done by Mozart himself.29 Findings Based on a Comparison between Don Giovanni and the Arrangements of Vent and Triebensee While in the case of Vent’s arrangement from Český Krumlov, the researcher need not take into consideration errors of copyists, because no other version is known, Triebensee’s arrangement is found in the Czech lands in the form of various copies which differ one from another. At the same time it is not clear where and whether Triebensee’s original manuscript exists. The oldest version of this arrangement was prepared to order for the Lobkowitzs themselves, already in the 1790s and today is stored in the Roubnice Lobkowitz Collection in Nelahozeves under the signature No. X.G.f.69. Probably it is from this particular copy that a further copy was made, which is presently available in the Archive of the Prague Conservatory under the Signature No. 6695. Beyond the borders of the Czech lands themselves, the example of a Triebensee arrangement which is geographically the closest is located in Moravia, where the Augustinian Monastery in Brno can boast of having several parts of this composition. Under the Signature No. A.35.129, the following parts of Triebensee’s arrangement, which had twenty parts are held: 2, 5–7, As for the other aforementioned arrangements of Don Giovanni that were done in the Czech lands, Vogel transcribes Mozart’s Tafelmusik, while Merklein does not include it in his arrangement.

9, 11–12 and14–19. On the basis of the sources examined, it is possible to come to the

following conclusions about both arrangements of the original version of Don Giovanni:

1. The selection of individual parts from Don Giovanni is, within the course of the opera itself, connected above all with its chronological succession. The selection of concrete measures within the framework of these parts denies any direct connection to the actual progression of the plot. The chronology of these tempos need not even correspond to the original formal structure of a concrete part; quite the contrary, it is often quite independent of form.

2. Both arrangements of Don Giovanni usually start immediately before the entry of the singing voice. We are speaking of the only moment at which the vocal line is given priority over the instrumental line. One exception to this rule is Vent’s arrangement of the aria “Madamina, il catalogo è questo” which, although it starts before the entrance of Leporello, did not have a rewritten vocal part.

3. Usually, in both arrangements the original was respected with regard to individual voices, consequently its transcription is characterized by melodic connections, where, for example, the bass melody is given to a bass instrument. Where the range of the voices is not respected, their function is combined with timbre requirements and mainly with instrumental capabilities. One of the instruments in this way fluently takes over the progress of the original voices, while in another spot, the original voice is rearranged and divided among several instruments.The most common procedure is represented by the placement of the highest voice into a lower range. Only rarely does it come to a complete switching of the voice placements.

4. Retaining the original ornamentation is similar in both arrangements probably by coincidence rather than as a result of any planning. Deviations generally result from the assumption at the time of knowledge of the problematics of musical ornamentation and its inconsequent scoring.

5. The frequent use of a unison accompaniment to the singing is taken from the original materials as well as from both arrangements. This leads us to the fact that not everything which appears to be a transcription of the vocal part really is that, because it is often a matter only of the primary transcription of one of the instruments.





6. Both arrangements simplify, above all, the original rhythmic values. This applies to, for example, the change of 16th note values in the original to 8th note values in the arrangements, especially in the string parts.

7. In general we see, in comparison with the original form of Don Giovanni, a reduction of the rhythmic values (their simplification).

8. In both arrangements, the first oboe is given the most opportunity to play solo. The second French horn, however, is not less exposed, since in similar compositions it usually presents only harmonic filler and here, for a change, in the arrangements it appears also as a solo instrument (but the same can also be said for the second clarinet).

9. The most noticeable change and the only innovation is Triebensee’s attempt to cement the assumed musical material with the help of the reminiscence “Protegga il giusto cielo” from the first act of the finale of the second act.

Conclusion At the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries, the original compositions by Mozart were considered to be a phenomenon completely independent of arrangements thereof. Arrangements of Mozart’s operas, therefore, became an independent phenomenon which had very little to do with Mozart. On the other hand, however, there was feedback in the sense that, with each additional arrangement, the circle of Mozart’s admirers was naturally widened and the large majority of the public came to recognize him. Arrangements were so significant during the period under discussion that they often stole the limelight from Mozart himself. They took part directly in pulse of the musical life of the time. In the Czech lands, the most-arranged opera was Don Giovanni, which, form the point of view of the position of this opera in the awareness of Czech society, no surprise.

A comparison of Don Giovanni with its arrangements proves to us that even in these “nonoriginal” opuses, its quality cannot be doubted. On one hand, the arrangements do not respect Mozart in detail, but on the other hand, they do not make significant changes. Their main contribution lies in the fact that a process of selection from the original material is begun and thereby in all the selected parts nearly all the musical attributes of the original work by Mozart are preserved. It is exactly in this reduction of the number as well as the original length of the individual numbers that complete formal dispersion is prevented, which could have led, in some cases, to the automatic removal of words from individual songs. Through their structure the arrangements seem to us to be goal-oriented.

Although the great contribution of the author cannot be found in any of them, since it is a matter of a mechanical activity, it is also not possible to deny them an excellence of “craftmanship,” which, through its implications reaches into the world of “art.” Today, when it is unnecessary to emphasize the genius of Mozart, the arrangements of his work are generally underestimated and seen as something second-class. However, we cannot overlook one of the typical characteristics of concert life of that time. Arrangements for wind harmony are still a living part of the public performances of these ensembles even today. While the other musical adaptations, respectively arrangements meant for other musical bodies, are more the exception than the rule, sometimes the complete concert repertory of wind ensembles is made up of such arrangements. CD recordings, which, in the case of Vent’s arrangement of Don Giovanni was recorded by the Philidor Ensemble and, in the case of Triebensee’s arrangements, by the Athena Ensemble, are further proof of this truth.

Bibliography

Bauer, Wilhelm A. and Otto Erich Deutsch. Mozart - Briefe und Aufzeichnungen 4 (Kassel, 1962).

Fellerer, Karl Gustav. “Mozart im Wandel der Musikauffasung,” Mozart-Jahrbuch 1956 (Salzburg, 1957).

The History of Czech Theatre II (Prague, 1969).

Němeček, Franz Xaver. Lebensbeschreibung des k. k. Kapellmeisters W. A. Mozart (Prague, 1808).

Pulkert, Oldřich. Domus Lauretana Pragensis: Catalogus collectionis operum artis musicae (Prague, 1973).

Volek, Tomislav. “The Mozart Man Anton Grams,” Hudební věda 4 (1991): 321–324.

Volek, Tomislav. “The Repertoire of Spengler’s Theater Company in Prague in the Season 1793–1794,” Miscellanea musicologica 14 (Prague, 1960): 5–26.

Volek, Tomislav. “The Significance of the Prague Operatic Tradition for the Birth of Mozart’s Opera Don Giovanni,” Mozart’s Don Giovanni in Prague (Prague, 1987).

Volek, Tomislav and Jitřenka Pešková. Mozart‘s Don Giovanni: Exhibition on the Occasion of the 200th Anniversary of its World Premiere in Prague 1787–1987. (Prague, 1987).

Resumé

Téma Dona Giovanniho bylo v Čechách známé již v první polovině 18. století. Kromě celých děl o Donu Giovannim vznikaly zároveň i jejich nejrůznější přepisy.

Úpravy úspěšných oper pro dechové harmonie představovaly jeden z charakteristických rysů hudebního života na přelomu 18. a 19. století. V Čechách tento jev souvisel se silnou mozartovskou tradicí. Nejčastěji upravovanou Mozartovou operou byl právě Don Giovanni. Tato opera se stala předlohou k úpravám Jana Venta a Josefa Triebenseeho (které jsou v předložené práci analyzované).

Ačkoliv žádná z těchto úprav nerespektuje logiku operního děje, svou stavbou – podřízenou pouze hudebním pravidlům – působí uceleně. Zmíněné úpravy jsou dodnes vydávány a koncertně prováděny.

Zusammenfassung

Das Thema Don Giovanni war in Bőhmen schon in der erste Hälfte des 18. Jahrhunderts bekannt. Außer den ganzen Werke (űber Don Giovanni) entstanden auch ihre verschiedene Bearbeitungen.

Die fűr Harmoniemusik bearbeiteten, zu ihrer Zeit erfolgreichen Opern stellen ein charakteristisches Merkmal des Musiklebens an der Wende des 18. und 19. Jahrhunderts dar. In Bőhmen hängt diese Erscheinung mit einer starken Mozarts-Tradition zusammen.

Die am häufigsten bearbeitete Mozarts Oper ist gerade Don Giovanni. Diese Oper ist zur Vorlage zu Bearbeitungen von Jan Vent und Josef Triebensee geworden. Diese Bearbeitungen werden in der vorgelegten Arbeit analysiert.

Obwohl keine von den Bearbeitungen die Logik der Opernhandlung berűcksichtigt, wirkt ihre Struktur die nur den Musikregeln untergeordnet ist, geschlossen. Diese Bearbeitungen sind bis heute herausgegeben und in den Konzerten aufgefűhrt.

Schon anfangs des 20. Jahrhunderts kam es zu mehreren dramaturgischen Erfindungen auf dem Gebiet der Oper. Zum Ersten war es ihre Bereicherung um eine epische Schicht (Strawinskis König Ödipus). Unter dem Einfluß der Poetik des Symbolismus, Surrealismus, Expressionismus im Theater und dem Theater des Absurden kam es soeben zur Übertragung des Schwerpunktes von der äußerlichen Aktion in die dramatische Situation und ins Innere der Personen. Daraus folgte die Sprengung der Chronologie und Logik der Ereignisse, eine simultane Durchmischung verschiedener geschichtlicher und zeitlicher, realer und irrealer Schichten, die Pantomime und Maske wurde eingeführt.

Im expressionistischen Theater und in der Oper, die von der künstlerischen Seite her am stärksten war (Wozzeck und Lulu von Berg!), trat das Thema des Bösen in den Vordergrund, des Leidens und Todes, der machtlose Trotz gegen die Welt, Beklemmung und Angst, ein Aufschrei der Einsamkeit und Hilferuf. Die expressionistische Oper beruht auf gewaltsamen, wuchtigen und explosiven Kontrasten, die individuellen Persönlichkeiten werden von Menschentypen als Verträter jeweiliger gesellschaftlicher Schichten und derer Spontaneität, Emotionalität und Subjektivität abgelöst. Pathos und Extase wird mit Banalität und Vulgarität vereinbart, Poesie mit Prosa, lyrische Bekenntnisse mit Aufschreien des Entsetzens. Der Schwerpunkt wurde von der Mimesis zur Enthüllung der inneren Welt des Menschen übertragen.

In den 70. Jahren des 20.

Jahrhunderts trat im Westen dann die moderne Desillusion über die „Welt ohne Grenzen“ hinzu, und das Gefühl eines allgemeinen Kataklismas, ein ironisches bis sarkastisches auf den Kopf stellen der Welt, ihr Betrachten im krummen Spiegel des Absurden, Grotesken, der politischen Persiflage und des dadaistischen Spiels.



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