FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Abstract, dissertation, book

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 8 | 9 || 11 | 12 |   ...   | 26 |

«MUSICOLOGICA OLOMUCENSIA VII Univerzita Palackého v Olomouci Olomouc 2005 The present volume was submitted to print on 6 April 2005. Dieser Band ...»

-- [ Page 10 ] --

The closest collaborators of the architects were the site manager J. Werych (Verych), master builders J. Bělský and (after Bělský’s demise) F. Havel, J. Martin, F. Pavikovský and Q. Bělský. The Rudolfinum officially passed building inspection in July 1884 and the originally planned sum of 500,000 guldens devoted to its construction had grown to 2,000,000 guldens. The designers were supposed to be paid the royalty of 40,000 guldens according to the contract. However, when Zítek and Schulz asked for an increase related to unexpected changes after final approbation, their fee was increased by 8,000 guldens. The general meeting of Česká spořitelna decided to organize a grand opening concert, whose proceeds were to be donated to the poor, and to mint a commemorative coin, with two golden coins to be presented to Emperor Franz Josef I and to the crown prince. The ceremonial opening took place after the installation of exhibits on February 7, 1885. Unfortunately, the prince and his wife excused themselves due to illness. While the German press was enthusiastic about the opening concert featuring numerous foreign artists, the Czech journalism reacted with numerous bitter and unscrupulous attacks. In the atmosphere of growing nationalism it turned out that the generous intent of Česká spořitelna would not be duly appreciated until much later.

Plans of Viennese government were not implemented. The municipality asked too much for the land and the ministry of education withdrew the plan. The municipality then decided to build a school across the square from Rudolfinum and did so despite strong public opposition. This spoiled a unique opportunity to create a monumental unit. Zítek had planned a large fountain, park and statue alley in the middle of the prospective square.

The opening of the Rudolfinum brought well deserved accolades to Zítek. He and Schulz were awarded the title of privy counselor by the Emperor. However, probably disgusted by the “politicking” surrounding the construction, Zítek ended his active artistic career after the opening of the Rudolfinum.

Architectural Design of the Rudolfinum

Zítek’s and Schulz’s intentions were in full accordance with the wish of R. Eitelberger to use Renaissance forms for the new building of Rudolfinum. Both authors were inspired by the supreme Renaissance architecture of the early cinquecento. The design bears traces of their knowledge of classical German and French architecture and the strong influence of architect G. Semper, especially his Dresden and Bayreuth theaters that served as models for the shape of the auditorium reflected in the external outline of the Rudolfinum.

However, motifs of specific models served to the creators only as a “material for free variations”, to “evoke the grand form, classical restraint, noble elegance, simple austerity and other features of Renaissance art as defined a little later by H. Wölfflin, but not to imitate its perceptive surface.”9 The result was a unique building, comparable to vintage European production of the era, the works of Semper and Hansen.

Before modifying the initial plans, Zítek wanted to verify his conception abroad, and he and Schulz left for study trip to Western Europe and England in 1874. Upon returning, they made new plans for the building that fully met the requirements of Česká spořitelna.

Their study trip is documented in a report. Both architects visited European cultural centers, taking note not only of architectural forms of individual music halls and theaters, but also examining the operational layout of buildings. Both designers visited music halls in conservatories in Cologne, Brussels, Paris, and Munich, Exeter Hall and Albert Hall in London, Händel’s orchestra in Dydenhammer Crystalpalast, other concert halls in Brussels and Paris, and the theater in Bayreuth. Among the buildings devoted to graphic arts they saw the British Museum, the National Gallery, and Kensington Museum in London, the Louvre and Luxembourg Palace in Paris, and the Pinakothek in Munich. They studied acoustic parameters for music production, the lighting and layout of paintings and sculptures in galleries, as well as heating and ventilation.

The little known fact that Zítek and Schulz met Richard Wagner is also worth mentioning. They discussed mainly practical problems and matters related to the buildings of this type with the renowned composer. A progressive, amphiteatrical music hall auditorium layout without the galleries and boxes used in Rudolfinum design had been used by Semper before. Zítek and Schulz noted in their report that this solution was recommended to them by Wagner. The architects also mentioned that the composer suggested the ideas of an approximately square music hall, a flat ceiling, orchestra placement in a special niche and he also pointed out the advantages of steel and glass.

See note 2. In the quoted passage, J.

Vybíral quotes H. Wölfflin’s publication Klassische Kunst from 1898.

The general outline of the Rudolfinum building is very clear. It is a complex divided to musical (southern) and gallery (northern) parts, reminiscent of Weimar museum design.10 The outstanding feature of the building is calm resulting from sufficient space and safe financing. Rudolfinum has a strongly prolonged ground plan, consisting of roughly two squares with square corner risalits and loggias on the side facades. The main façade is an intimate analogy to Semper’s Opera in Dresden (1838–41, destroyed by fire) and its convex curve corresponds with the inside of the amphiteatrical auditorium. Embossed decorations in exteriors are sparse and are concentrated mainly above the parapet, where the motif of decorative vase above each axis stresses the rhythm of placement. The parapet in the corner risalits bears the statues of musicians (in the music section) and artists (in the gallery section).11 There is no commemoration of any Czech or even Slavonic composer, a fact mentioned at the time by indignant Czech journalists. However, it must be pointed out that the selection of musicians was purely historical, purposefully taking no attitude towards the present or recent past (the youngest composer is R. Schumann, dead for over 25 years at the time). Therefore there is no Smetana or Musorgsky, and no Liszt, Wagner, or Brahms, either. The space in front of the building provided room for figural decoration at the foot of the building. Its author is sculptor B. Schnirch, who created the two sphinxes at the western entrance, the lions at the underpass and the female figures symbolizing sacred and secular music in front of the main entrance. Zítek and Schulz were co-designers of the lamp posts for the intended generously financed modification of the square.

The core of the southern part of the building is the music hall, passing through both above ground floors. The auditorium is amphiteatrical, with a niche for the organ in front and a low wall with massive Corinthian columns separating the gallery with a lacunar ceiling around the hall. The frame of the organ built for the Dvořák hall by W. Sauer from Frankfurt has the shape of an ancient temple: the pipes are separated from the ceiling and the gable contains the head of goddess Athena. Interiors are decorated with stukes by B. Schnirch. The ceiling and corridors are decorated by Pompeian and Renaissance farcical scenes by Viennese painter P. Isell. The only inconspicuous reminder of Česká The Weimar museum was the first independent work by Zítek, bringing him well-deserved respect.

The southern section of the parapet (façade to Jan Palach square) is adorned with the statues of the following composers: western facade (middle risalit from south): T. L. Vittoria (R. Kauffungen), J. de Prés (O.

Menzel), O. di Lasso (F. von Miller), G. P. da Palestrina (L. F. Šimek) eastern facade (middle risalit to 17th November street): F. Schubert (J. Lax), C. M. von Weber (T. Seidan), F. Mendelssohn-Bartholdy (F. Meixner), R. Schumann (W. Seil) western risalit: L. Cherubini (B. Seeling), D. F. E. Auber (F. C. Becher), G. F. Händel (H. Rathauský), W. A. Mozart (E. Klotz) eastern risalit (k Rejdišti): L. v. Beethoven (E. Börmel), J. S. Bach (J. Dorer), Ch. W. Gluck (H. Rathauský), J. Haydn (E. Klotz). The northern parapet section portrays the following artists: from the south, 17th November street: L. della Robbia (R. Raab), D. Bramante (B. Schnirch), Masaccio (J. Schmidt), Donatello (R. Kauffungen), Brunelleschi (J. Čapek), Ghirlandaio (W. Seil), Feidias (M. Engelke), Apelles (J. Schmidt), Iktinos (B. Schnirch), Praxiteles (G. Tscherne), Sansovino (J. Kassin), B.

Cellini (J. Brzorád), Raffael (T. Seidan), Michelangelo (L. Šimek), L. da Vinci (R. Kauffungen), P. Veronese (O. Menzel) spořitelna, which paid for all construction expenses, is the motif of a bee – the symbol of thrift – located in the balcony parapet stuke.

An interesting and specific area for musicology is the acoustic of Dvořák hall at the time of its opening. The Rudolfinum (with an auditorium capacity of 1100) has enjoyed a certain worldwide repute over the years and it is regarded as one of the music halls with the best acoustic in Europe. Hearing musical performances in the charming neo-Renaissance interiors, listeners feel as though the almost perfect acoustic has always been a feature of the hall. The Rudolfinum is presented in a similar way in some otherwise good publications that either just touch upon its acoustics or leave the matter of its history completely aside. The reality at the time of opening, however, was very different, as we see in contemporary documents. Numerous critical voices at the end of 19th century pointed to the fact that unsatisfactory acoustic was the Achilles heel of the Dvořák music hall. A wave of criticism fell upon the Rudolfinum building immediately after the opening concert on February 7, 1885. Many articles mentioned the poor acoustic of the new hall designed to improve the quality of concert life in Prague. For example, “Národní listy” daily features a review of the 26-year-old composer, Josef Bohuslav Foerster, who attended the opening concert. Foerster wrote: “The overall impression of almost all the compositions was disturbed by a huge flaw of the concert hall – its poor acoustic. Reverberation, so disturbing during rehearsals, was not removed by a large audience. This is why we cannot really judge the organ as the full sound produces nothing but chaotic masses of sounds, harmony is blurred and melody lost. Unless this main flaw is removed, the hall loses all meaning, not meeting its most important requirement.”12 His was not a lone voice. As late as 1906, the philharmonic chronicler Josef Boleška stated objections against the internal layout, the decoration and acoustic of Dvořák hall, and against the outlying position, far from main roads, as the main reasons that led the orchestra from the Rudolfinum to the Crop Exchange Hall.13 The acoustic problem was solved satisfactorily as late as during World War II by architect Antonín Engel who made several modifications and remedied the above-mentioned defects.

The Rudolfinum is not only a superior work of architecture, but also a reflection of cultivated urbanistic thinking of both designers. The horizontal dimension of Zítek’s and Schulz’s new building “greatly contributed to majestic character of this part of the Old Town riverbank.” The Rudolfinum now constitutes the main wall of the emerging riverbank and at the time it added a new element to Prague panorama, impressive from a distance due to the well-chosen general proportion and effective contour of roofs.”14 Respect to historic city context, combined with advanced individual architectural skills, inventiveness and regard to building function, results in a supreme work of architectural art.

Národní listy, February 8, 1885.

J. Boleška, Česká filharmonie 1896–1906 (Praha 1906).

A. Engel, „Rudolfinum,“ Umění (1942–3): 107–120.

Music Production in the Rudolfinum before 1900 With the opening of the Rudolfinum, Prague obtained a beautiful and respectable music hall that could be compared to similar houses of music in prominent European cultural centers. The city, however, had been facing a more pressing problem for a long time. Throughout the 19th century, Prague did not have regular symphonic concerts and an orchestra to play them, although attempts to create a stable concert institution took place repeatedly. For decades, the situation had been addressed by theater orchestras, both Czech and German, while the key role was assumed by the Prague Conservatory orchestra, limited, however, by its school character.

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 8 | 9 || 11 | 12 |   ...   | 26 |

Similar works:

«Herbert Hrachovec Alois Pichler (Eds.) Philosophy of the Information Society Proceedings of the 30. International Ludwig Wittgenstein Symposium Kirchberg am Wechsel, Austria 2007 Volume 2 Bibliographic information published by Deutsche Nationalbibliothek The Deutsche Nationalbibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche Nationalbibliographie; detailed bibliographic data is available in the Internet at http://dnb.ddb.de Gedruckt mit Förderung des Bundesministeriums für Wissenschaft und...»

«Raman and Luminescence Investigation of Rare Earth Doped Ferroelectric Crystals and Laser-Induced Crystals-in-Glass by Brian Knorr A Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Committee of Lehigh University in Candidacy for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Physics Lehigh University September 2014 Copyright © 2014 Brian Knorr All rights reserved. ii Approved and recommended for acceptance as a dissertation in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy....»

«COMMUNITY COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY EXPERIENCES OF HIGH SCHOOL DUAL ENROLLMENT STUDENTS Laura A. Heath A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of the College of Education in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Florida Atlantic University Boca Raton, Florida May 2008 i Copyright by Laura A. Heath 2008 ii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This dissertation is dedicated to the family of students, faculty, and administration of the College Academy. Their experiences were the...»

«UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Santa Barbara The Bioarchaeology of Inca Imperialism in the Heartland: An Analysis of Prehistoric Burials from the Cuzco Region of Peru A Dissertation submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the degree Doctor of Philosophy in Anthropology by Valerie Anne Andrushko Committee in Charge: Professor Phillip L. Walker, Chair Professor Katharina Schreiber Professor Michael Jochim June 2007 The dissertation of Valerie Anne Andrushko is approved. _ Katharina...»

«Appropriate Musics for that Time: Oratorio in the Exchange of Power at the Portuguese Court (1707–1807) A Dissertation SUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY OF UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA BY Danielle M. Kuntz IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Kelley A. Harness, Adviser May 2014 © Danielle M. Kuntz 2014 i Acknowledgements Above everyone else, I must first thank my adviser, Kelley Harness. Her tireless mentorship and thoughtful guidance saw me through this...»

«BilVideo-7: VIDEO PARSING, INDEXING AND RETRIEVAL A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER ENGINEERING AND THE INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE OF B ˙ ILKENT UNIVERSITY IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY By Muhammet Ba¸tan s July, 2010 I certify that I have read this thesis and that in my opinion it is fully adequate, in scope and in quality, as a dissertation for the degree of doctor of philosophy. Assoc. Prof. Dr. U˘ ur...»

«Thermally Induced Magnetic Switching in Thin Ferromagnetic Annuli Kirsten Martensa, D.L. Steinb, and A.D. Kentc a Institut f¨ r Theoretische Physik, Universit¨t Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 19, 69120 u a Heidelberg, Germany b Department of Physics, University of Arizona, 1118 E. 4th St., Tucson, AZ 85721, USA c Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, NY 10003, USA ABSTRACT We consider magnetization reversal due to thermal fluctuations in thin, submicron-scale rings....»

«291 International Journal of English and Education ISSN: 2278-4012, Volume:1, Issue:2, October 2012 Ecological Ethics and Environmental Consciousness in Bond’s Selected Short Stories Dr Khursheed Ahmad Qazi Department of English, North Campus University of Kashmir Abstract The term ethics means enquiry about ways of life and rules of conduct. In the past, philosophers like Plato, Aristotle, Epicurus, Hobbes, Spinoza and many others would give general guidance to public regarding what to do,...»

«ON GLOBALIZATION AND CIVIL SOCIETY: MEDIATING SPATIAL PRACTICE IN TWENTY-FIRSTCENTURY LATIN AMERICA by Helena Isabel Cascante A thesis submitted in conformity with the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Department of Spanish and Portuguese University of Toronto © Copyright by Helena Isabel Cascante 2011 On Globalization and Civil Society: Mediating Spatial Practice in Twenty-first-century Latin America Helena Isabel Cascante Doctor of Philosophy Department of Spanish and...»

«DIPLOMARBEIT Titel der Diplomarbeit „Nacido en Cuba. Made in the U.S.A.”: Exil und Identität in kubanoamerikanischer Prosa nach 1990 Verfasser Hermann Christian Sileitsch Angestrebter akademischer Grad Magister der Philosophie (Mag. phil.) Wien, 30. Oktober 2008 Studienkennzahl lt. Studienblatt: A 393 Studienrichtung lt. Studienblatt: Vergleichende Literaturwissenschaft Betreuer: Ao. Prof. Dr. Norbert Bachleitner -2Inhaltsverzeichnis Einleitung 1. Grundlegendes zu einer Theorie der...»

«Andmjs UnivtmiO Seminay S/I~&CS, 44, No. 2, 203-31 1. Vol. Copyright O 2006 Andrews University Press. CAIN, ABEL, SETH, AND T H E MEANING OF HUMAN LIFE AS PORTRAYED I N T H E BOOKS OF GENESIS AND ECCLESIASTES RADISA ANTIC Newbold College Bracknell, Berkshire, England Jean-Paul Sartre, one of the most influential philosophers of the twentieth century, wrote in his philosophical works about a pessimism that is the result of the plight of human beings in the modem world. He claimed that any...»

«Updated August 2013 Curriculum Vita John T. Bowen, Jr. Department of Geography Office Address & Phone Central Washington University 400 E. University Way, Ellensburg, WA 98926 tel: (509)-963-1130; fax: (509)-963-1047 e-mail: bowenjo@cwu.edu website: www.cwu.edu/~bowenjo Doctor of Philosophy (Geography), University of Kentucky, 1993 Master of Arts (Geography), University of Kentucky, 1991 Degrees Bachelor of Arts (Geography), Dartmouth College, 1988 Employment 1 Position Associate Professor &...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.abstract.xlibx.info - Free e-library - Abstract, dissertation, book

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.