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VO2peak was directly measured during a continuous progressive treadmill protocol where the children ran until exhaustion. Body mass and height were collected from all 256 children at baseline. There was no difference in BMI between those included (188) or those excluded (68). Change in VO2peak was analysed with a General Linear Model with sex and location as fixed factors, and baseline VO2peak as a covariate. RESULTS: Mean baseline values were 52.8±6.5 ml kg−1 min−1 (boys) and 46.9±7.2 ml kg−1 min−1 (girls). The intervention group significantly increased their VO2peak (4.3±4.0 ml kg−1 min−1), while the control group did not (0.4±3.5 ml kg−1 min−1) (p0.001). DISCUSSION: The main finding is that a two-year school-based 60-minute daily physical activity intervention significantly improved cardio-respiratory fitness in children. The present study suggests that increased PA levels and increased fitness in children should be taken into consideration when designing school policies. Establishing a lifestyle of regular exercise, and thereby contributing to a higher level of fitness in children, is important in many ways, including short- and longterm health benefits.
STRENGTH TRAINING AND THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE: EFFECTS OF FOLLICULAR- AND LUTEAL PHASE-BASED TRAINING
ON MUSCULAR STRENGTH AND MUSCLE DIAMETER IN SUBJECTS WITH ORAL CONTRACEPTION
RUHR-UNIVERSITY BOCHUMPurpose: Modern monophasic oral contraceptives (OC) contain fixed doses of estrogen (E) and progestogen (P) which are taken for 21 consecutive days, followed by 7 days without any hormone intake. There wouldn’t be any differences in blood concentrations of estradiol (E2) and progesterone (Prg) during the first 21 days of the menstrual cycle. The regulation of other interacting hormones like hGH, IGF-1, testosterone, and DHEAs, all of them possible anabolic hormones on the level of the muscular cell and important regulating factors during strength training, is not clear so far in OC users. Therefore, we investigated possible different effects of “quasi follicular phasebased” versus “quasi luteal phase-based” strength training (qFT and qLT) on strength parameters and muscle volume in oral contraceptive users.
Methods: 16 healthy untrained or moderately trained women (age: 22.5 ± 2.3 yrs, height: 167.2 ± 6.4 cm, weight: 64.0 ± 9.1 kg) using OC completed a strength training program of the m. quadriceps femoris for each leg on the Leg Press for 3 menstrual cycles (approx. 12 weeks). The subjects were divided into group A and group B. Group A performed qFT with the right leg and qLT with the left leg and vice versa for Group B. qFT was organized 4 times a week in qFO and once in qLU, and qLT was organized 4 times a week in qLU and once a week in qFO. Blood samples were taken on 11th day in qFO and on 25th day in qLU of the menstrual cycle to analyze values of E2, progesterone (Prg), FSH, LH, total testosterone (tT), free testosterone (fT), IGF-1, DHEA-S and hGH. Maximum isometric force (Fmax-iso) was measured for each right and left leg prior to, during (2 times per cycle), and after training. Muscle diameters (Mdm) were measured by means of ultrasound for M. quadriceps prior to and after training, and sum of Mdm of M. rectus femoris, M. vastus intermedius and M.
vastus lateralis was calulated.
Results: E2, LH, FSH, tT and DHEAs were significant higher in qFO as compared to qLU, and Prg, hGH, IGF-1 and fT were not significantly different between the two phases. Fmax-iso increased significantly by 24.9 ± 13.6 kg (+29.0 %) after qFT and by 25.6 ± 11.9 kg (+31.9 %) after qLT without any difference between the effects of qFT and qLT. Mean value of Mdm increased significantly by 0.41 ± 0.43 cm (+6.8 %) after qFT and by 0.49 ± 0.41 cm (+8.5 %) after qLT without any significant difference between both interventions Conclusions: Both, qFT and qLT showed significant effects on muscle strength and muscle diameter after 3 months of intervention without any differences between both interventions. This is in contrast to findings in women without use of oral contraception, who clearly showed a higher increase of muscle strength and muscle diameter after FT as compared to LT. The underlying mechanisms for these different effects have to be analyzed in further studies.
EXERCISE HABITS THROUGH THE LIFE IN THE COMMUNITY-DWELLING JAPANESE ELDERLYKOZAKAI, R., DOYO, D., KIM, H.Y., ANDO, F., SHIMOKATA, H.
NATIONAL CENTER FOR GERIATRICS AND GERONTOLOGYIntroduction: Physical activity is one of the most important health behaviors especially in later life. Previous studies suggested that sports activities early in life affected to the exercise habits for the future. However, little is known about the participation, type and transition of exercise habits through life in the elderly.
Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to describe the exercise habits across the life course in the community-dwelling Japanese elderly.
Methods: The subjects consisted of 523 males (aged 70.0±6.6 years) and 461 females (aged 69.8±6.7 years). They were the participants aged 60 years and over in the 4th study of the National Institute Longevity Sciences - Longitudinal Study of Aging (NILS-LSA). Exercise habits were assessed using questionnaire and interview by trained staff. The subjects were asked to answer the type, frequency and duration of their exercise habits at the age of 12 years and later. Physical exercise or sports that were engaged in at least once a week and for 20 minutes over 1 year were defined as exercise habits. The life course was divided into five age periods: 10s (teens); 20s (20-29
years); 30s (30-39 years); 40s (40-59 years), 60s (60 years and over). The participation rate in exercise habits was calculated as the percentage of subjects who engaged in exercise by each age period. The Chi-square test was used to examine the difference between males and females. The relationship between participation rate in 60s and that in each 10s-40s was analyzed using the McNemar test.
Results: The participation rate in exercise habits in 10s, 20s, 30s, 40s and 60s were 59.5%, 33.1%, 29.6%, 44.6% and 65.4% in males, while 43.0%, 6.3%, 13.5%, 44.0% and 57.1% in female, respectively. Percentage of males who had exercise habits was significantly larger than that of females through the life excepted in 40s (p0.05). A large drop in the percentage of participation in exercise occurred between 20s among females. The percentage of subjects who had never participated in exercise was 11.1% in males and 20.8% in females.
The subjects who had exercise habits in each of 10s, 20s, 30s and 40s were more likely to participate in exercise in 60s in both genders (p0.05). The most males had exercise habits either across life course or only in 60s. The most females had exercise habits in 40s or over for the first time. The popular exercise was totally different in males and females and by each age period. The most popular exercise in 10s was baseball in males and volleyball in females, while that in 60s was walking in both males and females.
Conclusion: Males or people who had exercise habits in early in life were more likely to participate in exercise. There were also the people who started exercise activities in middle-aged and elderly. The popular exercise was different by sex and each age period. These results may help to discern how physical activity behaviors are constituted in later life.
14:00 - 15:30 Oral presentations OP-PP01 Physical Education and Pedagogics 1
SHARED LEADERSHIP IN TOP SPORTS COACHING: FROM RHETORIC TO REALITY?HEMMESTAD, L.
NORWEGIAN SCHOOL OF SPORT SCIENCESSports coaching is a complex domain of professional practice which until recently has been informed mainly by approaches modelled within the natural sciences paradigm (Gilbert & Trudel, 2004; Stelter, 2005). Due to the complexity of the sports coaching field it has been argued that it rather should be viewed as an essentially pedagogic and educational endeavour (Jones, 2007). The traditional approach has also been criticised for the hierarchical power relationships between coach and athletes, and for not allowing athletes greater equity.
Although recent studies have begun to emphasise the importance of empowerment and athlete autonomy (cf. Jones & Standage, 2006), there are few empirical longitudinal studies in the sport coaching field on this topic.
The purpose of the study was to give insight into and a better understanding of how such ethos can be realistically viewed within the top sport coaching process. The analysis builds on a longitudinal in-depth case study with a National Team during two seasons. In addition more than 20 qualitative interviews with coaches and players were conducted.
The case is especially interesting because in rhetoric, it builds on a more pedagogical-philosophical thinking, than the more traditional technical approach. The coaching philosophy in the team emphasise the importance of shared leadership and autonomy to the players.
Even though the notion of shared leadership and allowing more autonomy to the athletes may be attractive the study also highlights some critical aspects to such democratic ethos. Especially the uneasy interplay between power relations is addressed. The study gives insight into constraints and possibilities with shared leadership, and how the team worked to overcome the gap between idealism and reality.
The positive change both in player involvement processes and in the communication processes seemed possible because both players and coaches were self-reflective and focused on personal growth. Another crucial dimension was that the team actively and critically engaged with the question: `What can make us better? This was regarded not only a technological question but much more a pedagogical one.
References Gilbert, W. & Trudel, P. (2004) Analysis of Coaching Science Research Published From 1970-2001 in Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, Vol 75, no. 4, pp. 388-399 Jones, R.L. (2007). Coching redefined: an everyday pedagogical endeavour. Sport, Education and Society, vol.12, no2, pp. 159-173 Jones, R.L. & Standage, M. (2006). First among equals. Shared leadership in the coaching context, in The Sports Coach as Educator. Reconceptualising sports coaching, R. Jones, ed., Routledge, London, UK, pp. 65-77.
Stelter, R. (2005). New Approaches to Exercise and Sport Psychology – Critical Reflections and Useful Recommendations. In Stelter, R. & Roessler, K.K., New Approaches to Sport and Exercise Psychology. UK: Meyer & Meyer Sport (UK) Ltd. Pp. 13-30
STUDYING THE MAP-READING PROCESS AS A ECOSYSTEM; MAP-READING REGARDED AS A WHOLE, COMPRISING
THE MAP-READER, THE MAP AND THE TERRAINSIGURJONSSON, T.
HEDMARK UNIVERSITY COLLEGEIntroduction: A main intention of the data collection in orienteering research, based on ecosystem thinking, is to provide data that approximately mirrors the performer’s experiences during the movement with a map in the terrain. Through this point of view I attempt to understand meaningful, specific relationships that are present in a experience in particular situations in a specific contexts. With Gibson’s ecological perspective (1979) I got the opportunity to focus on this natural context where the environment is considered to be rich and meaningful information that a map-reader, based on his/her perception, can pick out.
Methods: In the design of data collection my goal was to obtain access to the participants lived experience with the map-reading ecosystem ’without’ disrupting the ongoing process. To illuminate my specific research the collection of data was carried out in a qualitative methodological approach manner. The empirical material was generated from audio and video-taped fieldwork in a naturalistic setting
14 ANNUAL CONGRESS OF THE EUROPEAN COLLEGE OF SPORT SCIENCETH Wednesday, June 24th, 2009 with follow-up conversations where specific situations from the fieldwork were watched on a television. The techniques of headmounted-camera were used.
Results: The data collection gave some major challenges and the empirical study revealed to me that it is important to develop methods based on the phenomenon to be studied so that it should not be contradiction between method and phenomenon. This demanded that the selected methods had to be used to decide the method’s ability to provide the real-world situation in orienteering justice. Another important factor is to obtain a deviation in the selection of participants to produce a variation in aspect ratio to illuminate the problem formulations.
Discussion: Through this concept I got the opportunity to collect data from orienteering in natural real world settings where my role was in the background although I now and then had to appear in the forefront, for example when the informants did not understand the task at all.
The contribution of this method is that it gives a clear advantage in the way that the camera focuses on the environment rather than the informant. It reduces self-awareness and reinforces the psychological into the initial events (Omodei & McLennan, 1994; Unsworth, 2001).
An unequivocal benefit with the use of head-mounted camera is that it provides images from the same visual perspective that the bearer has Through my research I have experienced the methodological challenges in studying of a phenomenon in natural real world setting. It would be interesting to discuss further with the participant’s on the ECSS.
References Gibson, J. J. (1979). The ecological approach to visual perception.
Omodei, M. M., & McLennan, J. (1994). Perceptual and Motor skills, 79, 1411-1425.
Sigurjónsson, T. (2007). Barns kartlesing.
Unsworth, C. A. (2001). American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 59, 31-40.