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«BOOK OF ABSTRACTS Edited by: Loland, S., Bø, K., Fasting, K., Hallén, J., Ommundsen, Y., Roberts, G., Tsolakidis, E. Hosted by: The Norwegian ...»

-- [ Page 48 ] --

Methods: The present study adopted a 6-year design incorporating 4 data collection time points (TPs). Volunteers were assessed prospectively at the ages of 12, 13, 14 and 17. A total of 210, 204, 198 and 187 schoolchildren volunteered at the first (TP1=12 years old), second (TP2=13 years old), third (TP3=14 years old) and fourth (TP4=17 years old), data collection TP, respectively. At each data collection TP, anthropometrical, biological and lifestyle data were obtained. Identical protocols were used for each assessment conducted by the same trained investigators. MS was defined using criteria analogous to the Adult Treatment Panel III definition (Alberti et al. 2006; De Ferranti et al. 2004).

Results: 12% of the participants were diagnosed with MS17, the majority of them being boys (16% vs. 7%, p0.033). The prevalence of the syndrome increased directly with the degree of obesity. Using body mass index (BMI), adiposity and/or aerobic fitness levels in both genders, MS17 could be correctly diagnosed as early as TP1. No such cutoff points were found for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose levels.

Discussion/Conclusion With respect to the data presented, it has been established that the calculated longitudinal preventive-screening cutoffs allow successful diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in adolescents using BMI, adiposity or aerobic fitness levels in both sexes. Adoption of such pediatric guidelines may help mitigate future increase in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome.

References Alberti KG, Zimmet P, Shaw J (2006). Diabet Med, 23, 469-480.

De Ferranti SD, Gauvreaub K, Ludwig DS, Neufeld EJ, Newburger JW, Rifai N (2004). Circulation, 110, 2494-2497.

Ford ES, Li C (2008). Ann Epidemiol, 18, 165-171.

14 ANNUAL CONGRESS OF THE EUROPEAN COLLEGE OF SPORT SCIENCE

TH Thursday, June 25th, 2009 Hu G, Qiao Q, Tuomilehto J, Balkau B, Borch-Johnsen K, Pyorala K (2004). Arch Intern Med, 164:1066-1076.

Katzmarzyk PT, Perusse L, Malina RM, Bergeron J, Després JP, Bouchard C (2001). J Clin Epidemiol, 54, 190-195.

Steinberger J, Daniels SR (2003). Circulation, 107, 1448-1453.

BIO-PSYCHO-SOCIAL CORRELATES OF PHYSICAL FITNESS IN CHILDHOOD AND ADOLESCENCE

WAGNER, M.O., JEKAUC, D., SCHOTT, N., WORTH, A., BÖS, K.

1. UNIVERSITY OF KARLSRUHE, 2. UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION SCHWÄBISCH GMÜND, 3. UNIVERSITY OF KONSTANZ, 4. LIVERPOOL HOPE

UNIVERSITY

Introduction: Although children and youth currently form the most active segments of the population in the westernized world, there is a marked trend towards an increase in sedentary lifestyle and a decrease in physical fitness among school-age children. In order to counteract the suspected degradation, potential determinants must be known. Previous studies are based on non-representative samples mostly and are only conditionally comparable. Therefore, reliable findings on the determinants of physical fitness are not available. The purpose of the study is the identification of correlates of physical fitness in childhood and adolescence. It is assumed that physical fitness is associated with intrapersonal, behavioural and ecological factors.

Method: Data were obtained from the “Luxembourg project”, a representative sample of the 9, 14- and 18-year-old boys and girls from Luxembourg (N = 1188). Physical fitness was measured on the basis of ten motor description categories such as aerobic endurance and flexibility by using a standardised test profile. Intrapersonal (e.g. BMI, sports interest), behavioural (e.g. extent of physical activity; p.a.) and ecological (e.g. peer-group behaviour, socio-economic status; ses) factors were assessed by using a standardised questionnaire (cf. Bös et al., 2006).

Results: Ten multiple regression equations with sequential entry of the model levels help to confirm the suspected relation for eight out of ten motor description categories. Percentage of declared total variance is between 8.0% (fine motor abilities on precision tasks; F=5.19;

p=.000; adjusted R²=.080) and 58.1% (speed of force development in lower extremities; F=67.70; p=.000; adjusted R²=.581). The identified effects and their directions can be clarified by the example of gross motor abilities under time pressure (F=35.98; p=.000; adjusted R²=.241). The performance in jumping sideways rises with increasing age (Beta=.64; T=17.52; p=.000), sports interest (Beta=.12; T=4.19;

p=.000) and ses (Beta=.10; T=3.51; p=.000) as well as under the influence of an increased extent of p.a. in sports club (Beta=.15; T=5,10;

p=.000), whereas lower performances become obvious with increasing BMI (Beta=-.12; T=-3.95; p=.000).

Perspectives The results delimit the spectrum of potential correlates of physical fitness. However, the related design does not permit any causal conclusions. To receive reliable statements about the determinants of motor development in childhood and adolescence, the individuals included here will be examined prospectively in the context of a longitudinal section study.

References Bös, K., Brochmann, C., Eschette, H., Lämmle, L., Lanners, M., Oberger, J., Opper, E., Romahn, N., Schorn, A., Wagener, Y., Wagner, M. & Worth, A. (2006). Health, physical fitness and physical activity of children and adolescence in Luxembourg [Gesundheit, motorische Leistungsfähigkeit und körperlich-sportliche Aktivität von Kindern und Jugendlichen in Luxemburg]. Luxembourg: MENFP.





EFFECT OF RAMADAN FASTING ON PLASMA LEPTIN AND ADIPONECTIN CONCENTRATIONS AND BODY COMPOSITION IN TRAINED YOUNG MEN

BOUHLEL, E., DENGUEZLI, M., ZAOUALI, M., TABKA, Z., SHEPHARD, R.J.

FACULTY OF MEDICINE OF SOUSSE, TUNISIA

Purpose: To evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting on parameters of insulin resistance in trained athletes at rest and after aerobic exercise. Methods: Nine male rugby players (age 19 ± 2 yr, height 1.78 ± 0.74 m) were tested three times: one week before observance of Ramadan (C), at the end of the first week (R1), and during the fourth week (R2). They performed a progressive cycle ergometer test at each visit. Data collected at rest and at the end of aerobic exercise included simple anthropometry (body mass, BMI, body fat, fat free mass), biochemical parameters (serum glucose, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine, and serum proteins) and selected hormone concentrations (plasma insulin, leptin and adiponectin) Results: Ramadan fasting was associated with a reduction of body mass and body fat (R2 vs. C, p0.01) without significant change in leptin or adiponectin levels. Conclusion: Lipolysis may have occurred because of increased plasma triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol concentrations.

THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN CYCLING TO SCHOOL AND BEING OVERWEIGHT IN ROTTERDAM (THE NETHERLANDS)

AND KRISTIANSAND (NORWAY)

BERE, E., SEILER, S., OENEMA, A., BRUG, J.

UNIVERSITY OF AGDER

Introduction: Internationally, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is rising. At the same time rates of active commuting are declining.

Those who cycle to school have been reported to be more physically fit than those walking or travelling by motorized transport (Andersen et al., in press; Cooper et al., 2006). However, no clear association between weight status and cycling to school has been reported. The purpose of the present study was therefore to assess the potential association between cycling to school and weight status in two cities in where active commuting to school still is common - Rotterdam (the Netherlands) and Kristiansand (Norway).

Methods : Data from the projects ENDORSE (Rotterdam) and YOUTH IN BALANCE (Kristiansand) are used. A total of 16 and 12 secondary schools participated in the surveys, including 1361 and 1197 participants, respectively. Survey years (2004-2006) and age group (12-15 years) were comparable. Commuting to school was self-reported in questionnaires in both studies. The participants were categorised into main mode of commuting. Pupils categorised as cyclist were compared to non-cyclists (walkers, car commuters, public transportation commuters and those not categorised into mode of commuting due to inconsistent reporting). Weight and height were measured by project staff, and overweight was calculated according to sex and age specific international cut-off values for body mass index. Distance from home to school was calculated from postal codes in Rotterdam, but were self reported in Kristiansand. Sex and ethnicity (dichotomized into native Dutch/Norwegian and not native) were self reported.

Results: A total of 35 and 31%, respectively in Rotterdam and Kristiansand, were categorised as cyclists. Bivariately, fewer cyclists were overweight than non-cyclists both in Rotterdam (18 vs. 28%; 95%CI were 14-22% and 25-32%) and Kristiansand (12 vs. 21%; 95%CI were

–  –  –

8-16% and 18-24%). When adjusting for distance to school, sex and ethnicity, cyclists were still less likely to be overweight than noncyclists both in Rotterdam (OR=0.59; 95%CI were 0.42-0.82) and Kristiansand (OR=0.53; 95%CI were 0.36-0.79).

Discussion: In Rotterdam and Kristiansand cyclists were less frequently overweight than those not cycling to school. However, longitudinal studies are needed in order to assess the aetiology: Are cyclists leaner because they cycle to school, or do adolescents cycle more often because they are leaner (and more fit)?

References Andersen LB, Lawlor DA, Cooper AR, Froberg K, Anderssen SA (in press). Scand J Med Sci Sports. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2008.00803.x Cooper AR, Wedderkopp N, Wang H, Andersen LB, Froberg K, Page AS (2006). Med Sci Sports Exerc, 28, 1724-1731.

A 1-HOUR BOUT OF MODERATE-INTENSITY EXERCISE LEADS TO A CLINICALLY SIGNIFICANT REDUCTION IN BLOOD

PRESSURE DURING SUBSEQUENT NIGHT-WORK, IRRESPECTIVE OF MEAL SCHEDULE

FULLICK, S., MORRIS, C., JONES, H., ATKINSON, G.

LIVERPOOL JOHN MOORES UNIVERSITY

Introduction: About 15-20% of European workers are involved in shiftwork, which is a significant risk factor for heart disease and hypertension (Atkinson et al., 2008). Previous research indicates that the blood pressure (BP) of diurnally-active people is reduced for several hours after exercise (Jones et al., 2008). However, no researcher has explored whether post-exercise hypotension occurs when participants are active and eating at night, which is the case for shift-workers. Thus, our aims were to (i) examine the acute effects of evening exercise on BP monitored throughout a subsequent night-shift, (ii) explore whether such effects are moderated by meal frequency, and (iii) examine the relation between exercise-mediated changes in BP and core body temperature (Tc). The primary hypothesis was that exercise reduces BP throughout subsequent night-work.

Methods: Nine participants, aged 20-42 y, completed at least two crossover trials beginning at 18:00 h. Between 19:00-20:00 h, participants either rested or exercised at 50% VO2peak and then remained awake throughout the night, completing various tasks until 05:15 h.

Six participants completed a total of four trials in which they exercised or rested while either one meal (60 kJ.kg-1 body mass) was eaten at 22:00 h or two smaller meals (30 kJ.kg-1 body mass) were eaten at 22:00 and 02:00 h. Systolic and diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were recorded every 30 min. Wrist activity and intestinal temperature were also recorded throughout each trial with an accelerometer and a thermometric pill, respectively. Data were analysed with two-factor (trial x time) repeated measures linear mixed models and described as mean (SD).

Results: Following exercise, BP was significantly (P0.0005) lower throughout the night-shift compared with no prior exercise (95% confidence limits for reduction in MAP: 4 to 7 mmHg). The post-exercise reductions in systolic BP and MAP were not moderated by meal frequency, but the reduction in diastolic BP was 6 (2) mmHg when only one larger meal was eaten compared to the reduction of 3 (2) mmHg when two smaller meals were eaten (P0.0005). Like BP, Tc was lower following exercise (P=0.008), even though wrist activity and HR were significantly higher following exercise (P0.0005).

Discussion: These novel data clearly indicate that prior exercise lowers BP throughout a subsequent 8-hour night-shift, irrespective of meal schedule. An unexpected finding was that prior exercise mediated a larger reduction in Tc during the night. From a health perspective, our data indicate that regular low-intensity exercise has the potential to attenuate the longer-term increase in blood pressure in this unique population.

References Atkinson, et al.,(2008). Sports Med 38:671-85.

Jones et al., (2008).. Eur J Appl Physiol 104: 481-489.

08:30 - 10:00 Oral presentations OP-SO01 Sociology 1

MASCULINE MEN PLAYING A WOMAN’S SPORT? MEDIATED REPRESENTATIONS OF MALE HANDBALLERS IN A NORWEGIAN CONTEXT.

BROCH, T., FASTING, K.

NORWEGIAN SCHOOL OF SPORT SCIENCES

Introduction: No matter how rough and physically demanding the game of handball is; unlike many other European countries, the common Norwegian perception of handball defines it as a woman’s sport (Lippe, 2001). This is very much due to their huge international successes and the extensive and positive media coverage. When Norwegian handball is constituted as a women’s sport, how are Norwegian male handballers portrayed by the media? By the means of a discourse analytic approach; this paper seeks to uncover symbolic gendered meanings in the Norwegian media’s (Tv2) portrayal of men’s handball.

Methods: The data was collected by recording 5 games from the 2007 World Championship for men and 5 games from the 2008 European Championship for men. The play-by-play commentators were the same two men for all games recorded and their presentation of the games was transcribed and explored by means of a discourse analysis. Phillips & Jørgensen (1999) argues that communication/discourse is structured and patterned. This paper utilizes a discourse analytic approach focusing on gendered structures and patterns.



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