«MUSICOLOGICA OLOMUCENSIA VII Univerzita Palackého v Olomouci Olomouc 2005 The present volume was submitted to print on 6 April 2005. Dieser Band ...»
Beim Editieren der Arbeiten eines Sammelbandes bewahrheitet sich mehr als sonst die Behauptung „Mehr Köpfe, mehr Verstand“. Ich möchte mich deshalb bei Jan Vičar und Ivan Poledňák für ihre wertvollen Anregungen bedanken. Marek Keprt verdanke ich die sorgfältigen Korrekturen der deutschen Texte. Lucie Kaucká danke ich für ihre Hilfe beim Redigieren des ganzes Sammelbandes.
ACTA UNIVERSITATIS PALACKIANAE OLOMUCENSISFAKULTAS PHILOSOPHICA PHILOSOPHICA – AESTHETICA 28 – 2005 Moravian Musical Inventories of the Seventeenth Century
The period between 1620 and 1740 is known in Europe as the Baroque period. The
new Baroque style had already arrived in the Czech Republic before 1620 by two routes:
Rudolﬁn bands (bands at the Prague court of Rudolf II) and the network of Jesuit monasteries. We can ﬁnd the ﬁrst traces of the inﬂuence of Italian Baroque music, which made itself felt in the period before 1620 at the imperial court. Compositions by Stefan Felis (1550–1603), Francesco Milleville and Agostino Agazzari (1578–1640), were already appearing in Prague by the turn of the sixteenth century. We can ﬁnd the Venetian style around 1603 in the compositions of Francesco Stivori. The accompanying monody only ﬁltered through to Prague in the second decade of the seventeenth century thanks to the Italian nobility, who brought the most up-to-date compositions and also the most capable performers from home.
More sources in the history of music of the seventeenth century came from Moravia, which was a part of Czech lands, but most of the music from the seventeenth century has been lost. Because of this, we can only reconstruct the course of changes in the style of Moravian music, what was in the repertoire and where it was, on the basis of the inventories that have been found.
Many very valuable musical inventories of the seventeenth century have come from Moravia. These consist of the inventory of the parish church in Příbor from 1614 and 1637, the inventory of the parish church in Kroměříž from 1659, the inventory of the parish church in Litovel from 1672 and 1690, the inventory of Strážnice Piarists from 1675, the musical collection of Bishop Karel Liechtenstein-Castelcorn from 1695, the inventory of the parish church in Branná from 1698 and 1699 and the inventory of the musical collection of Count Julius Ferdinand von Salm in Tovačov from 1699. In these inventories and collections, we have focused on musical lists.
The oldest inventory from the year 1614 is noted in an old chronicle of the parish church in Příbor. This is extremely valuable for Moravian musical history, because it concerns a document from the period before 1620, the musical life of which we have no clear concept. There are twenty-six compositions in the inventory written in sheet music form, six of which include the name of the author. These are Giacomo Finetti, Jacobus Handl Gallus, Orlando di Lasso, Jacobus de Kerle, Hieronymus Praetorius, and Jacob Regnard.
Next to Gregorian hymns, vocal polyphony was predominant at the end of the sixteenth century – Jacobus Handl Gallus, Jacobus de Kerle, Orlando di Lasso, and Jacob Regnard. Because there reigned an air of tolerance in the area of Latin spiritual music in the seventeenth century, we can even ﬁnd compositions by the Protestant, Hieronymus Praetorius, in the Catholic choir in Příbor. Jiří Sehnal regards as most noteworthy in the inventory of 1614 in Příbor the ﬁrst edition of “Concerti ecclesiastici” by Giacomo Finetti. Not only because the ﬁrst edition of this piece has never been found elsewhere and is not bibliographically documented, but above all because it is the ﬁrst piece of a new concertante style in the Příbor choir.
An earlier musical list from the Příbor church from 1637 clearly reﬂects the stylistic changes which arose in 1614. The inventory contains eleven items, of which nine compositions contain the name of the author. Four names were transcribed from older inventories: Giacomo Finetti, Jacobus Handl Gallus, Hieronymus Praetorius, and Jacob Regnard. Also mentioned are Adam Gumpelzhaimer, Andrzej Chiliński, Pietro Lappi, and Bartholomaeus Magera. In this list, eight compositions were procured for the church in 1638 by Vicar Vincenc Cosmian, and their authors were Ignatio Donati, Alessandro Grandi, Gabriel Puliti, and Vincenzo Scapitta.
In the inventories from 1637 some parts of the older inventories are missing (handwritten polyphonic symposiums by da Kerleho and Lassova) and in their place there appear parts in a new style. The reason for these changes was the war in 1626. The church burnt down and the Renaissance compositions were not replaced in line with the changes of style. The change of style is evident in the new improved inventories after 1626, but especially the music purchased by vicar Cosmian in 1638.
Some of the compositions from the earlier inventories from 1637 are labelled “cum partitura.” The stylistic transformation, which was signalized by the Finetti collection in 1614, was completed in the thirties, because among the compositions provided by vicar Cosmian we cannot ﬁnd even one that belongs to the old style.
The Příbor inventories from 1614 and 1637 show, that the Czech lands were not isolated from European musical development before and during the course of the Thirty Years War. The rise of the musical Baroque took place even in provincial Moravian towns sooner and faster than expected and it was not dependent on the cultural political changes after 1620. Because musical printing was imported even before this year, (from Venice, Augsburg, and Hamburg), our musicians became acquainted with the new artistic trends in our choirs without even having to travel abroad.
Kroměříž 1659 The second oldest inventory from the year 1659 comes from the parish church of the Virgin Mary in Kroměříž. It contains ﬁfty-one items, thirteen of which mention the name of the author. Authors alluded to are Giovanni Battista Alovisi, Don Antonio Burlini, Vincentius Fux, Adam Michna of Otradovic, Monbrandi, Hieronymus Montefredi, Joannis Mariae Nanino, Risticius, Giovanni Rovetta, and Giovanni Valentini. The inventory
is set up according to the following scheme:
Six liturgical books and canticles Ten masses One evensong Twenty-six magniﬁcats and psalms Fifteen insertational compositions Six Marian compositions Four miscellaneous items Apart from liturgical books and passions (serial no. 50), we are concerned with multi-voiced compositions of the new concertante style. This suggests that even after the burning down of Kroměříž by the Swedish in 1643, the development of compositional style had not stopped.
Litovel Part of the deacon’s church register of Uničov from 1672, which is connected with the church of Saint Mark of Litovel, contains a musical list that encompasses the range of inventories. Its speciality is not only its extensive description of music, but also the fact that it is written in German – until then church registers of other vicars are in Latin.
Most of the music at the church of Saint Mark was probably set down after 1625. The Litovel church register was written up to 1 January 1672, so the state of the inventory is shown right until the end of the year 1671. At the end of 1671, the church of Saint Mark
in Litovel had the following music:
Twenty-nine masses for ﬁve to ten voices. The authors mentioned in nineteen of these are Carolo Abbate, Brückner, Caﬀner, Claudio Cocchi, Comese, Vincentius Fux, Alessandro Grandi, Magera, Alberik Mazak, Adam Michna of Otradovice, Regia, and Rosarius.
Eleven Salve Reginas for four to ten voices 100 motets, cantatas, and other incidental sacred compositions for two to ﬁfteen voices in concertante style. The only authors mentioned are Giovanni Battista Alovisi, Claudio Cocchi, and Alessandro Grandi.
Ten evensongs with antiphony for two to ﬁfteen voices and authors mentioned are Carolo Abbate, Brückner, Galleranus, Vitus Albertus Gessner, Giovanni Rouetta, and Giovanni Valentini.
Seven Latin choral hymnbooks and two German canticles.
Twelve organ books and an unknown amount of trio sonatas In the inventory there appear letters which probably acted as signatures, but their sequence is neither logical nor complete. On the contrary, the notations Sacra, Motteta, and Vesperae are, according to meaning, similar to the ﬁrst three groups of the Kroměříž Liechtenstein inventories (1695–1696) Missae, Oﬀertoria, Vesperae. In repertoire, they are predominantly Latin; the motet “O süsser Jesu” is an exception.
The activity of all the authors mentioned in the Litovel inventory fall within the ﬁrst and in some cases the second half of the seventeenth century. An orientation towards the Venetian concert style, whose pioneers in sacred music were Alessandro Grandi and Giovanni Rovetta, and also toward the contemporary authors, lends the Litovel inventory a progressive cast. This is conﬁrmed by a notable amount of compositions for small chamber ensembles named concertus. The names of the masses appear conservative; in them, solo “sopra” points toward a cantus ﬁrmus. The writer of the Litovel inventory was without a doubt a supporter of the new musical style. This can be seen by his attempts to diﬀerentiate the modern authors from the out-dated ones by mentioning the names of the modern ones in the inventory. The Litovel inventory appears as a remarkable document of the fast spread and popularity of the new musical style and as proof of the fact that the followers of the new style deprecated everything in the old style. Apart from the composers of the Venetian style, the inventory shows a whole list of names of lesser importance.
For Czech music, pieces by Mazák and Michny are of particular worth.
The next inventory of the church of Saint Mark in Litovel is, according to the church register of Uničov from 1690. This edition contains four masses by B. Magen, A. Grandi, Claudius Cocchi, and Augustini, motets, and evensongs with no author mentioned. As opposed to older lists, the amount of music in the inventories from the year 1690 was markedly lower, which can be explained in many diﬀerent ways. The most likely case, is that much was lost or destroyed during the reconstruction of the church of Saint Mark in the years 1676 and 1677. The new inventory shows two names, which do not appear in the old one: B. Magen (Mager) and Augustinus. Unfortunately until now none of the music recorded in the inventories of the seventeenth centuries has been found.
Strážnice Another existing source is the inventory of the Strážnice Piarists from 1675. The piarist residence in Strážnice was founded in 1633 by count František Magnis. The beginnings of the Piarists in Strážnice were humble and it seems that ﬁgurative music grew among them
only from the second half of the seventeenth century. Written in the inventories are:
Twenty-seven masses Fourteen litanies (predominantly Loretian) Thirty compositions labelled as Concertus de Nomine Jesu Thirteen Concertus de B. V.
Nineteen Concertus de Sanctis Twenty-three sonatas Five evensongs Eighteen Salve Reginas Te Deum laudamus Requiem Concertus for requiem Rorate Two Misereres From a total of 156 compositions, the author is mentioned only in thirty. Those mentioned are P. Alexandro, Bonifacius, Jindřich Alois Brückner, Bartoloměj Bulovský, Claudio Cocchi, Vincentius Fux, Johann Baptist Gletle, Alessandro Grandi, Libertinus, Alberik Mazák, Marcin Mielczewski, Pecelius, Giovanni Antonio Rigatti, Philipp Jacob Rittler, Schintler and Johann Heinrich Schmelzer. It is possible that they were the authors of more than just the thirty compositions, because the writers of old inventories often named the author of a series of compositions only once.
Despite the fact that most of the composers mentioned in the inventory of Strážnice Piarists have existing compositions in the Liechtenstein collection Kroměříž, we believe that the repertoire of the Strážnice Piarists developed under the inﬂuence of the pontiﬁcal band in nearby Kroměříž. The strongest inﬂuence in Strážnice came from the Piarist residence in Mikulov and in Lipník and from the pontiﬁcal court in Kroměříž. The compositions from the Strážnicke Piarists come from between 1620 and 1675 and present the early and mid-Baroque style. The oldest generation of composers was represented by Cocchi, Grandi, Mielczewski, and Rigatti; the youngest by Gletle, Rittler, and Schmelzer.
The inventory of Strážnice Piarists conﬁrms that even in small Moravian towns in the sixth decade of the seventeenth century, music corresponding to contemporary European musical development was performed.
Kroměříž 1695 Jiří Sehnal shows that up to now the inventory has not been independently published and was used by A. Breitenbacher as a point of reference while ordering the Liechtenstein collection. When it was made public, he used titles from the inventory in the place of missing compositions. Breitenbacher distinguishes preserved compositions from those lost by writing existing ones with greater spacing between the letters and lost ones normally. He speciﬁed these according to the inventory and they can be recognized even by short names. Breitenbacher’s study has three parts: prints, the musical collection of Bishop Karel Liechtenstein-Castelcorn, and hand-written scripts. If the compositions in the inventory are listed as missing, then we can work back to the form of the inventory.
The Liechtenstein music collection contains 1395 compositions and is split into ﬁfteen
sections according to repertoire:
Masses (272plus others which are unmarked), from the inventory are 117 compositions, of which the authors of seventeen masses are mentioned. These are Antonio Berthali, Giacomo Carissimi, Simone Cruciger, Vincentius Fux, Gabriele Götzl, Casparo Kerl, Kertzinger, Lamb, Alexandro Poglietti, Felice Sances, Johann Heinrich Schmeltzer, Pavel Josef Vejvanovský, and Andreas Zacher.
Oﬀertoria (315 plus seven others), from the inventory are 159 compositions, of which the author is named in seven. These are Giacomo Carissimi, Andrea Kern, Casparo Kern, Rittler, Charles Rosier, Heinrich Schmeltzer,and Pavel Josef Vejvanovský.