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«BOOK OF ABSTRACTS Edited by: Loland, S., Bø, K., Fasting, K., Hallén, J., Ommundsen, Y., Roberts, G., Tsolakidis, E. Hosted by: The Norwegian ...»

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With few exceptions (e.g., Ottosson, 1987; Sigurjónsson, 2007), how beginners in orienteering manage the tasks they are presented is far from well researched. In Swedish orienteering clubs, beginner instruction is normally administered according to a well established pedagogy, most often talked about as a ladder of difficulty. This system builds on many years of collected experiences of instruction, and appears to be generally effective. However, if this pedagogy could be validated by empirical data, its application would be even further motivated. On the other hand, data could, alternatively, point to a more or less different ranking of orienteering difficulties, and thus provide indications of need of revisions of the pedagogy. In this study, split times between control points on courses for children (aged 10 and younger) on regular orienteering events provide data for analysis. It is assumed that more difficult legs would result in greater spread in running times. In other words, a correlation between complexity of orienteering tasks and spread in running times is hypothesised.

Different measures of spread are examined, and related to the orienteering tasks accomplished by the children. Greater spread is interpreted as greater complexity of a task, and the pattern of measures of spread, as related to characteristics of the orienteering tasks, is discussed.

Ottosson, T. (1987). Map-reading and wayfinding (Göteborg Studies in Educational Sciences, 65). Göteborg, Sweden: Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis.

Sigurjónsson, T. (2007). Barns kartlesing: Et samspill mellom kartleser, kart og terreng. Oslo, Norway: Norges Idrettshøgskole.

WHO STOPS – WHO CONTINUES? A STUDY OF PARTICIPATION IN CLUB SPORTS DURING ADOLESCENCE.

THEDIN JAKOBSSON, B., ENGSTRÖM, L.M.

THE SWEDISH SCHOOL OF SPORT AND HEALTH SCIENCES

Nowadays most Swedish children are members of a sports club at some time during their childhood or teenage years. Participation is greatest at the age of twelve. By the end of the teenage years many have ceased to be club members. The overall aim of the study is to investigate changes in sports participation during adolescence. The following questions are of special interest: What characterises those who leave sport and those who continue? Which sports contribute to the retention of participants and which do not? The survey is part of a Swedish multi-disciplinary project called School–Sport–Health 2001, 2004 and 2007, in which 600 girls and boys from Years 3, 5 and 9 participated. It is based on self-reported questionnaires relating to social background, physical education and leisure time activities. The results have been analysed by SPSS, a computer program designed for statistical analysis. The results indicate that about 60 percent of the survey groups are members of sports clubs in Year 9, which is 20 percent less than in Year 6. Boys are more often members than girls, and report a higher training intensity. The most popular club sports in both Years 6 and 9 are horse riding for girls and football for boys. Members of sports clubs report higher grades in Year 9 and often choose academic programmes at upper secondary school. The conclusion is that teenagers who continue to participate in club sports seem to achieve high grades in the subject Physical Education and Health, have a high merit rating in Year 9, are prepared for upper secondary school studies and regard themselves as physically active.

The presented data will be discussed from a critical pedagogic perspective in the context of existing research, with a focus on social and cultural resources (values and capital) and participation in organised sport for children and youth.

Blomdahl, U. & Elofsson, S. (2006): Hur många motionerar/idrottar för lite och vilka är dom? En studie av den unga befolkningen i Stockholm Haninge, Helsingborg, Jönköping och Lidingö. Ung livsstil Nr 7. Idrottsförvaltningen Forskningsenheten.

Coakley, Jay (2003): Sports and Children. Are Organized Programs Worth the Effort? in Sport in society Issues & Controversies. Eight Edition. New York. Mc Graw Hill.

De Knop, P. Engström, L-M., & Skirstad, B. (1996): Worldwide Trends in Youth Sport. Human Kinetics.

Engström, L-M. (2004): Rapport nr 1 i serien Skola – Idrott – Hälsa: Stockholm: Idrottshögskolan.

Larsson, B. (2008): Ungdomarna och idrotten. Tonåringars idrottande i fyra skilda miljöer. Stockholm, Pedagogiska institutionen Stockholm universitet.

–  –  –

STUDY ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ENERGY EXPENDITURE OF STUDENTS AND TEACHING METHODS OF MOTOR

AND SPORTS ACTIVITIES IN PRIMARY SCHOOL IN ITALY

CARLOMAGNO, N., LIPOMA, M., D'ELIA, F., BALDASSARRE, G., SGRÒ, F., SANGIORGIO, A., SIBILIO, M.

(1) UNIVERSITY Introduction.

The latest indications from the Ministry of Education recall the need that experiences leading to a correct and healthy lifestyle, will be in the curriculum of primary school (PS). They include the prevention of diseases related to hypokinesia, through the enhancement of school and extra-school motor and sport experiences ( Ministerial Directives, 2007). In PS the methodological choices are left to the teachers who decide the type of motor and sports activities to be proposed to the students, referring to the objectives and educational programmes and the Directives of the Ministry. The type of motor activity and the energy expenditure (EE) associated with it then depend only on the methodology of the teacher.





Objective.: The objective of this research was to analyze the relationship between teaching methods of motor and sports activities and EE in classrooms of a PS. The study was to determine the difference in EE between the different teaching approaches used independently by each PS teachers and the use of a common teaching methodology.

Methods: The research involved 18 classes for a total of 260 pupils in a PS of Naples. For each pupil has been prepared in advance an information grid collecting data on age, weight, height, the dietary habits, motor or sport practiced actions and some details about lifestyles. 18 teachers have been entrusted with the task of leading a lesson in 45 minutes on a common theme while a calorimeter, put on the arm of the students, was measuring energy expenditure during the lesson, through a system of multi-sensor monitoring. Subsequently formative activities, conducted by the University of Salerno and the University Suor Orsola Benincasa of Naples, were carried out to give to the 18 school teachers a shared methodology for the motor activity. In the second phase of the work teachers were asked to propose the activity to the students on whom the calorimeters were set.

Results: The acquisition and the processing of the data using the software Sense Wear and the comparison of these data made possible to measure and compare the differences in EE in the presence of different approaches and in the presence of a single goal, while a greater homogeneity was found when the same methodology was used by teachers. In perspective, the adoption of shared didactic methodologies and protocols for motor activities will allow to pursue the objectives of the Ministerial Directives related to children health.

References

- Ministry of Education (2007). Ministerial Directives for the curriculum of primary school

- Ekelund, U., Yngve, A., Sören, B., Westerterp, K. & Sjöström, M. (2004). Body movement and physical activity energy expenditure in children and adolescents. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 79, No. 5, 851-856.

- Dollman, J., Norton, K. & Norton, L. (2005). Evidence for secular trends in children’s physical activity behaviour. British Journal of Sports Medicine 2005;39:892-897

REDESIGNING THE ’SPORT MULTIMEDIAL’ E-LEARNING APPLICATION

LESER, R., BACA, A., EDER, C., KARALL, E., MIKO, C., UHLIG, J.

CENTRE OF SPORT SCIENCE, UNIVERSITY OF VIENNA

’Sport Multimedial’ is an e-learning platform designed to make theoretical sports-scientific content available within an interdisciplinary network so this content can be used alongside with and as a complement to practical sports courses at the Faculty of Sport Science of the University of Vienna (Baca, Kolb & Eder, 2009). This web application has been in practical use for about three years and was added to the curriculum during that period. Current formative evaluation procedures show, however, that students and instructors have not accepted the platform to the degree desired. This paper discusses known reasons for this and proposes approaches to solutions for the planned further development of the system.

The platform is currently based mainly on a cognitivistic approach to learning. The subject matter is presented using various media (text, video, animation, etc.) and the primary goal is simply to convey information. Particularly in motor learning, such components as experimentation and trying things out are also meaningful in the context of a constructivist approach. Target-oriented implementation of interactive elements is to place more emphasis on these aspects in the future. In this context, enhanced functions for communication between students and between students and instructors are being planned, too. With these functional expansions to the learning platform, the authors hope above all to acknowledge the primacy of situated learning. It is hoped that this will lead to an intensified transfer of knowledge whose effect will last far beyond the teaching situation.

Although it was desired to use Sport Multimedial in all courses at the Faculty of Sport Science, this turned out to be quite difficult because it was not possible to motivate enough instructors of practical courses to join the project. The authors feel that this is mainly due to the extra time instructors need to spend before they can begin to use the medium, while a possible added value for their courses will not materialize until later on.

For the next project phases, the authors succeeded in motivating two instructors of practical courses, who are responsible for many of the relevant courses, to join the inner circle of the development team. These persons are employed by the Faculty of Sports Science as senior lecturers for tasks that transcend pure teaching. Accordingly, they take over coaching and quality monitoring activities within the Sport Multimedial project. As a first step, the courses of these two senior lecturers will be adapted to the new concept. This is expected to cause a snowball effect that the students visiting courses integrated in the system should transfer to practical courses not yet integrated.

References Baca, A., Kolb, M. & Eder, C. (2009). Sport Multimedial – Entwicklung, Implementierung und curriculare Einbindung. In C. Igel & A. Baca (Eds.), Update eLearning. Hamburg: Czwalina, in Press.

–  –  –

14:00 - 15:30 Invited symposia IS-SM04 Prevention of Sport Injuries (ECSS Position Statement Symposium)

PREVENTION OF SPORT INJURIES I/IV

STEFFEN, K.

NORWEGIAN SCHOOL OF SPORT SCIENCES

To maximize the health benefits of sports and exercise and minimize the direct and indirect costs associated with injuries, developing and adopting injury prevention strategies is an important goal. The aim of this ECSS consensus paper on injury prevention is to review current evidence on injury prevention methods and training programs aimed at reducing the most common or severe types of acute injuries. The target audience is everyone involved in protecting the health of the athlete, i.e. coaches, referees, medical staff, sports governing bodies, as well as athletes themselves. Effective sports injury prevention requires successful implementation of efficacious interventions. This paper reviews the main mechanisms and risk factors for acute injuries to the head, shoulder, elbow, hand/wrist, groin, thigh, knee and ankle, as well as the evidence supporting various strategies to prevent them. Approaches that have been proven successful include: 1) using equipment designed to reduce injury risk, 2) adopting the rules of play, and 3) specific exercise programs developed to reduce injury risk. Sports organizations should adopt available injury prevention strategies as part of their policies.

[Please note: This paper is part of the ECSS Position Statement: Prevention of Sport Injuries, K. Steffen, T.E. Andersen, T. Krosshaug, W. van Mechelen, G. Myklebust, E. Verhagen, R. Bahr and will be published in the European Journal of Sport Science (EJSS)]

PREVENTION OF SPORT INJURIES II/IV

VERHAGEN, E.

EMGO-INSTITUTE/VU UNIVERSITY MEDICAL CENTER

To maximize the health benefits of sports and exercise and minimize the direct and indirect costs associated with injuries, developing and adopting injury prevention strategies is an important goal. The aim of this ECSS consensus paper on injury prevention is to review current evidence on injury prevention methods and training programs aimed at reducing the most common or severe types of acute injuries. The target audience is everyone involved in protecting the health of the athlete, i.e. coaches, referees, medical staff, sports governing bodies, as well as athletes themselves. Effective sports injury prevention requires successful implementation of efficacious interventions. This paper reviews the main mechanisms and risk factors for acute injuries to the head, shoulder, elbow, hand/wrist, groin, thigh, knee and ankle, as well as the evidence supporting various strategies to prevent them. Approaches that have been proven successful include: 1) using equipment designed to reduce injury risk, 2) adopting the rules of play, and 3) specific exercise programs developed to reduce injury risk. Sports organizations should adopt available injury prevention strategies as part of their policies.

[Please note: This paper is part of the ECSS Position Statement: Prevention of Sport Injuries, K. Steffen, T.E. Andersen, T. Krosshaug, W. van Mechelen, G. Myklebust, E. Verhagen, R. Bahr and will be published in the European Journal of Sport Science (EJSS)]

PREVENTION OF SPORT INJURIES III/IV

MYKLEBUST, G.

NORWEGIAN SCHOOL OF SPORT SCIENCES



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