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«BOOK OF ABSTRACTS Edited by: Loland, S., Bø, K., Fasting, K., Hallén, J., Ommundsen, Y., Roberts, G., Tsolakidis, E. Hosted by: The Norwegian ...»

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TH Thursday, June 25th, 2009 (HRR60s), and HRV vagal-related indices (i.e., natural logarithm of high frequency, LnHF and the root mean square of successive R-R interval differences, RMSSD) were calculated on the last stationary 3-min segment. Data were compared by paired t-test.

Results: CWFI induced faster HRR60s compared to C (44.4±4.1 vs. 31.4±2.7 bpm, p=0.008). Compared to C, all vagal-related indices were significantly higher during CWFI (LnHF: 4.5±0.6 vs. 2.9±0.4 ms², p=0.004; RMSSD: 24.4±11.7 vs. 8.8±2.0 ms, p=0.02).

Discussion: This study is the first to assess the effect of CWFI immediately after exercise on parasympathetic reactivation. In accordance with previous studies showing CWFI to trigger parasympathetic heart control at rest (i.e., with no previous exercise, (Hayashi et al., 1997)), our results showed a faster increase in post-exercise vagal-related indices in the CWFI compared to the control condition. CWFI appears to be a simple and effective means to accelerate post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation.

References Buchheit M., Papelier Y., Laursen P. B. and Ahmaidi S., (2007). Noninvasive assessment of cardiac parasympathetic function: postexercise heart rate recovery or heart rate variability?, Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, 23, 23.

Hayashi N., Ishihara M., Tanaka A., Osumi T. and Yoshida T., (1997). Face immersion increases vagal activity as assessed by heart rate variability, Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol, 76, 394-9.

EXERCISE-BASED SPORTS INJURY PREVENTION: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

HÜBSCHER, M., ZECH, A., PFEIFER, K., HÄNSEL, F., VOGT, L., BANZER, W.

1. GOETHE-UNIVERSITY FRANKFURT/MAIN, 2. UNIVERSITY OF ERLANGEN-NUREMBERG, 3. UNIVERSITY OF DARMSTADT

Introduction: Sports injuries are often associated with increased morbidity and disability, and therefore constitute a major public health burden. Although exercise programs targeting the enhancement of proprioceptive and neuromuscular abilities have widely been considered for injury prevention, uncertainty remains about the most appropriate types of exercise and their (relative) effectiveness. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to assess the effectiveness of proprioceptive/neuromuscular training in preventing sports injuries by using the best available evidence from methodologically well-conducted randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials without randomization (CCTs).

Methods: At least 2 independent researchers performed a search for articles published between 1966 and 2008 in Cochrane, MEDLINE, EMBASE and PEDro databases. The reviewers independently assessed articles for eligibility, extracted data, and assessed methodologic quality using the van Tulder criteria list. Relative Risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to estimate treatment effects.

Heterogeneity between studies was examined by using the Q and I-squared statistics. Where applicable, fixed effects and random effects models were used for meta-analysis.

Results: From a total of 32 relevant studies, 7 methodologically well-conducted RCTs (i.e. studies that adequately fulfilled and reported at least 50% of the quality criteria) of adolescent and young adult athletes (7633 participants) practicing ball sports were considered for this review. Exercise interventions included balance training or multi-intervention-programs comprising balance training, stretching, plyometrics, running exercises, cutting and landing technique and strength training. Pooled analysis revealed that multi-intervention training was effective in reducing the risk of acute knee injuries (RR 0.46, 95% CI 0.28-0.76; p.01), and ankle sprain injuries (RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.31-0.79, p.01). While balance training was also effective in reducing the risk of ankle sprain injuries (RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.46-0.9; p.01), it showed a non-significant risk reduction for injuries overall (RR 0.49, 95% CI 0.13-1.8; p=.28). Individual studies found that exercise interventions were more effective in athletes with a history of sports injury than in those without.

Discussion: This systematic review and meta-analysis comprises data from 7 high-quality RCTs that may be the basis for evidence-based sports injury prevention. The results suggest that balance exercises and multi-intervention training programs alike can be effective in reducing the incidence of certain types of sports injuries among adolescent and young adult athletes during pivoting sports. Future research should focus on the conduct of comparative trials to identify the most appropriate and effective training components for preventing injuries in different sports and populations.

Supported by the Federal Institute of Sport Science.

COMPARISON OF SEMINAL SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE SOD ACTIVITY BETWEEN ELITE ATHLETES, ACTIVE AND NON

ACTIVE MEN

ABBASI, A., TARTIBIAN, B., HAJIZADEH, B., NORTHOFF, H.

1. INSTITUTE OF CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL TRANSFUSION MEDICINE (IKET), UNIVERSITY OF TUEBINGEN, TUEBINGEN, GERMANY 2. DEPARTMENT OF SPORT SCIENCE, URMIA UNIVERSITY, URMIA, IRAN

Introduction: Superoxide dismutase as an important element of seminal plasma superoxide anion scavenging capacity plays an essential role in maintaining the balance between ROS generation and degradation, and hence male fertility. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the seminal plasma SOD activity of individuals with different level of physical fitness.





Methods: A total of 40 semen samples were obtained from 3 groups of men, including elite athletes (mean age 23.1±1.3 yrs, n=15) who had regular training (4-5 days per week), physically active (mean age 23.4±0.9 yrs, n=13) who were participating in educational or recreational physical activities for 4-5 h per week, and sedentary controls (mean age 22.0 ±2.0 yrs, n=12) who did not participated in any exercise program for at least 6 months prior to study.

Results: The result showed significantly higher SOD activity in seminal plasma of elite athletes, as compared with those of recreationally active (P= 0.001) and control (P=0.004) groups. No statistically significant difference was observed between active and control groups (P=0.139).

Discussion: Therefore, the results of the present study demonstrate that, compared to sedentary and recreationally active men, elite athletes develop an increased seminal antioxidant capacity in term of SOD level, suggesting that spermatozoa from elite athletes may be less susceptible to ROS- induced peroxidative damage, and hence, infertility. Further studies are warranted to detail the antioxidant capacity of seminal plasma and spermatozoa of individuals with different levels of physical fitness as well as the effect of various exercise programs on seminal antioxidant capacity.

References Agarwal A, Kartikeya M, Sharma R. (2008). Clinical relevance of oxidative stress in male factor. American Journal of reproductive immunology, 59 (208), 2-11 Sanocka D, Miesel R, Jedrzejczak P, Chelmonska-Soyta AC, Kurpisz M. (1997). Effect of reactive oxygen species and the activity of antioxidant systems on human semen; association with male infertility. Int J Androl, 20, 255–264.

–  –  –

Smith R, D.Vantman, J.Ponce, J.Escobar and E.Lissi. (1996). Total antioxidant capacity of human seminal plasma. Human Reproduction, 11, 1655-1660 Banfi G, Malavazos A, Iorio E, Dolci A, Doneda L, Verna R, Corsi MM. (2006). Plasma oxidative stress biomarkers, nitric oxide and heat shock protein 70 in trained elite soccer players. Eur J Appl Physiol, 96(5), 483-6 Dekany M, Nemeskeri V, Györe I, Harbula I, Malomski J, Pucsok J. (2006). Antioxidant status of interval-trained athletes in various sports.

Int J Sports Med, 27(2), 112-6 08:30 - 10:00 Invited symposia IS-SS03 Performing under pressure in sport

CHOKING AS THE WORLD IS WATCHING: EVIDENCE FROM MAJOR FOOTBALL PENALTY SHOOTOUTS

JORDET, G.

NORWEGIAN SCHOOL OF SPORT SCIENCES

CHOKING AS THE WORLD IS WATCHING: EVIDENCE FROM MAJOR FOOTBALL PENALTY SHOOTOUTS

Jordet, G.

Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway The football (soccer) penalty shootout is used to identify a winner when two teams are tied in tournaments. Given that this event is known as a vast pressure situation where shooters typically are assumed to have an advantage over the keeper (goals are typically scored on 70-80% of the shots), the shooters’ failure to live up to expectations of scoring may indicate that choking has taken place. In this presentation, I present multiple studies that document different aspects of choking under pressure in international penalty shootouts. First, indepth interviews with 10 players who took part in a European Championships penalty shootout indicate that a large majority of the players experience competitive anxiety in this situation, and that a considerable number of them experiences little control over the outcome (which is linked to both high anxiety intensity and negative directional interpretation of anxiety symptoms). Second, match record and video evidence from all penalty shootouts ever held in the World Cup, European Championships, and UEFA Champions League suggests that the number of misses increases with elevated shot importance. In addition, the number of misses becomes even higher on shots with negative valence (i.e., shots where a miss instantly produces a loss) as compared to shots with positive valence (i.e., shots where a goal instantly produces a win). Players also engage more in avoidance based coping strategies (diverting their gaze away from the goal and rushing their preparations to get the situation more quickly over with) when they perform in these high-pressure situations. Third, players with high public status score fewer goals than players with less status, suggesting that high egotism can precipitate choking on this task. The same is found with respect to team status, where players on teams with high international status score fewer goals and engage more in escape strategies than players on other teams. In conclusion, the results from these studies are consistent with a view of choking under pressure as related to favourable views of self under threat. Performers then underachieve when they engage in selfdefeating self-regulation strategies initiated to escape from the unpleasant affect associated with the pressure. The presentation is ended with a discussion of a real-world intervention where some of the knowledge generated from this research was put to practice by the Dutch U21 team in a penalty shootout in the 2007 European Championships.

TO BE OR NOT TO BE? SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS, EXPLICIT MONITORING AND SKILL FAILURE UNDER PRESSURE

JACKSON, R.C., ASHFORD, K.J., KINRADE, N.P, ADAMS, D.

BRUNEL UNIVERSITY

Baumeister (1984) proposed that, under pressure, performers attempt to control their skills consciously but that “consciousness does not contain the knowledge of these skills, so that it ironically reduces the reliability and success of the performance” (pp. 610-611). Over the past 25 years, considerable support for this idea has been found by researchers examining ‘choking’ in motor skills, couched in terms such as reinvestment and explicit monitoring. In this presentation, I will further examine the role of conscious processing in skill failure by considering (i) the function of the explicit focus, (ii) individual propensity for reinvestment, and (iii) the nature of the task. First, I will consider the function and level of conscious control that is implicated in skill failure by looking at the different types of process goal and their effect on skilled motor performance. From the applied perspective, I will also consider the complex nature of foci described by elite performers, and whether they are deemed to be facilitative or debilitative. I will discuss these data in terms of their implications for preventing skill failure under stress. Second, I will present data regarding the relationship between dispositional self-focus and performance under pressure in cognitive tasks of varying complexity. In so doing, I will consider the possibility that reinvesting conscious control can also have a detrimental effect on the more cognitive or perceptual elements of skilled performance. This has implications for skilled decision making in sport, which requires accurate judgments to be made in a time-constrained environment.

Reference Baumeister, R. F. (1984). Choking under pressure: Self-consciousness and paradoxical effects of incentives on skilful performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 610-620.

STRESSORS, SOCIAL SUPPORT, AND PERFORMANCE

REES, T.

UNIVERSITY OF EXETER

When faced with the pressure surrounding competing in sport, some athletes may feel they should “go it alone.” The recommendations from the sport psychology literature are, alternatively, that athletes should be encouraged to be proactive in harnessing social support from those around them. Although research on social support in sport has tended to be limited to its influence on sport injury, there is an emerging literature base focusing on its influence within performance settings (for a review, see Rees, 2007). For example, there is recent

14 ANNUAL CONGRESS OF THE EUROPEAN COLLEGE OF SPORT SCIENCE



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