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References ACSM (2006). Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; p.368 - 6th.ed.
Deaton, M., Kolvalcik, P., Saunders, M. (2004). Metabolic responses during Appalachian Trail backpacking with and without trekking poles. American College of Sports Medicine, Indianapolis.
Jacobson, B. H., Wright, T., Dugan, B. (2000). Load carriage energy expenditure with and without hiking poles during inclined walking.
International Journal of Sports Medicine, 21(5), 356-359.
Knight, C., Caldwell, G. (2000). Muscular and metabolic cost of uphill backpacking: are hiking poles beneficial? Medicine e Science in Sports e Exercise, 32(12), 2093-2101.
Sklar, J., DeVoe, D., Gotshall, R. (2003). Metabolic effects of using bilateral trekking poles whilst hiking. Journal of Human Movement Studies, 44, 73-185.
14 ANNUAL CONGRESS OF THE EUROPEAN COLLEGE OF SPORT SCIENCETH Wednesday, June 24th, 2009
HEART RATE, VO2, BLOOD LACTATE, RECTAL TEMPERATURE AND VERTICAL JUMP MEASURED DURING CONTINUOUS
AND INTERMITTENT 110% IAT PROTOCOLSAGUADO-JIMENEZ, R., IZQUIERDO, M., NAVARRO, I., RUESTA, M., GOROSTIAGA, E.M.
1. FACULTAD CIENCIAS DEL DEPORTE. UNIVERSIDAD DE CASTILLA-LA MANCHA, 2. CENTRO DE ESTUDIOS, INVESTIGACIÓN Y MEDICINA DEL
DEPORTE. INSTITUTO NAVARRO DE DEPORTE Y JUVENTUDINTRODUCTION: Objectives of the study were to analyze the response on VO2 (Vacumed mini-cpx), heart rate, blood lactate concentration, rectal temperature and maximal vertical jump during two intensities of treadmill protocol.
METHODS: Subject Eleven male were recruited to take part in the study. Selection criteria included male; age 25-44 yr; high aerobic fitness, defined 62.6 (4.2) mL•Kg-1•min.
Protocol Treadmill speeds were set at 100% (CON) of the individual velocity of the anaerobic, and of the same velocity (INT110), always preceded by
2.69 m•s-1 for 10 min of warm-up at level grade. Speed was kept constant for all remaining stages. During intermittent trials, every 3 min thereafter treadmill was stopped during 2 minutes, while in continuous trial this resting period was every 13 minutes. In both protocols this sequence was until the subject signalled that he had reached exhaustion.
Measures Anaerobic threshold was determined during a maximal incremental test independently by two experienced individuals who compared their results and reached a consensus. Graphs of VE over time, Ve over •VO2, and/or Ve/•VO2 over •VO2 were used for this determination. This method of determining VT has been shown to be accurate and reliable (3) The tests were performed at least 2 day apart but no more than 7 days apart Statistical Analysis Mean values and standard of deviation (SD) were calculated for all parameters. Comparisons during the protocols were done using analysis of variance (ANOVA) Statistical significance was accepted at P 0•05.
RESULTS: At the end of exercise trial (3, 13, 28, 43 minutes, and exhaustion time) VO2 were not different in INT110 (50.0±4.4; 52.1±5.1;
51.4±4.9; 52.2±5.4; 53.2±5.4 mL•kg-1) and CON (46.5±5.8; 51.5±5.1; 51.3±5.1; 53.0±4.4; 55.2±4.6 mL•kg-1). Blood lactate was not different in INT110 (1.0±0.3; 4.1±1; 4.3±1.2; 4.7±1.5; 6.0±1.8 mM) and CON (1.1±0.4; 4.0±0.9; 4.3±0.9; 4.7±1.1; 6.2±1.5 mM). Heart rate was not different in INT110 (164±11; 173±10; 178±7; 181±9; 186±5 bpm) and CON (158±9; 171±9; 177±8; 182±6; 188±6 bpm). Rectal temperature increased at a greater rate during the exercise in CON than in INT110, getting values of 39.8±0.1 vs. 39.3±0.1 (P0.05) Basal stage was not different between both protocols. Time flight measured in the CMJ was no different in CON than in INT110, finding that before exhaustion, subjects had greater time flight in compare to basal values, only in INT110 (550.9±43vs 537.4±39ms p0.05).
DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONContinuous exercise at anaerobic threshold intensity, produce similar effects that intermittent exercise 110% of anaerobic threshold intensity, in VO2, heart rate, and lactate accumulation, but the core temperature is lower in intermittent exercise what allows to get fatigue later than in continuous exercise. These results obtained in intermittent exercise are showed in the maintenance of the legs power capacity during the vertical jump.
PHYSIOLOGICAL COMPARISON OF TWO TREADMILL EXERCISE PROTOCOLS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF LACTATE
THRESHOLD AND VO2MAXJACKSON, A., LAING, S., LAW, R., EARING, C., CARDINALE, M.
1. OLYMPIC MEDICAL INSTITUTE, 2. BANGOR UNIVERSITYIntroduction: Laboratory treadmill running tests are commonly used to assess the effects of training programmes and to prescribe training intensities for athletes. It is well established that some variability in the results exists as a consequence of varying the testing protocols (Froelicher et al. 1974; Pollock et al. 1976).
Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in two commonly used treadmill protocols for the determination of lactate threshold (LT) and VO2max.
Method: Eight healthy, recreationally active volunteers (mean +/- SD: age; 24 +/- 5 years, height; 177.8 +/- 4.8cm, mass; 73.9 +/- 10.8kg) participated in the study. All subjects completed two maximal graded treadmill (MGT) tests to volitional exhaustion in a randomised order. Expired air samples and heart rate were measured continuously throughout and earlobe blood samples were taken for the determination of blood lactate. On completion of each trial VO2max was determined by averaging the highest observed consecutive values over one minute. LT was identified as described by Weltman et al. (1990). Protocol # 1 comprised a 5 minute warm up at 10km.h-1 after which, the gradient was fixed at 1% and starting speed was 11km.h-1. Stages were 4 minutes in duration, at the end of which speed was increased by 0.6 km.h-1. Once blood lactate reached 4mmol.L-1, speed remained fixed and the gradient was increased by 1% every minute until volitional exhaustion was reached. Protocol # 2 comprised a 5 minute warm up at 10km.h-1. Gradient was fixed at 7.5%. The starting speed was 8km.h-1 and increased by 1km.h-1 every 3 minutes until volitional exhaustion was reached.
Results: All statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS version 12.0 for windows. Paired samples t-tests were used to determine any differences between the two protocols. Alpha was set at P 0.05. No significant differences were found between any of the variables.
Conclusion: Both tests are equally valid in a group of trained individuals.
Froelicher, V.F., Brammell, H., Davis, G., Noguera, I., Stewart, A. and Lancaster, M.C. (1974). A comparison of three maximal treadmill exercise protocols. Journal of Applied Physiology, 36, 720-25.
Pollock, M.L., Bohannon, R.L., Cooper, K.H., Ayres, J.J., Ward, A., White, S.R. and Linnerud, A.C. (1976). A comparative analysis of four protocols for maximal stress testing. American Heart Journal, 92, 39-46.
Weltman, A., Snead, D., Stein, P., Seip, R., Schurrer, R., Rutt, R. and Weltman, J. (1990). Reliability and validity of a continuous incremental treadmill protocol for the determination of lactate threshold, fixed blood lactate concentration and VO2max. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 11(1), 26-32.
EFFECTS OF PHARMACOLOGICAL BLOCKADE ON HEART RATE DYNAMICS IN PARTICIPANTS WITH SPINAL CORD
INJURYMILLAR, P., COTIE, L., ST. AMAND, T., MCCARTNEY, N., DITOR, D.
MCMASTER UNIVERSITYCardiovascular and autonomic dysfunction are common impairments in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) (Krassioukov and Claydon, 2006). Non-linear heart rate (HR) variability techniques may help to detect subtle changes in HR behaviour (Mäkikallio et al., 2002), though the physiological basis of these measures in patients with SCI remains unknown. The present study examined the effects of pharmacological blockade on non-linear measures of HR dynamics in participants with incomplete tetraplegia. Measurements were taken during rest, sympathetic blockade with intravenous metoprolol (3 x 5 mg, each separated by 5 min), and vagal blockade with intravenous atropine (0.02 mg/kg), in the supine and cardiovascular stress positions. The cardiovascular stress position included simultaneous 40° tilt plus cold pressor (10°C) and isometric jaw contraction. Under these conditions, HR dynamics were assessed using sample entropy, detrended fluctuation analysis (α1 and α2), and correlation dimension techniques. Five male participants (41.7 ± 6.0 yrs; lesion level: C4C7; ASIA scale: B-D, 13.4 ± 3.0 yrs post injury [mean ± SEM]) completed the study protocol. HR exhibited a significant effect for condition (p0.001) and position (p0.05). Non-linear measures were unchanged with metoprolol in both positions, compared to baseline. Atropine reduced sample entropy (1.48 ± 0.07 to 0.44 ± 0.09, p0.01) and correlation dimension (2.90 ± 0.70 to 0.05 ± 0.02, p0.05) while increasing α2 (0.77 ± 0.11 to 1.34 ± 0.12, p0.05) in the supine position. Atropine also reduced α1 (1.29 ± 0.09 to 0.96 ± 0.11, p0.01) and correlation dimension (1.13 ± 0.30 to 0.11 ± 0.11, p0.05) during the cardiovascular stress position. A significant interaction effect was detected for sample entropy as values during baseline (1.48 ± 0.07 vs. 1.00 ± 0.07, p0.001) and following atropine (0.44 ± 0.09 vs. 0.85 ± 0.07, p0.05) differed between the supine and cardiovascular stress positions. Correlation analysis revealed significant associations between HR and non-linear measures (p0.01). Thus, in comparison to blockade of the β1-adrenoreceptor system, vagal modulation is the main determinant of non-linear HR measures in male participants with incomplete tetraplegia. These measures may be useful in assessing neurocardiac function in clinical populations and requires further exploration.
Krassioukov AV, Claydon VE (2006). Prog Brain Res 152, 223–229.
Mäkikallio TH, Tapanainen JM, Tulppo MP, Huikuri HV (2002). Card Electrophysiol Rev 6: 250-255.
ARTERIAL STIFFNESS OF JAPANESE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS IN 12-15YEARS OLDMATSUMOTO, N., MIYACHI, M., TORIOKA, J., HIGASHI, Y., YOSHIOKA, A., KOMIYAMA, M., ONODERA, S.
GRADUATE SCHOOL OF KAWASAKI UNIVERSITY OF MEDICAL WELFAREPurpose;
The arterial stiffness is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. The arterial stiffness was measured by the pulse wave velocity between brachial and ankle arteries (baPWV). In adults, it is known that the arterial stiffness increases with age. However, there are few reports to show relationship of the secondary sexual characteristic period and the arterial stiffness. It is considered that the secondary sex characteristic begins around 11years old in men, 9years old in women as for Japanese. Therefore, we estimated that junior high school students(age of 12-15) were in the secondary sex characteristic period. We examined the relationship of the arterial stiffness and the secondary sex characteristic.
Sixty-eight Japanese junior high school students participated in this study (1st grade: men;n=12, women;n=11. 2nd grade: men;n=11, women;n=12. 3rd grade: men;n=15, women;n=7). All subjects were engaged in some kind of sport activities. We compared their arterial stiffness with their grade in school advanced. In addition, we examined the relationships between the degree of obesity and the arterial stiffness. We used Hibi-type (overweight child determination method in Japan) for a determination of the degree of obesity. We divided subjects into three groups depending upon the degree of obesity; overweight-group of over 20%, normal-group of 19~-19%, underweight-group of under –20%. We excluded underweight-group of women, because it was alone.
The baPWV of men increased with their grade in school advanced (1st graders 804±73, 2nd graders 871±144, 3rd graders 942±183cm/s). The 3rd graders were significantly higher than the 1st graders. On the other hand, the baPWV of women significantly decreased with their grade in school advanced (1st graders 973±102, 2nd graders 830±87, 3rd graders 763±104cm/s). The 1st graders were significantly higher than the other grades. When we divided men into overweight-group(n=11, 1011±241cm/s), normal-group(n=16, 843±125cm/s), underweight-group(n=15, 854±94cm/s), the baPWV of overweight-group was significantly higher than the other groups.
However, no significant difference was seen in the baPWV in women between overweight-group(n=9, 891±121cm/s) and normalgroup(n=20 863±130cm/s).
In the present data, junior high school students who predicted in the middle of the secondary sex character period, the arterial stiffness of men increased with age. However, women decreased. It is evident that the arterial compliance increases by the estrogen secretion in adult women. We are considered that a low arterial stiffness of women is related to the increase in the production of estrogen. Meanwhile, the arterial stiffness in overweight-men was increased even though they engaged in sports activities. However, there was no significant difference in the overweight-women. These results suggest that it is a different blood vessel dynamics in men and women of the secondary sex character period.
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