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«BOOK OF ABSTRACTS Edited by: Loland, S., Bø, K., Fasting, K., Hallén, J., Ommundsen, Y., Roberts, G., Tsolakidis, E. Hosted by: The Norwegian ...»

-- [ Page 56 ] --

In spite of the remarkable Usain Bolt, only 50% of 34 comparable athletics winning performances at Beijing were better than at Seoul in 1988, an improvement over 44% for the 2004 Olympics vs. Seoul and 32% for the 2000 Olympics. Following the 1988 Olympics in which Ben Johnson (Canada) was disqualified in the 100 m run, due to a doping violation and a Canadian government report concluding rampant doping in athletics and weightlifting, international anti-doing measures were significantly increased. The World Anti-Doping Agency website indicates that the downturn in some athletics performances in the 1990s were due to those anti-doping measures. It is a hopeful sign that the number of adverse finding dropped from 26 in the 2004 Olympics to 6 at Beijing. It appears that the more-or-less drug free performances of 2008 are at about the level of the drug-enhanced performances of 1988. Cumulative improvement is charted for Olympic winning athletics performances from 1924-2008. The influences of WW2, the cold war, boycotting and drug-enforcement are clear.

By the end of the Beijing Olympics, Michael Phelps had set 32 world records while Mark Spitz (USA) had set 33. Johnny Weissmuller (USA), a swimmer from the 1920s, set 67 world records (more than Phelps and Spitz combined) and was undefeated in competition, arguably making Weissmuller the best of all time. The improvement in winning swimming times by 1.8% over those in 2004 represents more of a return to past levels of improvement than breaking any new ground. It is noted that 3 m deep pools were used in 2004 (Olympics) and 2005 (FINA worlds) without an avalanche of world records but 3 m pools in 2007 (FINA worlds) and 2008 did have many world records. It is suggested that the maturing of swimmers who were enticed to enter serious swimming competition at the time of the 1996 and 2000 Olympics is the reason for current improvements.

The drag of a swim suit is measured passively in a smooth fluid flow environment while competitive swimming provides much more turbulence. It is estimated that actual drag reduction in competition is less than 1%. The cumulative improvement in Olympic swimming winning performances is charted from 1924 to the present. The affects of WW2, the cold war and boycotting are clear. One downturn is discussed for 1996 when drug testing was expanded. Swimming improvement has been steadier than in athletics. Greater improvement is noted for swimming, jumping and throwing (leverage events) than for running events.

XIII PARALYMPIC GAMES 2008 IN BEIJING: THE ANALYSIS OF RESULTS: BARYAEV, A., SHELKOV, O., EVSEEV, S.

ST PETERSBURG RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF PHYSICAL CULTURE

Introduction. Paralympic games are the second on social importance-after Olympic games-world sports event. The attention to them from world community increases every year. The quantity of participants on this sports forum constantly grows. So, if on Paralympic games in Rome (1960) 400 athletes have taken part that on last games in Beijing there were already 4017 athletes.

–  –  –

Methods. Employees of the St.-Petersburg research institute of physical culture accept active participation in scientifically-methodical maintenance of Russian paralympic national teams. In article presented the analysis and comparison of statistical data received following the XIII Paralympic games 2008 in Beijing results and participations in it Russian national team.

Results. Total of the world records established in Beijing-298 (136-swimming, 115-track and field athletics, 7-shooting, 8-archery, 10powerlifting). The considerable superiority on these indicators the national team of China, more than in 2 times outstripped Ukraine, USA, Great Britain. What achievements of the countries-leaders in Paralympic movement? We made results comparison of 15 leading teams on last 3 games. The most important changes in the program of competitions: inclusion in it rowing, and also reduction of medals sets for 10 percent in comparison with Athens. In 2008 only 7 teams have kept the first 10 places in comparison with previous (China, Great Britain, USA, Ukraine, Australia, Canada and Spain). The greatest progress from 2004 for 2008 reached South Africa, Russia, Ukraine, Brazil, Tunisia and Korea. For definition of the reasons and conditions of successful performance we have compared team ranks on gold medals, the sum of medals and quantity of participants. It has turned out, that team’s occupied first 3 places in the general table; include about 200 athletes (China-332), Great Britain and USA (on 209 in everyone). It is necessary to notice, that two teams: Ukraine (124) and South Africa (61) achieve high sports results with a small amount of participants. In this context it is interesting to consider quantity of the athletes who have won more than one medal (multimedallists). The obtained data show that fact, which South Africa has successfully acted at the expense of five ’gold’ multimedallists who have won 15 gold awards, the made 71 % from number of all gold medals won by athletes of this country.

Discussion. The received results allow ascertaining, that in paralympic training process, all takes root into designing and creation of means a science more actively. Special interest represents increase in the importance of multimedallists achievements in various kinds of sports. The increase in quantity of the countries and the athletes who are taking part in paralympic games, expansion of ’geography’ of medal winners say that the focused humanistic concept of the states relation more and more clearly admits the world community and a society to disabled persons.





10:15 - 11:45 Oral presentations OP-NU01 Nutrition 1

EFFECT OF BETA-ALANINE SUPPLEMENTATION ON SUSTAINED ISOMETRIC MUSCLE CONTRACTIONS IS INTENSITYDEPENDENT

WILLEMS, M., PONTE, J., HARRIS, R.

UNIVERSITY OF CHICHESTER

Introduction: The dipeptide carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) acts as an intramuscular proton buffer. Beta-alanine supplementation increased muscle carnosine content and high intensity cycling performance (Hill et al., 2007) potentially by postponing muscle fatigue. It is unknown whether the performance enhancing effect of β-alanine supplementation is intensity dependent. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the performance of sustained isometric contractions of the quadriceps femoris muscles at two different intensities.

Methods: 24 physically active subjects (3 females, 21 males, 20±3 years; 76.6±11.3kg; 1.77± 0.08m) participated in a placebo-controlled triple-blind study. Subject’s upper body was restrained and hip and knee joint angles were kept at 90°. Subject’s ankle of the nondominant leg was connected to a force transducer (sampling frequency 1000Hz). In two sessions, maximal voluntary isometric force (MVIF), time to task failure during 20%MVIF and 70%MVIF and MVIF 20 seconds after task failure, for calculation of fatigue index, were measured before and after supplementation. Post-supplementation testing of 20%MVIF and 70%MVIF was performed at presupplementation MVIF values. Subjects were supplemented with 6.4g/day of beta-alanine (n=11) (8 x 2 capsules, Carnosyn™, NAI, San Marcos, CA) (Harris et al., 2006) or placebo (n=13) (8 x 2 capsules Maltodextrin) (supplementation period 38±7 days). Two-way ANOVA with post-hoc paired samples t-tests were used for data analysis with significance level set at P 0.05.

Results: In both groups, there was no change in MVIF after supplementation. Both groups increased the time to task failure during 20%MVIF by 12-16%. The increase in time to task failure during the 20%MVIF in the placebo group was associated with an increase in the

fatigue index (pre: 31.6±10.5%; post: 39.7±14.7%). No change in fatigue index occurred following a 20%MVIF after beta-alanine supplementation (pre: 42.9±20.3%; post: 47.5±20.3%). For the 70%MVIF, there was a significant 30% increase in time to task failure (pre:

42.4±11.9s, post 55.0±21.0s) with no change in the placebo group (pre: 43.1±9.2s, post 47.3±13.1s). In both groups, there was no change in fatigue index following the 70%MVIF.

Discussion: Beta-alanine supplementation in physically active individuals 1) had no effect on the force-producing capability during maximal isometric muscle contractions, 2) had no effect on the calculated muscle fatigue index following sustained isometric muscle contractions at both low and high intensities, 3) enhances muscle isometric endurance but the effect is intensity-dependent. Beta-alanine supplementation may be beneficial for performance of high-intensity exercise.

References Harris RC, Tallon MJ, Dunnett M, Boobis L, Coakley J, Kim HJ, Fallowfield JL, Hill CA, Sale C, Wise JA. (2006). Amino Acids, 30, 279-289.

Hill CA, Harris RC, Kim HJ, Harris BD, Sale C, Boobis LH, Kim CK, Wise JA. (2007). Amino Acids, 32, 225-233.

THE EFFECT OF ORAL L-ARGININE SUPPLEMENTATION ON LEG SPEED, ANAEROBIC CAPACITY AND MUSCULAR

STRENGTH.

ZACHAROGIANNIS, E., PARADISIS, G., KOLIFA, M., GERAKAKI, M., SMIRNIOTOU, A., ROUSOPOULOS, V.

DEPARTMENT OF TRACK & FIELD, FACULTY OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORTS SCIENCE, UNIVERSITY OF ATHENS, GREECE.

L-arginine is widely used by athletes as an ergogenic aid to improve physical performance for three main reasons: 1) its role in the increase of the secretion of growth hormone; 2) as a precursor for creatine synthesis and 3) its most important role as a precursor for the

14 ANNUAL CONGRESS OF THE EUROPEAN COLLEGE OF SPORT SCIENCE

TH Thursday, June 25th, 2009 biosynthesis of nitric oxide who serves as a messenger to trigger blood vessel dilation and increase blood flow. However, only little information on its real efficacy is available from controlled studies.

Purpose: We evaluated the effects of prolonged supplementation of L-arginine on 35m performance time (t35m), anaerobic capacity (AC) and leg knee extensors (PE) and flexors (PF) maximal power and explosive leg strength (ELS) using a double blind placebo-controlled trial.

Methods: Sixteen healthy sprint and endurance trained subjects nine male and seven female (27.5±8.1 years) performed: the running anaerobic speed test (RAST), knee extensors and flexors maximal power test and a vertical jump to evaluate leg explosive strength before and after intake of L-arginine (3 grams per day) or placebo for a period of three weeks.

Results: After intake of L-arginine mean ±sd (5.26±0.36 v 5.11±0.29, arginine group AG) 35m-performance time (t35) improved (decreased) 2.85% (p0.05) compared with 0.35% improvement in placebo group (PG). Fatigue index AC test (% speed drop between first and sixth sprint) did not change significantly (p0.05) after arginine supplementation (10.61±3.78 v 9.4±3.74) compared with PG values (11.5±5.56 v 10.15±5.89). No significant differences were also observed between groups in body composition, PE, PF or ELS.

Conclusions: L-arginine supplementation appears to influence positively sprinting ability but did not influence body composition, anaerobic capacity and leg power and strength measures.

EFFECTS OF WHEY PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTATION WITH AND WITHOUT BETA-HYDROXY-BETA-METHYLBUTYRATE

HMB ON FAT FREE MASS AND MUSCLE STRENGTH AFTER A 12-WEEK RESISTANCE TRAINING

STAHN, A., TERBLANCHE, E.

CENTER OF SPACE MEDICINE, CHARITÉ CAMPUS BENJAMIN FRANKLIN

Introduction: Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) has been reported to have anti-catabolic effects, thus enhancing gains in both muscle strength and lean tissue mass during resistance training. It is less clear, however, whether HMB promotes additional benefits when combined with a sufficient protein and carbohydrate supplementation. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the independent effects of HMB and a protein-carbohydrate diet on fat free mass (FFM) and muscle strength after periodized 12-week whole-body resistance training.

Methods: With institutional ethics approval 16 healthy, young men (Age mean 22.1, SD = 1.6) with less than six months weight training experience were randomly assigned in a double blind fashion to either a control group or treatment group with no significant mean differences in FFM and 1-repetition maximums (1RM). In addition to 40 g of carbohydrates which were administered orally immediately following the termination of each exercise bout, both groups ingested 30 g of whey protein in the morning on nontraining days and one hour before and after each training, respectively. Additionally, the treatment group received 1 g of HMB, whereas the control group obtained a placebo three times daily. After a 2-week familiarization period subjects trained 4 times per week using an upper/lower body split routine employing exercises of 3 to 4 sets at an intensity that varied between 10RM and 6RM. Outcome measures included wholebody FFM determined by skinfold measurements, upper arm and thigh muscle cross-sectional area determined by magnetic resonance imaging and muscle strength determined by bench press and leg press.

Results and Discussion: Repeated multivariate analysis of variance (time × group) indicated a significant main effect for time (P 0.001, eta2 = 0.951), but not for group (P = 0.970, effect size eta2=0.021). These results were confirmed by a lack of a significant interaction between time and group (P = 0.502, eta2=0.186). Univariate main effects for time showed that irrespectively of the group all, outcome measures significantly increased from pre to post (P 0.001, eta2= 0.575 to 0.939). These findings suggest that in young healthy subjects HMB supplementation in combination with a sufficient protein-carbohydrate diet is not superior to a protein-carbohydrate diet alone.

THE EFFECTS OF A NUCLEOTIDE SUPPLEMENT (INMUNACTIVE) ON LYMPHOCITE PROLIFERATION AFTER INTENSIVE

EXERCISE

CASAJÚS, J., MARTÍNEZ-PUIG, D., SÁNCHEZ, D., AGUILÓ, J., ANEL, A., LOU, J., CHETRIT, C.

BIOIBERICA S.A.



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