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TH Thursday, June 25th, 2009 evidence that social support may explain as much as 24% of the variance in performance over and above the variance explained by performance-related stressors (Rees, Hardy, & Freeman, 2007). This offers a very powerful indication of the impact social support may have in relation to sports performance. Generally, two principal models identify the conditions under which different kinds of social support influence outcomes (and thus performance): the stress-buffering model, and the main (or direct) effect model. The main effect model proposes that social support has a beneficial effect irrespective of whether persons are under stress. Stress-buffering is tied to models of the stress process, appraisal and coping. The stress-buffering influence of social support might operate by leading to benign appraisal of the stressful events, through a direct transfer of resources, or by promoting better coping behaviors. The role of social support in this process will be discussed in relation to recent work within sports performance, which has demonstrated that the stress-buffering model may be mediated by self-efficacy (Rees & Freeman, 2009), that social support may operate through challenge and threat appraisals (Freeman & Rees, in press), that both perceptions and receipt of support should be taken into account (Freeman & Rees, 2008), and that focused interventions can lead to increased social support and improved performance (Freeman, Rees, & Hardy, in press). Future research directions and the applied implications for sportspeople performing under pressure will then be discussed.

Rees, T. (2007). In S. Jowett, D. Lavallee, Soc Psy Sport (223-231). Champaign, IL: Hum Kin.

Freeman, P., Rees, T. (2008). European J Sport Sci, 8, 359-368.

Freeman, P., Rees, T. (in press). J Appl Sport Psy.

Freeman, P., Rees, T., Hardy, L. (in press). J Appl Sport Psy.

Rees, T., Freeman, P. (2009). J Soc Clin Psy, 28, 245-264.

Rees, T., Hardy, L., Freeman, P. (2007). J Sports Sci, 25, 33-42.

08:30 - 10:00 Invited symposia IS-SM02 Physical activity and ageing

STRATEGIES FOR THE PROMOTION OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AMONG OLDER PEOPLE IN EUROPE - THE EUNAAPA PROJECT

RÜTTEN, A., GELIUS, P., ABU-OMAR, K.

INSTITUTE OF SPORT SCIENCE AND SPORT, FA UNIVERSITY ERLANGEN-NUREMBERG, GERMANY

The European Network for Action on Ageing and Physical Activity (EUNAAPA) project pursued the identification of successful strategies for the promotion of physical activity among older people. The project was funded by the Directorate General Health and Consumer Protection of the European Commission, 21 institutions from 16 European nations (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden) took part in the project work from 2006 to 2008.

In order to assess existing policies for the promotion of physical activity among older people in participating nations, a mini-survey with a total of 248 policymakers was conducted. A sampling matrix was developed to define policy sectors (e.g. sports, health, social welfare) and governance levels from which respondents were recruited for interviews. The matrix was developed to allow for structural equivalence in the comparison of policies across nations. The survey contained questions on goals, obligations, resources and opportunities that policymakers perceived for the development of policies in the area of physical activity promotion among older people. These four determinants of policy making are based on a theoretical model developed by v. Wright (1976) that has been adapted to assess determinants of health promotion policies (Rütten et al. 2000).

Results of the survey indicated that determinants of policy outcomes for physical activity promotion among older people varied starkly among participating nations. Across nations, policy makers rated available resources as most critical compared to the other the determinants. Interestingly, policy makers in some nations reported lacking concrete goals for policy development. Policy makers in a number of nations indicated that opportunities (e.g. interest of the media in the topic of ageing and physical activity) had improved in recent years.

National workshops with policymakers were utilized to discuss, based on results of the survey, strategies for policy development for physical activity promotion among older people.

References:

Rütten A, Lüschen G, von Lengerke T et al. (2000). Health Promotion Policy in Europe. Rationality, Impact, and Evaluation. München:

Oldenbourg.

Von Wright, G.H. (1976). Determinism and the study of man. In Manninen, J. and Tuomela, R. (eds.), Essays on Explanation and Understanding (pp. 415-435). D Reide, Dordrecht.

DO’S AND DONTS IN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY RESEARCH AMONG CHRONICALLY ILL OLDER PERSONS

HOPMAN-ROCK, M.

TNO QUALITY OF LIFE AND BODY@WORK RESEARCHCENTER TNO VU UNIVERSITY MEDICAL CENTER

From literature reviews on research in physical activity (PA) and exercise in chronically ill older persons it is known that a lot of the published research has not the highest scientific standard. What is the reason for that finding and how may we improve that? Because evidence based interventions are important to ensure implementation effects in sports and exercise practice, these are important questions. During the presentation reasons will be explored why randomized controlled trials in this area are relatively difficult to perform.





Examples from own experiences will be given from research on PA and exercise in older persons with dementia, mild cognitive impairment, osteoarthritis of the hip and/or knee and incontinence problems.

–  –  –

PROMOTING PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN OLDER ADULTS: A LIFESTYLE APPROACH OR A STRUCTURED EXERCISE INTERVENTION?

DELECLUSE, C., VAN ROIE, E., OPDENACKER, J., BOEN, F.

FACULTY OF KINESIOLOGY AND REHABILITATION SCIENCES

INTRODUCTION: Several studies have shown that older persons benefit from a supervised, center-based, exercise program in terms of improved functional performance and fitness (Delecluse et al., 2004; Dunn et al., 1998; Fahlman et al., 2007). However, these supervised center-based programs are expensive, which limits their implementation possibilities and hence their public health impact. Moreover, for sedentary older adults in particular, a number of important barriers exist to attend such supervised center-based exercise program, for example lack of access or transportation to the facilities, financial considerations and a lack of affinity with the culture of fitness centres (Schutzer & Graves, 2004). In order to deal with these barriers, home-based and lifestyle interventions were developed. However, it is not yet clear whether the effects of such home-based and lifestyle interventions equal the effects of supervised center-based exercise interventions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of traditional fitness training intervention versus a home-based lifestyle intervention on physical activity, physical fitness and cardiovascular risk factors in older adults.

METHODS: One hundred and eighty-six sedentary men and women aged 60 to 83 volunteered to participate and were randomized in one of three groups. A fitness training intervention (STRU, N = 60), consisting of three supervised sessions weekly, and a home-based group (LIFE, N = 60), including an individualized lifestyle program supported by a limited number of booster phone calls, were compared with an ‘assessment only’ control group (N = 66). Physical activity, cardio-respiratory fitness, muscular fitness, functional performance and cardiovascular risk factors were recorded before (pretest) and after 11 months of intervention (posttest).

RESULTS and CONCLUSIONS: The STRU and the LIFE intervention were equally effective in increasing physical activity in older adults. Both intervention groups improved in physical fitness, but STRU increased more than LIFE for cardio-respiratory and muscular fitness, whereas LIFE increased more than STRU for functional performance. In general however, although STRU showed a limited effect on body composition and total cholesterol/HDL ratio, eleven months of structured exercise and/or lifestyle physical activity had only limited effects on cardiovascular risk factors,. Therefore, interventions aiming to reduce cardiovascular risks should focus on long-term changes in physical activity behaviour.

REFERENCES

Delecluse, C., Colman, V., Roelants, M., Verschueren, S., Derave, W., Ceux, T. et al. (2004). Prev.Med., 39, 823-833.

Dunn, A. L., Marcus, B. H., Kampert, J. B., Garcia, M. E., Kohl, H. W., III, & Blair, S. N. (1999). JAMA, 281, 327-334.

Fahlman, M. M., Topp, R., McNevin, N., Morgan, A. L., & Boardley, D. J. (2007). J.Gerontol.Nurs., 33, 32-39.

Schutzer, K. A. & Graves, B. S. (2004). Prev.Med., 39, 1056-1061.

08:30 - 10:00 Invited symposia IS-PH01 Skeletal muscle blood flow regulation during exercise

EXERCISE HYPEREMIA: PARTITIONING THE PERIPHERAL AND CENTRAL FACTORS

RICHARDSON, R.

UNIVERSITY OF UTAH

Numerous factors contribute to the essential increase in blood flow to active skeletal muscle at the onset of exercise, ensuring the adequate supply of oxygen and removal of metabolic by-products. Central and peripheral factors, which may include the skeletal-muscle pump, mechanically induced vasodilation, mechanical distortion of arterioles, flow mediated dilation, and cardio-acceleration resulting from muscle mechanoreptor and chemoreceptor feedback, all have substantial support for their role in this hyperemic response. However, as a result of the copious factors, it is difficult to experimentally partition them allowing one to determine the magnitude of effect and temporal nature of any single mechanism. Thus, the aim of this presentation will be first to examine the blood flow response to exercise and then to subsequently highlight the, second by second, kinetics of central and peripheral factors that influence hyperemia at the onset of limb movement, providing mechanistic insight into the regulation of exercise hyperemia.

ROLE OF INTRAVASCULAR SIGNALS ON THE CONTROL OF MUSCLE PERFUSION

GONZÁLEZ-ALONSO, J.

BRUNEL UNIVERSITY

The matching of skeletal muscle oxygen supply and demand is a fundamental principle in Physiology. Recent studies suggest that the oxygen carrying erythrocyte plays a role in this process by sensing and signaling the amount of oxygen bound to hemoglobin, i.e., oxyhemoglobin (O2Hb). In this construct, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release from erythrocytes in association with the offloading of oxygen from the hemoglobin molecule is thought to play an important role in the matching of oxygen delivery to local muscle metabolic demand.

In vitro and in vivo observations support this hypothesis by demonstrating that i) erythrocytes release ATP in association with the offloading of oxygen from the hemoglobin molecule, ii) plasma ATP is tightly correlated to alterations in O2Hb with exposure to hypoxia, hyperoxia and carbon monoxide inhalation, and iii) ATP, when infused intra-arterially, causes both marked muscle vasodilatation and complete inhibition of alpha-adrenergic vasocontriction. ATP exerts its vasodilatory effect directly and not via degradation compounds, as comparison of the relative vasoactive potencies of ATP, and other nucleotides (ADP, AMP), adenosine and UTP, reveals the following rank order of vasoactive potency: ATP (100) = UTP (100) adenosine (5.8) ADP (2.7) AMP (1.7). Furthermore, both ATP and UTP, but not ADP, AMP or adenosine infusions, fully inhibit alpha-adrenergic vasoconstriction in a manner similar to exercise and hypoxia. Human skeletal muscle expresses mainly P2Y2 purinergic receptors located in the vascular endothelium. The P2Y4, the only common ATP/UTP receptor, cannot be detected at the mRNA level in skeletal muscle. Taken together, these findings support that erythrocyte-derived ATP acts as an important mediator of oxygen sensing transduction between the erythrocyte and the muscle vascular endothelium causing both vasoANNUAL CONGRESS OF THE EUROPEAN COLLEGE OF SPORT SCIENCE TH Thursday, June 25th, 2009 dilatation and sympatholysis by binding to endothelial ATP selective P2Y2 purinergic receptors and stimulating the vascular endothelium to release vasodilator-sympatholytic substances, including nitric oxide, prostaglandins and endothelium-derived hyperpolarization factors.

Support: Copenhagen Hospital System, Novo Nordisk Foundation and Lundbeck Foundation.

ROLE OF ENDOTHELIUM AND SKELETAL MUSCLE DERIVED VASODILATORS

HELLSTEN, Y.

UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN



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