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The theme of Dürer’s Figure X is the moment of the ﬁght of the four angels with the archangel Michael in the head with Satan whom they wanted to overthrow from the heavens to the Earth: “Then war broke out in heaven. Michael and his angels fought against the dragon, who fought back with his angels; but the dragon was defeated, and he and his angels were not allowed to stay in heaven any longer. The huge dragon was thrown out – that ancient serpent, called the Devil, or Satan, that deceived the whole world. He was thrown down to earth, and all his angels with him.”19 The center of the image is Michael, who is preparing to thrust his spear into the throat of a creature with a donkey head. In this mighty gesture and its obstinate expression, all his power that seems to overthrow all the darkness to the calm countryside, which is to be found at the bottom of the image, is concentrated in the next moment.
The strong strokes of the kettledrum (motive a2) strongly remind one of Michael’s concentration and his gesture.
The last appearance of the motive b in Sheet XII at fortissimo in the horns, shortly rhythmicized (in the ﬁrst appearance of the motive in Sheet VII the double repetition Jarmila Doubravová, „Čas struktury a struktura času,“ Hudební věda 2 (1976): 141.
Apocalypse XII, 1–2.
Apocalypse XII, 3–4.
Apocalypse XII, 7–9.
lasted 40 seconds; in Sheet XIII, 20 seconds) and in the position opposite Sheet VII, one octave higher, it sounds “imperatively,”20 maybe even warningly. To Dürer’s Figure XII, in which John in a crowd of 144 000 is chosen to relate a text when the angel is warning the throng with a strong voice: “Whosoever worships the beast and its image and receives the mark in his forehead or on his hand will himself drink God’s wine, the wine of his fury, which he has poured at full strength into the cup of his anger! All who do this will be tormented in ﬁre and sulphur before the holy angels and the Lamb.”21 The “imperative” sound of the motive b in Sheet XIII reminds us of the quoted warning.
To the visual inspiration of his choral composition Caprichos, according to the graphic cycle of the same name of Francisco Goya, Fišer recalls this time by using a Spanish text.
This text creates the names of particular graphic sheets Los Caprichos, to which Goya also joined brief commentaries.
Although the names of the sheets, which Fišer works with in the course of his composition, do not keep the order in which are ordered the sheets in Goya’s cycle, their appearance in the frame of the work is not accidental.
The whole composition, like Fifteen Sheets According to Dürer’s Apocalypse, begins and ends with the same motive (a rhythmically modiﬁed motive b from Fifteen Sheets). This motive does not appear as it does in Fifteen Sheets, elsewhere in the outer parts of the compositions. Also, the text in number seventeen is the same as in the beginning – Las rinde el sueño (the sheet number is 34; in the following text I present only the sheet’s number) – They are overcome by sleep. On the picture of the sleeping prisoners, Goya comments: “Do not wake them up! Sleep is perhaps the only blessing of the unhappy ones.” The choice of names with the outline of the music form (that is divided into three parts: part one, numbers 1–7; part two, numbers 8-14; part three, numbers 15–17 and a coda – the whispering of the word Caprichos, see analysis of the composition) is connected with the theme. Goya’s cycle leads us to a kind of strange world in the no-man’s land between reality and dreams. In the beginning, this world looks like the real one, and scenes from everyday life dominate.
Similarly for the ﬁrst part of its composition (numbers 1–7), Fišer chooses the names connected with similar “ordinary” scenes. After Nadie se conoce (6) – Nobody Knows Himself. “The face, clothes, voice-everything is make-believe. Everybody wants to pretend to be someone he is not, all deceive and nobody knows himself,” comments Goya – these are diﬀerent trivial and terrible appearances pointing to some “private falseness,” from which the whole net of social life is created, revealing the bad habits of women and See Jarmila Doubravová, “Čas struktury a struktura času,” 141.
Apocalypse XIV, 9–10.
the wickedness of men (the poor bride pretends to be a rich ugly man – Que sacriﬁcio (14), mysterious creatures in disguise carry away a poor woman who futilely cries for help – Que se la llevaron (8), an equal looks for his equal, a stupid woman, talking to an equally stupid young handsome man – Tal para gual (5), a young woman, the victim of the inquisition, approaching the place of execution – No hubo remedio (24). The whole part is contained in number 7 on the word Pobrecitas – Poor women (22) where the catchpoles take two poor prostitutes into prison.
For the central part of his composition (numbers 8-14), Fišer chooses scenes similar to bad dreams of a deep sleep full of ghostly phantoms. Ugly beasts, young witches, imps, goblins, and other things appear here. The whirl of strange and fantastic creatures appear for the last time in Fišer’s number 14, where the altos of the mixed choir sing the same motive, which is closed in number 7 of the ﬁrst part of the composition, on the word Volaverunt (61). This is connected with the scene where a group of witches ﬂies away.
The ending of number 14 is the whispering of words Ya es ora (80). It is a time, then, when the Sun rises, everyone – witches, goblins, visions, and phantoms – run away in diﬀerent directions. It is good that this race is seen only during the night and after dark.
Nobody ﬁnds out where they hide themselves during the day. “The one who would empty the den of imps and show them at ten o’clock at Puerta del Sol, would not need even rich inheritance,” comments Goya about this sheet. It is as if the night has ended and with it also the whirl of demons, whose presence is still to be felt.
For the last part of his composition (numbers 15–17), Fišer chooses motives relating to the inexorability and cruelty of the fate: Unos a otro (77) – Ones to the others. Goya said about this: “This is the course of the world. Some laughing at others and participate in bullﬁghts together. The one who played the role of the bull yesterday is a matador today. Fate rules the celebration and divides the tasks according to her whims.” In the penultimate number of this part (number 16), similarly as in the penultimate number of the ﬁrst part (number 6), the motive of a young woman, the victim of the inquisition sitting in the pillory on Aquellos polvos (33), appears again. This motive of faith “deals very badly with that one who courts him.” Empty smoke is paid for the eﬀort of the climbing, and the one who has climbed is punished by the fall – Subir y bajar (56) – To ascend and descend.
In the last number of the composition (17) there sounds (as has been said) against the aggressive screams – Tragala perro! (58) Swallow it, dog! V– The introductory motive with the words La rinde el sueño – Sleep overcomes them (the prisoners). In the beginning it is as if we had fallen into a deep sleep and as if we had witnessed the whirl of demons and were happy that the day comes, when we wake up and ﬁnd out that it was only a dream.
“Do not wake them up!” says Goya to “La rinde el sueño.” “Sleep is perhaps the only bliss of the unhappy ones,” but the question “What can the poor prisoners in the darkness of prisons dream about?” presents itself. With the repetition of the sentence La rinde el sueňo, which sounded in the introduction of the composition for the ﬁrst time, Fišer achieved a similar eﬀect as before in Fifteen Sheets.
That is the ending “fading away,” the urgent inﬁnity, the possibility of repeating all the terrors. At the end of Caprichos, the sleep of all the prisoners comes again in which all the terrors of Caprichos may recur. “But you know, these are just vagaries,” as if Fišer wanted to add ironically by the closing whisper (a very short coda of the whole composition) on the word Caprichos.
In addition to the Visual Inspirations
Next to the possible structural relations of formerly described musical and visual works, Fišer mostly wanted to evoke the urgent existentially philosophical connections with the choice of motives. Again, it is extramusical associations that he follows from the compositions of the third Piano sonata. Fišer here utters his principal “no” to all disturbing things, to all negative aspects of life that the experience of his thirty years has allowed him to get to know. Despite all the bad things the artist sees, Fišer can not very eﬀectively and shortly express his admiration until the very end of the triptych, with the word “Amen” in C major.
The quantity of possible relations mentioned above reminds one of the situations which Italo Calvino depicted in his story book Cosmic grotesques. In the short story “Signs in the Universe,” he looks for a creature which Calvino called Qfwfq, the sign that it made in the universe. The characteristic of this sign was nothing more then that it was the ﬁrst sign of all. With the progression of the time, the signs in the universe increased and the original and perfect could be found because it was not revealed by anything. “The signs of the space always become more thick,” says Qfwfq, whoever on whichever world feels his presence in the universe. The result of the life among signs is that it sees signs in all the things that originally marked only its presence. Now they have changed into symbols and joined purposefully made signs. The series of signs multiply in the series of other never endingly repeating signs, always the same, but nevertheless diﬀerent. With a brief look at Fišer’s triptych – Fišer’s key composition of the 1960s, we have to ask whether a music work can be analyzed with a deﬁnitive result. We can relatively reliably do a technical analysis and describe in detail how the composition is created. But that can tell us only something of the real nature of the music work. Every level of expression reveals a new one, which again appeals to the analysis. And every analysis is ﬁnally just one of the many versions from inexhaustible variety of characteristics the meanings of the work. In this sense we would not ﬁnd the satisfactory solution to our question and we must disclaim the ﬁnal deciphering of the work. Even he who tries to analyse a composition to get to know its principles can never fully get to know all the levels of the work. Let us point out that the aspect is, next to the other ones, very important for art and he makes the art what it is, the magic ritual of hidden and partly revealed meanings.
Studie si klade otázku, jaký může být vzájemný vztah výtvarného a hudebního díla.
Na příkladu dvou kompozic Luboše Fišera, Patnácti listů podle Dürerovy Apokalypsy a Caprichos, se pak snaží na tuto otázku nalézt jednu z možných odpovědí. Východiskem byla analýza výše zmíněných skladeb. Ta si všímá především tónového materiálu, souzvukových druhů, dynamického a motivického plánu. Na pozadí této analýzy je pak sledována dramaturgie výtvarných děl, jakou zvolili ve svých cyklech Albrecht Dürer a Francisco Goya. Styčným komunikačním polem hudebního a výtvarného uměleckého druhu byl pak v Patnácti listech podle Dürerovy Apokalypsy především motivický plán díla, v Caprichos pak zejména nová Fišerova dramaturgie původních Goyových komentářů k jednotlivým listům cyklu. Tyto komentáře byly použity jako zpívaný text.
Diese Studie löst die Frage, welche gegeseitige Beziehung zwischen einem bildenden und musikalischen Werk sein kann.Sie bemüht sich eine von den möglichen Antworten am Beispiel zwei Kompositionen von Luboš Fišer, Fünfzehn Blätter nach Dürers Apokalypse und Caprichos, zu ﬁnden. Diese oben bereits erwähnten Kompositionen wurden zu dem Ausgangspunkt unserer Analyse, die sich vor allem mit Tonmaterial, Arten von Zusammenklängen, dynamischem und motivischem Plan beschäftigt. Im Hintergrund dieser Analyse wird vor allem die Dramaturgie der bildenden Werke verfolgt, die Albrecht Dürer und Franzisco Goya in ihren Zyklen gewählt haben. Zu den berührenden Kommunikationsräumen der musikalischen und bildenden Kunstart wird in Fünfzehn Blättern nach Apokalypse Dürers der motivierte Plan gezählt, in Caprichos gehört hier neue Fišers Dramaturgie von ursprünglichen Goyas Kommentaren zu den einzelnen Blättern des Zyklus. Diese Kommentare wurden als ein gesungener Text verwendet.
ACTA UNIVERSITATIS PALACKIANAE OLOMUCENSISFAKULTAS PHILOSOPHICA PHILOSOPHICA – AESTHETICA 28 – 2005
LIST OF BACHELOR AND MASTER THESES AT THE DEPARTMENT
OF MUSICOLOGY OF PALACKÝ UNIVERSITY IN OLOMOUCIN THE YEARS 1993–2004
VERZEICHNIS DER DIPLOM- UND BAKKALAUREATARBEITEN IM
BEREICH DER MUSIKWISSENSCHAFTDER PALACKÝ-UNIVERSITÄT IN OLOMOUC IN JAHREN 1993–2004
SEZNAM DIPLOMOVÝCH A BAKALÁŘSKÝCH PRACÍ
OBHÁJENÝCH NA KATEDŘE MUZIKOLOGIE FILOZOFICKÉ
FAKULTY UNIVERZITY PALACKÉHO V OLOMOUCI V LETECH1993–2003 I. Bachelor’s theses – Bakkalaureatarbeiten – Bakalářské práce 1993:
Křupková, Lenka: Motivická práce v opeře Věc Makropulos Leoše Janáčka (vedoucí Mikuláš Bek). Olomouc 1993, 28 stran + 9 stran příloh.
Mikalová (Keferová), Jindra: Tři klavírní sonáty op. 22 Pavla Vranického (vedoucí Stanislav Tesař). Olomouc 1993, 51 stran + 4 strany příloh.
Nešporová, Šárka: Motivická práce v opeře Leoše Janáčka Její pastorkyňa (vedoucí Mikuláš Bek). Olomouc 1993, 43 stran + 3 strany příloh.
Coufalová, Božena: 2. smyčcový kvartet Leoše Janáčka (vedoucí Mikuláš Bek). Olomouc 1994, 35 stran + 9 stran příloh.
Hanzlík, Tomáš: 5. smyčcový kvartet B. Martinů (vedoucí Mikuláš Bek). Olomouc 1994, 27 stran + 6 stran příloh.