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«BOOK OF ABSTRACTS Edited by: Loland, S., Bø, K., Fasting, K., Hallén, J., Ommundsen, Y., Roberts, G., Tsolakidis, E. Hosted by: The Norwegian ...»

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(1) Bioiberica S.A. Barcelona (2) Dpto. De Bioquímica y Biología Celular, Facultad de Ciencias. Universidad de Zaragoza. Zaragoza (Spain) (3) Dpto. Farmacología y Fisiología. FCCSYD Universidad de Zaragoza. Huesca (Spain) (4) Dpto. Fisiatría y Enfermería. FCCSYD Universidad de Zaragoza. Huesca (Spain) It has been described that intensive exercise is followed by a period of immune impairment (decreased lymphocyte proliferation and levels of salivary immunoglobulin A) during which there is an “open window” opportunity for pathogens (Petersen and Pedersen, 2002). It has been also demonstrated that dietary nucleotide supplementation is crucial to maintain immune function during stress situations (Gil, 2002). The aim of the present study was to test the impact of a specific nucleotide formulation (Inmunactive, Bioiberica, Spain) on the immune function of athletes after severe physical stress. A total of 20 athletes were recruited in a randomized double blind placebo controlled trial and distributed on 2 groups (N=10) supplemented with placebo (group C) or Inmunactive (group I) at 600mg/d during a period of 32 days. On day 0 and on day 32 each subject undertook an exhaustion exercise test using a cycloergometer at 70-80% %VO2max during at least 1h. Before and 24h after the exercise test, blood samples were taken to analyze lymphocyte proliferation of total, CD4+ and CD8+ subsets. 24h after the first exercise test, a decrease on lymphocyte proliferation was detected for both groups on total (-14.23±4.47 vs -11.52±4.93 % for groups C and I respectively; P0.05), CD4+ (-6.60±5.68 vs -14.01±9.92; P0.05) and CD8+ (±9.90 vs -24.60±14.08; P0.05) cell subsets. At the end of the trial, after 32 days receiving the experimental product, lymphocyte proliferation 24h after the exercise test decreased on the placebo group but not in the supplemented group, in total (-3.64±4.50 vs

12.88±7.11 % for groups C and I respectively; P=0.073), CD4+ (-7.69±3.63 vs 15.26±5.74; P0.01) and CD8+ (4.27±7.90 vs 23.58±12.49%;

P0.05). These results suggest that a specific nucleotide supplement given chronically may counteract the immune impairment associated to the severe physical stress.

References Petersen WE and Pedersen BK (2002) Exercise and immune function – effect of nutrition. In: Calder PC, Fielf CJ and Gill HS (eds) Nutrition and Immune Function, CABI Publishing, New York, 347-355.

Gil A (2002) Modulation of the immune response mediated by dietary nucleotides. Eur J Clin Nutr. Suppl 3:S1-4.

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ADMINISTRATION OF AN ANTIOXIDANT MULTI VITAMIN/MINERAL SUPPLEMENT REDUCED TRAINING INDUCED INCREASES IN VO2MAX IN WELL TRAINED SUBJECTS

SKAUG, A., SVEEN, O., RAASTAD, T.

ØSTFOLD UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, HALDEN, NORWAY, NORWEGIAN SCHOOL OF SPORT SCIENCES

Introduction: Antioxidant supplements are widely used by athletes on both top and recreational level. However, the notion that oxidative stress during exercise may be an important stimulus for the adaptive response to endurance training [1, 2], has questioned the value of taking antioxidant supplements in this population. Consequently, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an antioxidant supplement on training induced changes in VO2max in well trained subjects.

Methods: In a double-blinded placebo controlled design a total of 40 amateur soccer players were randomised into a placebo group or an antioxidant supplemented group (SUP), and 28 of the participants completed the study. The SUP group (n=13) ingested 4+4 capsules per day of a combined antioxidant and vitamin/mineral supplement (LifePak) and the placebo group (n=15) took a similar amount of capsules containing lactose. The supplementation period lasted for six weeks, and before and after the participants were tested for skin caretonid score and VO2max. During the supplementation period all subjects continued their normal training.

Results: Six week supplementation with the antioxidant vitamin/mineral supplement increased skin caretenoid score by 20±7% while no changes in skin caretenoid score was observed in the placebo group. VO2max increased by 7.5±2.2% in the placebo group while no changes was observed in the SUP group. The relative increase in VO2max was significantly higher in the placebo group than in the SUP group.

Discussion: The antioxidant vitamin/mineral supplement used in this study reduced training efficiency by blocking the training induced increase in VO2max. Although possible mechanisms behind this finding was not investigated, this result supports the idea that administration of large amounts of antioxidants may reduce the signalling activity in pathways dependent on the formation of reactive oxygen or nitrogen species.

1. Gomez-Cabrera MC et al. J Physiol 2005; 567 (Pt 1):113-120

2. Gomez-Cabrera MC et al. Am.J Clin.Nutr. 2008; 87 (1):142-149

MAGNESIUM – DIETARY INTAKE, SUPPLEMENT USE AND SERUM CONCENTRATION IN ELITE YOUNG GERMAN ATHLETES

BRAUN, H., KOEHLER, K., ACHTZEHN, S., PREDEL, G., THEVIS, M., MESTER, J.

GERMAN SPORT UNIVERSITY COLOGNE

Introduction: Magnesium (Mg) plays an important role in many cellular processes. This might explain why Mg supplement use is still widespread in the athlete community (Braun et al., 2009), even though dietary magnesium intake seems adequate for most athletes.





Since data for young athletes is rare, the aim of this study was to compare dietary Mg intake, Mg supplement use and serum Mg concentrations in young athletes.

Methods: Between January 2007 and October 2008, 306 athletes visited the German research centre of elite sports for a medical examination. Two hundred fifty athletes reported their dietary situation using a validated 7 d food & activity record. On the morning following the recording period fasting blood samples were taken. A questionnaire regarding the frequency of supplement use was provided in advance by mail. Complete data was available for 195 (age 16.3 ± 2.8 y, male n = 99, female n = 96) athletes.

Results: Sixty-five (33 %) athletes took magnesium as dietary supplement in the past 4 weeks before the medical examination. Mean

dietary magnesium intake (without supplements) was higher in supplement users (SU: 567 ± 196 mg/day) compared to non-users (NU:

485 ± 204 mg/day) (p 0.01). However, dietary Mg density was similar (SU: 206 ± 47 mg/1000 kcal; NU: 199 ± 61 mg/1000 kcal). Mean serum levels were 0.86 ± 0.07 mmol/l (SU) and 0.87 ± 0.08 mmol/l (NU) respectively. Additionally those who consumed Mg supplements on a daily basis did not have elevated serum Mg levels (n = 8; 0.87 ± 0.06 mmol/l). While energy intake was significantly correlated with Mg intake (r = 0.68, p 0.001), we found no association between Mg intake and serum Mg (r = 0.02).

Discussion: In the present study, we found decreased serum magnesium concentrations only in a few cases. However, it seems that an optimal serum Mg concentration for (young) athletes has not been defined (Fogelholm 1995). Mean Mg dietary intake were above the German RDA and increased with energy intake. In agreement with others (Fogelholm et al., 1991) we found that Mg serum does not reflect dietary intake. Consistent with an earlier study (Weller et al., 1998) there were no differences in serum Mg between SU and NU.

Based on the described findings it should be questioned why young athletes use Mg supplements. The benefits of those supplements seem to be lacking, while the risk of contaminated supplements should not be underestimated.

References Braun H., Koehler K., Geyer H., Kleinert J., Mester J., Schaenzer W (2009). Int J Sp Nutr Exerc Met, 19(1), 97-109 Weller E., Bachert P., Meineck HM., Friedmann B., Bartsch P., Mairbaurl H (1998). Med Sci Sp Exc, 30(11), 1584-1591 Fogelholm M., Laakso L., Lehto J., Ruokonen I (1991). Nutrition Research 11, 1111-1118 Fogelholm M (1995). Int J Sp Nutr 5(4), 267-284

–  –  –

10:15 - 11:45 Oral presentations OP-SA01 Sport statistics & Analyses

A STUDY TO DETERMINE THE IMPORTANCE AND VALUE OF TAKING-A-CHARGE IN MEN’S DIVISION I COLLEGE BASKETBALL IN THE UNITED STATES

SWALGIN, K., KNJAZ, D.

PENN STATE UNIVERSITY AND THE UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Introduction: The game of basketball can be defined by its structure, the rules that govern play and the value of the performance factors established for the sport. As the structure, rules, and quality of play have evolved, so have the primary statistical performance factor that quantify the quality of play that defines the game. Unfortunately, one of these defining performance categories has been left-out of the official ’box score’ or record. That category is Taking-A-Charge (TC). The purpose of this study was determine the importance and value of TC’s. A secondary purpose was to establish a foundation for Taking-Charges to be viewed as an important performance category that should be mandated in the official record of the game.

Method: The total population (n=342) of men’s Division I college basketball coaches were surveyed to determine: 1) if they recorded TC’s,

2) if they planned practice-time to teach TC’s, 3) how much they emphasized TC’s as part of their team defense, and 4) how strongly they felt to include TC’s as a primary statistical category.

Results: Of the 342 coaches that were surveyed, 103 returned completed surveys representing 30% of the population. One or more coaches’ returned surveys from each of the 29 conferences throughout the U.S. Question 1, do you record TC’s as a statistic,.757 percent indicated they did. Question 2, do you plan practice-time to teach TC’s,.772 percent indicated they did. Question 3, how much emphasis do you put on TC’s, the results of a Likert scale indicated: 1=.009%, 2=.047%, 3=.104%, 4=.208%,and 5=.481%. Question 4, do you feel TC’s should be kept as a primary statistical category, Likert scale results indicated; 1=.099%, 2=.079%, 3=.168%, 4=.208%, and 5=.446%.

Discussion: Division I coaches in the U.S. are professional coaches. The importance of TC’s is illustrated from the results of Q1 and Q2 that indicate 75.7% keep TC’s as a statistic, 77.2% planned practice-time to teach the skill or tactic. The results of Q3 indicate 84% of coaches’ emphasized or strongly emphasized TC’s as part of their team defense. When asked if TC’s should be establish as a required primary statistic, 65.4% agreed or strongly agreed and 16.8% were undecided. Taking-A-Charges as indicated from the results of the survey of coaches is an important performance factor that has an established value for the game; it creates a change-in-possession leading to a scoring opportunity, and as well, takes a scoring opportunity away from the opponent. Taking-a-charge also adds to team foul totals leading to the Bonus-Free-Throw situation sooner, and results in a Personal Foul that may lead to a player’s disqualification and/or reduced playing time to protect against disqualification. It is apparent form the results of the survey that coaches view Taking-A-Charges as a valued performance factor for the game and support its inclusion to the official statistical record of basketball

RATING ELITE AND NON-ELITE TENNIS PLAYERS

CLARKE, S.

SWINBURNE UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY

Unlike golf and chess, tennis suffers from having no universal objective rating system that applies from beginners to champions. Even the rating systems used in open professional tennis are non scientific, somewhat ad hoc accumulative systems that often give no credit to outstanding performances. Some of the drawbacks of these systems will be discussed, and a simple adjustive rating system shown to be more effective than the ATP tennis rating system for predicting match results of elite players. The aim of this research is to extend this system to club players. Rating players is also important at a non elite level –to the individual wishing to measure improvement or achievement, to selection committees wishing to choose between players for competition teams, to competition organizers wishing to group teams into sections of similar standard, and to national organizers for talent identification. Methods of rating non-elite players, by analyzing results from a local veterans doubles tennis competition are investigated. Depending on the level of detail in the collected statistics, the effects of position played, partner, strength of team opposition and strength of individual opponent can be taken into account. A method of extending the above adjustive rating system to rate non-elite players on a continual basis is suggested, and some preliminary results discussed.

EVALUATION OF ERRORS IN ALPINE SKIING VIDEO ANALYSIS

CHARDONNENS, J., FAVRE, J., CATTIN, S., JOLLES, B.M., GREMION, G., AMINIAN, K.

1. ECOLE POLYTECHNIQUE FÉDÉRALE DE LAUSANNE, 2. FISCHER SPORTS GMBH, 3. CENTRE HOSPITALIER UNIVERSITAIRE VAUDOIS & UNIVERSITY OF LAUSANNE

INTRODUCTION: Video records are widely used to analyze performance in alpine skiing at professional or amateur level. Parts of these analyses require the labeling of some movements (i.e. determining when specific events occur). If differences among coaches and differences for the same coach between different dates are expected, they have never been quantified. Moreover, knowing these differences is essential to determine which parameters reliable should be used. This study aimed to quantify the precision and the repeatability for alpine skiing coaches of various levels, as it is done in other fields (Koo et al, 2005).



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