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Discussion: The self-presentation theory of Goffman may be useful to understand the differences seen in RPE scores: The goal of the selfpresentation is to achieve acceptance from the “audience”. This can be done through manipulation and playing a role. If the “actor” succeeds, the audience will view the actor as he or she wants to be viewed. Another aspect of self-presentation is “self-constructive selfpresentation”, aiming at making people believe that they are what they would like to be. The ADHD person might feel more inclined to “show him/herself” in a positive way in a social setting, and thereby reducing the experienced effort from the test to appear more fit.
Further research is needed to verify the findings of this study and try to elaborate the mechanisms of reduced RPE scores here seen in adults with ADHD and substance dependence.
References Goffman, E. The presentation of self in everyday life. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, Anchor Books, 1959
AGEING, WELL BEING AND BODY IMAGE IN FRENCH ELDERLY PEOPLE PRACTISING PHYSICAL ACTIVITY REGULARLY: A
SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY PERSPECTIVE AND A QUALITATIVE STUDYFERRAND, C., NASARRE, S., HAUTIER, C., BONNEFOY, M.
UFR STAPS CRIS, UNIVERSITÉ LYON 1 AND CENTRE HOSPITALIER LYON SUD, UNIVERSITÉLYON 1
Method: The target population consists of 19 elderly people belonging to an association called « CODAPRS » which organizes physical activities for retired people above fifty years in urban area. Participants were selected randomly from whose who had indicated a willingness to participate and who had had high scores on the self-determination index (SDI), reflecting a more self-determined motivational orientation (Brière, Vallerand, Blais & Pelletier, 1995). Thus, nine women and ten men (Mage = 74.59, SD = 4.64) practising around 8 hours of physical activity per week signed the consent form and accepted to be interviewed. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim and returned to the participants. Sources of triangulation were literature reviews related to ageing and physical activity, health professionals and the use of peer researchers as an external audit.
Results and Discussion: Inductive content analysis was used to analyse the interview transcripts, and yielded three themes (namely well being, relational and body image benefits) with six subthemes including in each theme: a) Escape daily concerns and experience good emotions, relate to physical and mental capacities, keep a physical autonomy for a long time, keep in contact with nature, intrinsic pleasure to physical activity, better quality of sleep; b) Increase contact with other participants, avoid loneliness, share conviviality time, take part in activity with spouse, seek emulation though the group, get involved in voluntary work; and c) Keep in shape, better understand and push back the physical limits,self-fulfilment, proving one’s continuing ability, increase effort and seek a dynamic image with a lot of vitality and energy. This study showed the psychological importance for these elderly people to remain active, and practising physical activities was a mean to preserve a social aspect and resist the powerlessness of ageing. Thus, these behaviours contribute to give a new image of retired people.
References Briere, N. M., Vallerand, R. J. Blais, M. R. & Pelletier, L. G. (1995). Sport motivation scale. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 26, 465Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. Plenum Press, New York.
Warburton, D. E. R., Nicol, C. W., & Bredin, S. S. D. (2006). Health benefits of physical activity: The evidence. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 174, 801-809.
MENTAL FATIGUE AS A TOOL IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE: EVALUATION OF PERFORMANCE, PERCEPTION AND BRAIN
ACTIVITYBAUMEISTER, J., REINECKE, K., ST CLAIR GIBSON, A., RAUCH, L., NOAKES, T., WEISS, M.
INSTITUTE OF SPORTS MEDICINE, UNIVERSITY OF PADERBORN, GERMANYPurpose: Mental fatigue seems to be an underestimated and not well evaluated part of sports and exercises. When people become mentally fatigued, they usually experience difficulties in maintaining the task performance at an adequate level. Interventions which induce mental fatigue may help us to understand the complexity of fatigue and its influence in sports and exercise.
Mental fatigue leads to temporary deterioration of attentional functioning, response readiness and increases in the number of behavioral errors. The working memory (WM) plays a prominent role in this context and can be measured by EEG (frontal Theta related to attention and parietal Alpha-2 spectral power related to information processing). The aim of this pilot study is to see if prolonged cognitive performances with high demands lead to mental fatigue demonstrated by changes in task performance, fatigue perception and EEG power values.
Methods: Eight male, right-handed volunteers (26.4±4.1 years; 86.7±4.8 kg; 189.4±2.1 cm) were required to repeat five Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVIP) tasks (5x5 min). The RVIP task provides performance scores (reaction times, correct/incorrect/missed responses). After each block the participants were asked to rate their mental fatigue using visual analogue scales. Before (rest) and during the tasks the EEG was measured in accordance with standards of the international 10:20 system from 13 scalp locations (Fz, F3, F4, Cz, C3, C4, Pz, P3, P4, T3, T4, T5, T6) and divided into different frequencies: Theta (4.75–6.75 Hz), Alpha-1 (7–9.5 Hz), Alpha-2 (9.75-12.5 Hz) and Beta-1 (12.75–18.5 Hz). EEG power values were calculated and log-transformed.
Results: Statistical analysis showed significant slowing of reaction times over time (F4,28=3.985; p≤.011; part.η2=.361). This was associated with an increase in fatigue perception (F4,28=9,231; p≤.001; part.η2=.568). Right hemispheric temporal Alpha-2 frequency (T3) demonstrated a fatigue effect with an increase in spectral power (F4,28=3.058; p≤.033;
Frontal Theta and parietal Alpha-2 power values demonstrated an activation compared to rest (p≤.01), but showed no significant effect according to mental fatigue.
Conclusion: In accordance with our aims, the participants did appear to be mentally fatigued as described by a decrease in performance and an increase in fatigue perception. This was in accordance with significant increased temporal Alpha-2 power which is discussed in terms of a decrease in mental activity specifically a reduction of symbolic/verbal activity. The EEG frontal Theta and parietal Alpha-2 power demonstrated an activation pattern (WM), but show no changes in relation to the fatiguing task. The authors speculate that a longer task performance over time would lead to changes in this EEG power values. Therefore to induce mental fatigue as a tool it may be necessary to demonstrate mental fatigue not only in performance and perception but additionally at the brain level.
GOAL ORIENTATION AND PERSISTENCE IN YOUTH ICE HOCKEYKONTTINEN, N.
KIHU RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR OLYMPIC SPORTSIntroduction: Achievement Goal Theory (Nicholls, 1984) states that there are two dispositional perspectives, which determine how subjective success is evaluated. Task orientation refers to self-referenced perception of ability, whereas ego orientation means that a person’s focal concern is mainly towards demonstrating superior competence based upon normative comparisons. It has been suggested that a task orientation more often than the ego orientation protects the athlete from disappointments and a lack of motivation (Duda, 1989).
Emphasis on task orientation can be expected to lead to a stronger persistence when an athlete’s performance is exceeded by others.
The purpose of the present study was to gain additional insights into this issue focusing on the relationship between goal orientation and involvement in organized youth sports.
Methods : The participants were 2,813 Finnish junior level ice hockey players. A longitudinal follow-up design was applied. A valid racing license of the Finnish Ice Hockey Association was used as the indicator of persistence 3,5 years after the initial survey questionnaire, when the participants ranged in age between 14 and 15 years (Mean; S.D: age 14.90; 0.29 years). Goal orientation was examined with the Finnish version of the Perception of Success Questionnaire or POSQ (Liukkonen, 1998; Roberts, Treasure, & Balague, 1998). The dependence of persistence on goal orientation (task and ego) and perceived ability in ice hockey (low, intermediate, high) was studied with forward stepwise logistic regression with LR test in removing variables.
Results: It appeared that the players who scored high on task orientation were more likely to continue their participation in ice hockey than the players who scored low on task orientation. High ego orientation combined with high perceived ability was also associated with sustained involvement in ice hockey, whereas high ego orientation combined with low perceived ability appeared to be detrimental to the continuation of involvement.
Discussion: The results lend support for the view that goal orientation is related to sustained sport participation over the time span of several years. As expected, emphasis on task orientation appeared to lead to a stronger persistence. Interestingly, the results also showed that the likelihood of withdrawal from ice hockey increased, if a player whose goal was to win others (high ego orientation) experienced little success (low perceived competence). The results suggest that the investigation of goal orientation provides valuable additional information concerning a youth player’s persistence for training in the face of failures and disappointments.
References Nicholls, J.G. (1984). Psychological Review, 91, 328-346.
Duda, J. (1989). International Journal of Sport Psychology, 20, 42-56.
Liukkonen, J. (1998). LIKES – Research Reports on Sport and Health, 131.
Roberts, G.C., Treasure, D., & Balague, G. (1998). Journal of Sports Sciences, 16, 337-347.
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN YOUTH ATHLETES AND THEIR PARENTS PERCEPTIONS OF SELF AND OTHERS’ AGGRESSIVE
BEHAVIOUR IN ICE HOCKEYDORSCH, K., RIEMER, H.A., KARREMAN, E.
UNIVERSITY OF REGINAIntroduction: For lay people, aggression is often seen as a coveted characteristic of the successful athlete. Sport psychologists define it as an overt behaviour in which the athlete intends to harm another person either physically or psychologically (Silva, 1980). Many intra- and inter-personal factors affect perceptions of whether an act is or is not aggressive. For example, in what context did the aggressive behaviour occur, how psychologically close is the observer to the actor or the victim of the action, and/or was the victim injured? To date, most studies examining perceptions of aggressive behaviours have (a) tended to examine the physical aspects of aggressive behaviours excluding the psychological component, (b) relied heavily on adult observers, and (c) not included familial units. The purpose of this study is to focus on these three limitations.
Methods: Responses from a sample of 510 Atom-aged (ages 9 and 10, majority were male) and parents/guardians (N = 834; 415 fathers, 419 mothers) were examined. The athletes were randomly selected from the registration lists of two provincial ice hockey associations in Canada. Cohorts were recruited to the project via telephone over the course of 3 years. Athletes and their parents were invited to complete a survey either on-line on a secure website or, by receiving a paper copy in the mail. The data were analysed using the family as the unit of analysis (N = 321 families with 3 members). Using a scale of 1 (Never) to 9 (Always), each participant was asked to indicate how often they perceived acts or encouragements of physical and psychological aggression to be committed by themselves, their parent/child, their coach, teammates, teammates’ parents, opponents, opponents’ parents, and opponents’ coaches.
14 ANNUAL CONGRESS OF THE EUROPEAN COLLEGE OF SPORT SCIENCETH Wednesday, June 24th, 2009 Results: Overall, mean scores for the 16 questions ranged from: athletes 1.12 (SD =.61) to 4.37 (SD = 2.26); fathers 1.11 (SD =.57) to 4.16 (SD = 2.14); and mothers 1.05 (SD =.27) to 4.69 (SD = 2.22). Even though the data was positively skewed, most questions spanned the entire range of responses. Friedman tests were conducted to analyse differences among the three family members. Significant differences (p.05) were found for 11 of the 16 questions with the majority (8) finding the child to be significantly different from the parents.
Discussion: In general athletes and their parents report that aggressive behaviours do not occur very often. All three groups do not admit to encouraging or being encouraged to physically harm (lowest mean value of all scenarios). All groups agreed that most aggressive behaviours were committed by opponents with mothers perceiving this behaviour to occur more often than fathers and athletes.
References Silva, J. M. (1980). Understanding aggressive behavior and its effects upon athletic performance. In W. F. Straub (Ed.), Sport psychology: An analysis of athlete behavior. Ithaca, NY: Mouvement.