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14 ANNUAL CONGRESS OF THE EUROPEAN COLLEGE OF SPORT SCIENCETH Wednesday, June 24th, 2009
SUSTAINED BENEFITS OF YOUTH SPORT FOR METABOLIC SYNDROME IN ADULTHOODYANG, X., TELAMA, R., HIRVENSALO, M., VIIKARI, J.S.A., RAITAKARI, O.T.
LIKES-RESEARCH CENTER FOR SPORT AND HEALTH SCIENCES, JYVÄSKYLÄIntroduction The effect of sustained youth sport on metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adulthood is not well investigated using longitudinal design. This study aims to examine the association between sustained youth sport and adult MetS over a period of 21 years in a population-based cohort of young adults.
Methods: Data were obtained from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study in which 1493 young subjects participated in the study in 1980, 1983 and 2001. The participants were 9-, 12-, 15-, and 18-year-olds in 1980, and 30-, 33-, 36- and 39-year-olds in 2001. Participation in organized youth sport was assessed using a self-report questionnaire completed in connection with a medical examination in 1980 and 1983. By summing two items (participation in sport-club training and competitions) an index was formed for both measurement points according to which the participants were classified into four groups: Persistently athletic, Starters, Leavers and Non-athletic. MetS risk in 2001 consisted of fasting insulin, waist circumference, serum triglycerides, inverted HDL cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and plasma glucose, which was defined as a categorical variable according to the guidelines of the European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance (EGIR) and as a continuous MetS-score variable by summing the z-scores of single metabolic variable.
Results: In both males and females, sustained intensive sport participation in youth during 3 yr was inversely and significantly associated with clustered MetS-score and prevalence of MetS defined by the EGIR in adulthood (p 0.05). Persistently athletic and Starters during 3 yr were less likely to have MetS than Non-athletic in both genders. Subjects who dropped out from organized sport were more likely to have MetS-score compared to persistently athletic subjects. Similar associations were found using EGIR MetS as an outcome. These associations remained significant after adjustment for age and baseline clustered MetS-score and after additional adjustments for adult leisuretime physical activity.
Discussion: We conclude that participation in, particularly sustained participation in organized sport in youth is associated with reduced the risk of developing MetS in adulthood. Organizers of youth sport may have a great impact on public health by paying attention to the factors which increase adherence in youth sport.
THE EFFECT OF EXERCISE ON FALL-RELATED PHYSICAL FITNESS AND VARIOUS CHARACTERISTICS OF CHRONIC PAIN
IN OLDER ELDERLYKANG, H.
SOONCHUNHYANG UNIVERSITYIntroduction: Falls are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among elderly age 75 and older. Preventing and delaying the onset of physical frailty is an increasingly important goal because more individuals are living well until their 8th and 9th decades. Exercise is recommended to elders in aspect of improving physical fitness significantly. The purpose of this study was to investigate fall-related physical fitness and the various characteristics of chronic pain in the older elderly who have the degenerative arthritis symptoms.
Methods: Twenty two elderly people, age 80(±3.8) were randomly selected. Fall-related physical fitness consisted of the 7 performance test items, which were muscle strength (grip strength), muscle endurance (standing up and sitting on a chair), flexibility (chair sit and reach), agility (timed up and go), cardiovascular endurance (2min walking), balance (one leg balance with eye opened) by Rikli and Johns (2001)’s Senior Fitness Test Manual. Pain score was measured by static and dynamic visual analog scale (VAS sore: 0=no pain, 10= extremely unsatisfactory). The falls prevention program performed for about one hour per day, 4 times a week over a period of 10 weeks in 60-80% HRR.
Results: The result showed that significantly improved on flexibility (-.05±7.9cm vs 3.7±7.6cm, p0.05), agility (12.1±3.6sec vs 10.3±4.1sec, p0.05), balance (right: 10.0±8.3sec vs 23.6±23.6sec, p0.05). Chronic pain scale at 10 week showed significant decreased on pain symptom (4.73±2.0 vs 3.5±2.0, p0.001), pain symptoms when walking (4.9±3.0 vs 3.7±2.8, p0.05), pain symptom when sitting (5.0±3.4 vs 3.7±2.8, p0.01), pain symptom in daily living (4.4±2.7 vs 3.3±2.3, p0.01).
Discussion: In conclusion, there has been a substantial improvement in 10 weeks by falls prevention program, but exercise program should be recommended to elders in aspect of increasing cardiovascular endurance and muscle strength. We also suggest that the unresolved issues include development of optimal strategies for motivating and applying in older elderly to begin and maintain exercise program.
Reference Best-Martini E., Botenhagen-DiGenova KA (2003). Exercise for Frail Elders, 120-131, Human Kinetics Kim HJ., Kim SW (2005). Korea Sport Research, 16(6), 641-652 Yoo EJ., Jun TW., Park H (2008). J Korean Physical Education Association for Girls and Women, 22(4), 101-115
USING CHALLENGING, NATURAL ENVIRONMENTS TO ENHANCE BALANCE PERFORMANCE IN THE ELDERLY
Introduction: Maintaining individual mobility and independence in later life belongs to the prior concerns of aging individuals and whole populations. An age-related decline of the ability to modulate posture according to environmental and task-specific demands has been observed, falls often are the consequence. Impacts and outcomes of public health approaches cannot be described as successful yet, mainly not reaching the main target groups and hence leaving room for improvement. Contents of effective fall prevention programs have been identified (e.g. Oddsson et al. 2007), but often unvarying, standardized exercises are being offered to improve strength or balance, regardless of everyday functional demands. A complex environment is known to enhance physical activity and neurogenesis (cf.
Schaefer et al. 2006), diverse natural surroundings should therefore be considered as potential settings to interventions.
Methods: During a 10-day course a constraints-led approach (cf. Araújo et al., 2004) was used in a group of elderly participants (n=11, mean age 58.36; SD 5.39) in a challenging, natural environment with the aim to enhance smart balance performance in everyday situations. To enable transfer of acquired balance strategies to individual everyday-surroundings, transfer-supporting methods were used
(Nagel 1997). As one parameter for postural adaptation, balance performance was measured monopedal on a balance disc with a suprapostural task before, after, and three months after the course.
Results: In contrast to the control group (n=22), the intervention group showed an improvement in balance performance by 25% after the course, remaining stable over three months. A group-effect (F(1,56)= 6.901, p=.01) could be revealed by an ANOVA.
Discussion: Movement patterns emerge according to personal, environmental and task constraints (Newell, 1986). The modulation of task and environmental constraints is an underestimated method to provoke appropriate movement task solutions and enhance motor competence in the elderly. Natural surroundings can be a motivating and economic setting to meaningful movement not only for purposes of public health.
References Araújo D, Davids K, Bennett SJ, Button C, Chapman G (2004). Emergence of sport skills under constraints. In AM Williams & NJ Hodges (Eds.) Skill Acquisition in sport. New York: Routledge, 409-433 Nagel V (1997). Fit und geschickt durch Seniorensport. Sportartenüberschreitendes Training für Alltagssituationen. Hamburg: Czwalina.
Newell KM (1986). In MG Wade & HTA Whiting (Eds.) Motor Development in Children: Aspects of Coordination and Control. Dordrecht:
Nijhoff, 341-360 Oddsson L, Boissy P, Melzer I. (2007). How to improve gait and balance function in elderly individuals - compliance with principles of training. Eur Rev Aging Phys Act 4, 15-23 Schaefer S, Huxhold O, Lindenberger U. (2006). Healthy mind in healthy body? A review of sensorimotor-cognitive interdependencies in old age. Eur Rev Aging Phys Act, 3, 45-54
POST-EXERCISE PRESSURE RESPONSES IN ELDERLY PRE-HIPERTENSE WOMEN ARE INFLUENCED BY NITRIC OXIDESANTANA, H.A.P., MOREIRA, S.R., DA SILVA, C.B., BOTELHO NETO, W., BENFORD, R.E., CAMPBELL, C.S.G., SIMÕES, H.G.
CATHOLIC UNIVERSITY OF BRASÍLIAIntroduction: Exercise has been proposed to treatment and/or control of hypertension. Thus, the aim of this study is to verify blood pressure responses after different intensities of aerobic exercise in elderly pre-hypertensive women, verifying metabolites liberation related to it.
Methods: Thirty elderly women (70.5±6.0yrs, 60.4±8.5kg) realized: 1stday - 20min in rest (R) measuring blood pressure (BP) and began an incremental test (IT) in bicycle that was used as well to measure the anaerobic threshold (AT). Then, they remained sated for 1h for recovery measuring the BP every 15min; 2ndday: they did the same pre/post test procedures and measurements, and exercise for 20min in 90% AT; 3rdday: they did the same procedures, and remained sated (control-CONT) for 20min. Saliva was collected in the same moments of measuring BP and right after exercise (RAE) for measurement of nitrite (NO2-, product of oxidation of Nitric Oxide). All sessions were realized in random order.
Results: The SBP values were IT (R=127.5±15.9mmHg vs. 1hMean=122.0±14.2mmHg; p0.01), 90%AT (R=121.4±12.4mmHg vs.
1hMean=119.3±13.2mmHg; p0.05) and CONT (R=120.8±14.9mmHg vs. 1hMean=124.0±14.0mmHg; p0.01). For DBP occurred in IT (R=76.8±7.9mmHg vs. 1hMean=77.5±8.2mmHg; p0.05), 90%AT (R=74.2±6.4mmHg vs. 1hMean=75.3±5.9mmHg; p0.05) and CONT (R=73.6±7.4mmHg vs. 1hMean=76.4±7.3mmHg; p0.01). And the MAP results were IT (R=93.7±9.7mmHg vs. 1hMean=92.3±9.5mmHg;
p0.05), 90%AT (R=89.9±8.0mmHg vs. 1hMean=90.0±7.8mmHg; p0.05) and CONT (R=89.3±9.1mmHg vs. 1hMean= 92.3±9.0mmHg;
p0.01). ANOVA showed difference in the variation among sessions of SBP (CONT∆=3.2±6.6mmHg vs. IT∆=-5.6±7.6mmHg;
p0.01 and 90%AT∆=-2.1±7.5mmHg; p0.05) and MAP (CONT∆=3.0±3.5mmHg vs. IT∆=-1.4±5.6mmHg; p0.01 and 90%AT∆=0.1±4.9mmHg; p0.05). NO2- values were in IT (R=278.9±166.1μM vs. RAE=359.0±228.2μM; p0.01), 90%AT (R=267.9±175.0μM vs. RAE=338.8±283.7μM; p=0.07) and CONT (R=279.7±163.3μM vs. RAE=292.9±234.5μM;
p0.05). Differences also occurred in NO2- (CONT∆=13.3±185.1μM vs. IT∆=80.2±146.9μM (p0.01) and 90%AT∆=70.9±199.1μM (p0.01).
Discussion: Only on IT occurred PEH on the SBP, otherwise both IT and 90% AT offers protective effect on the SBP and MAP when compared with CONT group. This study, bringing a different population – elderly, agrees to other studies showing the benefits of exercise in moderate intensities for control of BP (MacDonald et al., 2001). Although elderly people have an impaired capacity of the vasculature to increase nitrite (Lauer et al., 2008), what might had prejudice a PEH in 90% AT in our study. However, a difference between the groups occurred, showing the importance of the exercise in higher intensities (IT) to promote PEH and the protective effect of aerobic exercise not leading the BP increase like in CONT.
References MacDonald JR, Hogben CD, Tarnopolsky MA, MacDougall. (2001). J Hum Hypertens, 15, 567–571.
Lauer T, Heiss C, Balzer J, et al. (2008). Basic Res Cardiol, 103, 291–297.
14:00 - 15:30 Oral presentations OP-PS05 Psychology 5
ADULTS WITH ADHD RATE EXERTION LOWERMAMEN, A., SKREDE, A., MUNKVOLL, H., MARTINSEN, E.W.
SOGN OG FJORDANE UNIVERSITY COLLEGEIntroduction.
There are many anecdotal stories about how restless and inexhaustible persons with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are.
The name of the diagnosis itself also indicates this with the word hyperactivity. We wanted to know whether adult patients with ADHD differed in fitness and reaction to exercise compared to patients without this disorder. To investigate this we used the participants in
14 ANNUAL CONGRESS OF THE EUROPEAN COLLEGE OF SPORT SCIENCETH Wednesday, June 24th, 2009 clinical exercise intervention project for patients with substance abusers or dependence, since these patient groups have a high prevalence of ADHD.
Methods: Thirty adults with substance dependence, of which 13 had DSM-IV ADHD, were tested on the treadmill for lactate threshold and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). The threshold testing protocol consisted of several five min long exercise bouts separated with 30 s resting periods for blood collection with a LP1710 lactate analyser (Arkray Inc, Japan). The lactate threshold was defined as the speed giving a blood lactate concentration (BLC) 1.5 mmol•L-1 above resting BLC value. The Bruce protocol was used for establishing VO2max with a MetaMax CBS (Cortec Biophysik, Germany) metabolic cart analysing the expired air. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) according to the15-point Borg scale was recorded at the end of each exercise bout and RPE at threshold point (RPELT) was calculated using linear regression.
Results: Subjects with ADHD rated the RPELT significantly lower than the non-ADHD group, 10.9 vs. 13.0 (p=0.009). This despite having a higher Threshold heart rate (HRLT), 151 vs. 141 beats•min-1 (p=0.022) and blood lactate concentration (BLC) at threshold, 2.8 vs. 2.4 mmol•L-1 (p= 0.009). The maximal oxygen uptake was 46 vs. 44 ml•kg-1•min-1 ( p=0.409) for the ADHD and non-ADHD groups respectively, and thus adequate for performing heavy physical work.