«BOOK OF ABSTRACTS Edited by: Loland, S., Bø, K., Fasting, K., Hallén, J., Ommundsen, Y., Roberts, G., Tsolakidis, E. Hosted by: The Norwegian ...»
14 ANNUAL CONGRESS OF THE EUROPEAN COLLEGE OF SPORT SCIENCE
Goksøyr and Olstad (2002) describe how elite football in Norway did turn from ‘self-taught practitioners’ to more accept for theory and science. Egil “Drillo” Olsen, who was educated and employed at the Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, was a skilled football player, and is seen as ‘the embodied’ person for football science in Norway. Olstad and Goksøyr (2003) call him ‘the Fridjof Nansen of the 1990s’, and describe the three waves of intense discussion about how football is to be played in Norway. In January 2009 “Drillo” again became the manager of the Norwegian male national team. The 0-1 victory away against Germany in Drillo’s first match actualised the debate about football and science or the passion and play with the ball again.
Bourdieu, P. (1993) The Field of Cultural Production. Cambridge/Oxford: Polity Press.
Giulianotti, R. (1999) Football-a sociology of the global game. Oxford:Polity Press.
Goksøyr, M. and Olstad,F. (2002) Football! Norges Fotballforbund 100 år. Oslo: Norges Fotballforbund.
Larsen, Ø. (2001) Charles Reep:A major Influence ob British and Norwegian Football. Soccer and Society, Vol. 2, No.3, 58-78.
Olstad, F. & Goksøyr, M. (2003) Revolution and Resistance. The Rise and Fall of the Norwegian Playing Style? Moving Bodies, Vol.1, No.2, 1Skogvang, B.O. (2006) Toppfotball-et felt i forandring(Elite football-a field of changes).Oslo: The Norwegian School of Sport Sciences.
08:30 - 10:00 Oral presentations OP-SM01 Sports Medicine 1
URINARY CC16 LEVELS IN WINTER VERSUS SUMMER SPORT ATHLETES AFTER EUCAPNIC VOLUNTARY HYPERPNOEABOLGER, C., TUFVESSON, E., STENFORS, N., DEVEREUX, G., AYRES, J.G., HOLMBERG, H.C., BJERMER, L., SUE-CHU, M., KIPPELEN, P.
UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEENExercise−induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is highly prevalent in elite athletes, especially in those training in cold dry environments (1). Dehydration of the airways plays a key role in this process (2). EIB has recently been linked to airway epithelial injury in asthmatic individuals (3).
The aim of the study is to determine whether a short period of hyperpnoea of dry air causes airway epithelial disruption in winter and/or summer sport athletes. We hypothesise that urinary level of the Clara cell protein (CC16) – an indirect marker of permeability/cellular integrity of the lung epithelial barrier (4) – will be increased after a eucapnic voluntary hyperpnoea (EVH) test and that this increase will be larger in winter compared to summer athletes.
Forty two female athletes – 28 summer athletes (age 31.1+/-1.7yr (SEM), training volume 9+/-1.1h/wk) and 14 winter athletes (age 21.4+/yr, training volume 12.0 ± 1.10h/wk) – took part in this study. They all performed an 8-min EVH test at a target ventilation rate of 30 times their baseline forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). After the challenge, FEV1 was measured in duplicate at 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 60 and 90min. A sustained decrease in FEV1 of at least 10% from baseline was considered positive. Urine samples were collected at baseline and at 30, 60 and 90min recovery. CC16 concentration was measured by enzyme immunoassay.
Ten summer athletes had a positive test (max FEV1 fall = 19.6+/-2.4%), whilst eighteen of the summer athletes and all the winter athletes were negative (max FEV1 fall = 5.7+/-0.7% and 5.3+/-0.7%, respectively). CC16 increased significantly after the challenge in all three groups (P0.01) with no difference between groups: delta CC16 (max post-EVH minus baseline) in summer EVH negative athletes was 0.241+/-0.1 ng/μmol creatinine, 0.292+/-0.085 ng/μmol creatinine in summer EVH positive athletes, and 0.123+/ng/μmol creatinine in winter EVH negative athletes (P=0.415).
In conclusion, a short period of hyperpnoea of dry air is associated with an increased rate of CC16 excretion in urine in both winter and summer athletes. This suggests that the integrity of the airway epithelium might be compromised by loss of airway surface lining fluid when athletes inhale dry air at high flow rates. This appears to occur irrespective of the degree of bronchoconstriction or regular training environment.
1. Rundell KW, Jenkinson DM. Exercise-Induced Bronchospasm in the Elite Athlete Sports Med. 32(9): 583 (2002)
2. Anderson SD, Holzer K. Exercise-induced asthma: Is it the right diagnosis in elite athletes? J Allergy Clin Immunol. 106(3): 419 (2000)
3. Hallstrand, TS, Moody MW, Aitken, ML, Henderson, WR. Airway immunopathology of asthma with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 116(3):586 (2005)
4. Broeckaert F, Bernard A. Clara cell secretory protein (CC16): characteristics and perspectives as lung peripheral biomarker. Clin Exp Allergy. 30(4):469 (2000)
NO EFFECT OF AGE, GENDER AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVEL ON HUMAN MONOCYTE TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR 4 EXPRESSION IN AN ACTIVE POPULATIONOLIVEIRA, M., GLEESON, M.
LOUGHBOROUGH UNIVERSITYSeveral studies have reported that some immune cell functions including monocyte Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression are temporarily reduced after a prolonged acute bout of strenuous exercise, and that several months of moderate exercise training in previously sedentary individuals results in reduced levels of TLR expression (Gleeson et al. 2006). Over the long term these effects may be beneficial to health due to associated reductions in chronic inflammation, and consequently reducing the risk of developing chronic metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. To date, there has been little research on the effect of habitual activity level on human monocyte TLR expression
or the influence of age or gender apart from one study (McFarlin et al. 2006) that showed a lower TLR4 expression in active compared with sedentary subjects in both a young and an elderly population.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the volume of self-reported moderate-strenuous exercise training on human monocyte TLR4 expression in a large cohort of active subjects (minimum of 3 hours moderate-strenuous training per week). With local ethics committee approval 85 healthy subjects aged 18-53 yrs, body mass 52-112 kg; BMI 18-35 kg/m2 completed a self-report questionnaire of weekly exercise training load and a resting venous blood sample (following an overnight fast) was taken for analysis of circulating monocyte counts and TLR4 expression (corrected for non-specific binding using an isotype control) as described by Lancaster et al.
(2005). TLR4 expression was compared in males and females matched for habitual activity level, young and older subjects matched for habitual activity level and subjects classed according to hours of training per week (3-7, 8-14 and 15-25 h/week). T-test and ANOVA were used to analyse the data.
Monocyte counts were in the normal range for all subjects and were not influenced by age, gender or habitual activity level. Monocyte TLR4 expression (geometric mean fluorescence intensity, GMFI, mean [SEM]) was not affected by age (GMFI: 20.4 [1.5] in 47 subjects aged 18-24 yrs versus 23.7 [2.3] in 23 subjects aged 30-53 yrs, P=0.240) or gender (GMFI: 19.7 [1.2] in 52 men versus 23.7 [2.3] in 31 women, P=0.096). There was no significant main effect for physical activity level for TLR4 expression (F = 0.805, P=0.451) which was 22.2 [2.1], 21.8 [1.6] and 18.6 [1.3] (GMFI) in subjects exercising for 3-7, 8-14 and 15-25 h/week, respectively.
This study showed that TLR4 expression is not affected by exercise training load, gender or age in a physically active population.
References Gleeson M, et al. (2006). Exerc Immunol Rev 12: 34-53.
Lancaster GI, et al. (2005). J Physiol 563(3): 945-955.
McFarlin BK, et al. (2006). J Gerontol 61(4): 388-393.
VALIDATION OF INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY AS INJURY PREVENTION METHOD IN PROFESSIONAL SOCCER PLAYERS.GÓMEZ, P., NOYA, J., NUÑEZ, J., FERNANDEZ, I., SILLERO, M.
1. FACULTY OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND SPORT SCIENCES-INEF. UNIVERSIDAD POLITÉCNICA DE MADRID (UPM), 2. VF SPORT, 3. REAL
ZARAGOZA CF, SADIntroduction.
Tensiomiography (TMG) is been used as an injury prevention method in professional soccer players. It records the muscle response to a known electrical stimulus intensity [1,2]. In other hand, Thermography (TG) is a technique used for detecting and managing injuries , in which a camera records the infrared radiation released from the metabolic activity of human body for estimating temperatures on different areas . This study attempts to correlate both techniques in order to validate the TG as an injury prevention method in professional footballers.
Methods: Using a Tensiomyographer (TMG 100 Measurement System, TGM - BMC Ltd.) and a Thermographic camera (ThermaCAM TM SC640, FLIR SYSTEMS), 20 professional Spanish soccer players were assessed the day after the weekly competition. They were recorded 5 variables by TMG (Delay Time [DT], Contraction Time [CT], Sustain Time [ST], Relaxation Time [RT] y Maximal Displacement [MxD]) in both Femoral Biceps (dominant [DFB] and non-dominant [NDFB]). Previously, it had been obtained the mean temperatures (T) of those areas by TG.
Results: Student T-test showed lack of significant differences between DFB and NDFB for all recorded variables (DTDBF = 26.7, DTNDBF = 27.5; CTDBF = 32.2, CTNDBF = 34.3; STDBF = 191.5, STNDBF = 199.8; RTDBF = 56.5, RTNDBF = 56.0; MxDDBF = 5.8, MxDNDBF = 5.7; TDBF = 33.8, TNDBF = 33.9). Indirect significant correlations were found between T and CT (r = -0.35; p 0.05) and DT (r = -0.39; p 0.05) considering together the results of both Femoral Biceps and, dividing the data in DFB and NDFB, they were found indirect significant differences between T and STDBF (r = -0.50; p 0.05) and between T and CTNDBF (r = -0.45; p 0.05) and DTNDBF (r = -0.49; p 0.05). Considering individual cases, TG reach similar results compared with TMG on the injury risk for each player.
Discussion and Conclusion.
Differences on the significant variables for the dominant leg may be due to different contraction pattern or function during the game or to different injuries prevalence for each leg. However, TG may be considered as a valid method in order to assess the injury risk of a professional soccer player.
1. D. Križaj, et al. (2008) Short-term repeatability of parameters extracted from radial displacement of muscle belly. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology,18 (4) pp 645-651.
3. Garagiola, U. & Giani, E. (1990). Use of telethermography in the management of sports injuries. Sports Medicine. 10(4): 267-272.
4. Barnes, R.B. (1967). Determination of body temperature by infrared emission. J. Appl. Physiol. 22:1143-1146.
INFLUENCE OF COLD WATER FACE IMMERSION ON POST-EXERCISE PARASYMPATHETIC REACTIVATIONAL HADDAD, H., AHMAIDI, S., BUCHHEIT, M.
RESEARCH LABORATORY, EA-3300 «LABORATORY OF EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY AND REHABILITATION», FACULTY OF SPORT SCIENCES, UNIVERSITY OF PICARDIE, JULES VERNE, 80025, AMIENS, FRANCE.Introduction: A delayed parasympathetic reactivation after exercise is associated with an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. Thus, means of improving post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation are now receiving greater interest. Hayashi et al. (1997) showed that cold water face immersion (CWFI) can increase vagal activity (i.e., inferred from heart rate (HR) variability (HRV)) at rest, but whether this beneficial effect is preserved during recovery after exercise is not known. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of CWFI on parasympathetic reactivation following exercise.
Methods: Eleven men (21.6±1.3 yr; 1.80±0.06 m; 76.1±13.0 Kg) performed, on two different occasions, an intermittent exercise (i.e., a cycling 30-s Wingate test (to reduce vagal activity) followed by a 5-min run at 60% of maximal aerobic velocity, interspersed with 5-min of seated recovery). Immediately after the 5-min run, participants underwent a seated passive recovery with either CWFI or without (C) condition. Participants breathed through a snorkel in both recovery conditions. In CWFI condition, water temperature was kept at 10-12°C.
Parasympathetic reactivation was assessed through beat-to-beat HR collection (Polar Electro, Kempele, Finland) during the 5-min following the submaximal exercise (Buchheit et al., 2007). Absolute HR recovery was calculated from the immediate 60s period after exercise