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«BOOK OF ABSTRACTS Edited by: Loland, S., Bø, K., Fasting, K., Hallén, J., Ommundsen, Y., Roberts, G., Tsolakidis, E. Hosted by: The Norwegian ...»

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2.2±0.7 and 2.3±0.7 and leg kicking actions 3.4±1.0 and 3.5±0.8 for FL and CON respectively (NS). Leg kicking velocity improvement (pre to post test) were 0.03±0.1 and -0.03±0.3 m/s for FL and CON respectively (NS). The inter observer reliability for combined swimming abilities were 86% exact agreement, and a Chronback’s Alfa coefficient for reliability using the 4 skills were 0.87.

Discussion and Conclusions:

The results show that for none of the four skills, no statistical differences in performance existed after a 10 lesson course using a flotation suit compared to the control group. This finding is supported by the leg kicking speed measurements where there were no differences in improvement for the two groups. The results does thus not support a hypothesis of enhanced effect of using a flotation suit during swimming teaching for advanced beginners in a deep water setting.

References:

Langendorfer SJ, Bruya LD. (1995). Aquatic readiness: Developing water competence in young children. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics 13:00 - 14:00 Poster presentations PP-RE01 Rehabilitation 1

EFFECT OF THE WII SPORT BOXING VIDEO GAME ON HEART RATE IN CARDIAC PATIENT.

BLANC, P.

CENTRE DE REEDUCATION SAINTE CLOTILDE

Physical exercise is an important part of the rehabilitation (CR) program in cardiac patients. The new generations of active video games allow performing various recreational sport activities at home. However, the cardiac impact of virtual sport activities has been poorly investigated.

The purpose of this prospective study was to analyze the heart rate (HR) response of cardiac patients while playing a commercially available gaming system: Wii sports boxing game software.

27 voluntary patients (5 women, 22 men, mean age 50.6 +-13.3 years old) were included in the study after completion of a 6 week cardiac rehabilitation (CR) program. Causes of admission in CR were: percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (33%), coronary artery bypass grafting (19%), valve replacement (15%), dilated cardiomyopathy (11%), other (22%). Patients performed an exercise testing (ET) with gas exchanges measurement at the end of the CR program and before playing video game. The exercise testing allowed the determination

14 ANNUAL CONGRESS OF THE EUROPEAN COLLEGE OF SPORT SCIENCE

TH Wednesday, June 24th, 2009 of the ventilatory threshold HR and the maximum HR. Participants played competitive boxing matches for 15 minutes, as recommended by Nintendo, with a five minute warm up. HR was recorded using a polar system (S610i) whilst playing Wii sports boxing and compared to ET measures. All participants had not previously used Wii and consented to the study.

During virtual sport activity, mean HR was 106+/-25 bpm and maximum heart rate was 190 bpm. Throughout the HR recordings, 49 +of the game (8.24 min +- 6.22) was performed with a HR above the ventilatory threshold HR (107.0 +/-17.6 bpm). Finally, HR was higher than the ET maximum HR during 9% +- 16% of the game (1.52 min +-3.22).

Conclusion: In this preliminary study, the main part of the Wii sports boxing game lead to an HR above the anaerobic threshold, implying an important demand on anaerobic metabolism. Consequently, caution should be recommended to cardiac patients before playing virtual sport activities on video game.

THE IMPORTANCE OF THE CARDIOLOGY PREVENTION AND REHABILITATION IN THE MIRROR OF AN EXPERIMENTAL

PROGRAM

NOÉ, J., DÓSA, A., PAVLIK, G.

SEMMELWEIS UNIVERSITY BUDAPEST AND UNIVERSITY OF PANNONICA AND FOURMED LTD VESZPREM

Introduction: Unfortunately there’s a rising tencency in our contrys int he cardiology particulalry illnesses following previal (obesitas, DM, etc.). The curing three of its keystones, the classic triple partition is becoming interwoven (prevention, curing, and rehabilitation) today already it’s a new thought. Though particulalry the prevention has the importance to call the attention, since the preventions possibly the most effective mannee for the rehabilitation.

Methods: The filtration, prevention, kinesitherapy present the opportunities of the linking of a treatment and aftercare in FourMed Ltd and program drawn up by the colleagues of PE Department University of Pannonica. Inside the framework of this the patients after he filtration (anamnesis, calmness and load examination with a bicycle Ergoline, with the Bruce protocol, risk factor research, then regular medical check) are collaborating whit the therapists actvely individuals, continuosly monitoring kinesitherapy trainings are made.

Results: For the most important result int he program because of the beginnings had bought the considerable improvement of the values of one (two years observing, weekly 3-4 times 45-60 minute trainings making his case) may consider, but very important to mention this finding, the forming of ther lifestyle, their health-conscious behaviour to the new patients optimal motion program, on which longer distance the decrease of the risk factors, easier stress treatment and –may serve having patience, calmer manner of living.

Summary: The improvement of the oxidative capacity at the weekly ones training 3 times under 5 weeks 50% was (rel.VO2 before a training 26,5, after a training=39,7 ml/kg/min). Who made an aerobic training two times weekly, 35%-kal the result was right. A calmness pulse and the blood pressure values improved. The patients reported on calmer sleep and the easier solution of the stress situations. Their better Latvian general general condition and their metabolism accelerated, the calorie input and consumption returned to normal. The anxiety decreased, the creativity increased. The parasympathetic tone and HR intensified variability, because decrease the risk of the sudden heart death.





Of the distinguished opportunities reduction of the cardiovascular risk factors the pulse control with the POLAR watches and personalprogram with aerobic (cardio) training, at least weekly 2-3 times, in an optimal case with 4-5 times weekly. Finally it’s worthy to deliberate the economic viewpoints, believes for example the society gets reimbursed for each single dollar spent on this sixfold int he USA.

References:

Zallel J, (2004). Cardiologica Hungarica 34. S45-48.

Gaziano JM, Manson JE, Ridker PM. (2001) Heart Diseases 6th ed. Phil.:W.B. Saunders 1040-1065 American Herat Assostiation (2003) Stat.Fact Sheet-Populations.

Neumann N.U., Frasch K, (2008) Orvostovábbképző Szemle 3. 74-78.

Boniface DR, Cottee MJ, Neal D, Skinner A, (2001) Public Health 115.246-252 Steefen LM, Arnett DK, Blackburn H, et al.(2006) Med.Sci Sport Exerc 3.598-608

VARIATIONS IN ISOKINETIC STRENGTH LOSS FOLLOWING PLYOMETRIC EXERCISE

TWIST, C.

UNIVERSITY OF CHESTER

Introduction: A reduction in maximal voluntary isometric force is considered to be one of the most appropriate indirect markers of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) (Warren et al., 1999). Although isometric force loss is known to demonstrate large between subject variations following eccentric-biased exercise (Hubal et al., 2007), the variations in isokinetic strength loss are less clearly understood.

Furthermore, there is little known about the inter-subject responses to force loss induced by modes of eccentric-biased exercise commonly adopted in athletic training. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the variations in isokinetic strength loss following plyometric exercise.

Methods : Following ethical approval, 16 participants (age 21.9 ± 2.4 y, stature 1.76 ± 0.1 m, body mass 70.6 ± 11.2 kg) volunteered to participate in the study. Participants were recreationally active and had no history of resistance training in the previous 6 months. Peak isokinetic torque of the knee extensors was measured at 60 deg/s. In addition, perceived muscle soreness was recorded on a 0–10 visual analogue scale. All measurements were taken before and then at 24 and 48 h following 10 x 10 countermovement jumps. A cluster analysis of peak torque data at 48 h was used to objectively establish high (HR) and low responders (LR) to plyometric exercise.

Results: At baseline isokinetic strength was not significantly different between HR (n = 6; 207.9 ± 12.9 N•m) and LR (n = 10; 168.8 ± 20.2 N•m) (P0.05). Although there were no differences between groups in body mass or age (P0.05), stature was significantly higher in the HR group (t = -2.847, P0.05). Moreover, sex distribution between groups was different (LR: 67% females cf. HR: 10% females). Consistent with the objective grouping, there was a significant group by time interaction for peak isokinetic torque (F=78.1, P0.05). Reductions in isokinetic peak torque for HR was 22% (range 17-34%) and for LR 7% (2-14%). However, there was no difference in perceived muscle soreness between groups represented by the non-significant group by time interaction (F = 0.173, P0.05).

Discussion: The results suggest that inter-subject variations in isokinetic force loss occur following plyometric exercise, even though no differences exist between HR and LR in the subjective markers of perceived muscle soreness. However, sex distribution might explain some of the observed variations, with a larger proportion of males in the HR group. In addition, the magnitude of relative force loss appears to be lower for both HR and LR compared to those previously reported for isometric strength (Hubal et al., 2007).

References

–  –  –

Hubal MJ, Rubenstein SR, Clarkson PM. (2007). Med Sci Sports Exerc, 39, 461–468.

Warren GL, Lowe, DA, Armstrong RB. (1999). Sports Med, 27, 43–59.

CONTRALATERAL CHANGES IN RANGE OF MOTION FOLLOWING UNILATERAL PROPRIOCEPTIVE NEUROMUSCLAR

FACILITATION STRETCHING.

SHEARD, P.W., PIEROZYNSKI, L.C., PAINE, T.J.

UNIVERSITY OF BEDFORDSHIRE

Background: Carrol et al.’s (2006) meta-analysis indicates that unilateral resistance exercise will elicit strength gains in the unexercised contralateral limb at about 50% of the gains measured in the exercised limb. They suggest two forms of increased motorneuron output as likely routes to this contralateral gain: “spillover” from the central control mechanisms from the exercised to the unexercised limb; and, adaptations in the exercised limb that may be “accessed” by the unexercised limb. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that the spillover effect may be present in proprioceoptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching techniques allowing for contralateral gains in range of motion (ROM) from unilateral PNF stretching.

Methods : Thirty-six screened participants (F = 15) attended a familiarization and MVIC testing session and two, counterbalanced, experimental sessions. One experimental session consisted of the application of post-isometric relaxation (PIR) PNF: straight leg raise (SLR) to first point of bind, build from 30 to 70% of MVIC over 5 seconds, hold 70% MVIC for a further 7 seconds, draw to new point of bind, hold for 12 seconds; repeat cycle a further 2 times. Isometric contractions were resisted by an anchored strap with a strain gauge in-line for real-time %MVIC feedback. The second experimental session consisted of 3 unresisted SLR to point of bind, 24 seconds apart. ROM of both limbs were measured using a liquid goniometer pre-intervention and after each of the three experimental cycles. EMG was measured in the homologous muscle of the contralateral limb to measure level of concurrent (in)activity.

Results: Three participants were excluded from analysis: 1 due to injury and 2 due to EMG signals in excess of 2 SD above baseline, indicating concurrent contraction. No significant changes (p = 1.000) were found in the ROM of either limb for the unresisted SLR session.

The limbs that underwent the PIR-PNF protocol showed significant increase in ROM (mean diff = 11.2 degrees; p 0.0001). A lesser, but still significant, increase in ROM was also seen in the ‘dormant’ contralateral limb (mean diff = 5.9 degrees; p 0.0001).

Discussion: The significant change in ROM in the unstretched contralateral limb indicates that some degree of neurological crossover had occurred. This may indicate a spillover of: GTO induced relaxation; suppression of muscle spindle fibre activation; and/or, alterations to the participants’ stretch perception. These findings may have application in rehabilitation settings where stretching of one limb may be restricted by injury; some degree of flexibility may be maintained, decreasing the time necessary to return to full ROM once the injury has healed sufficiently to undertake direct rehabilitation.

References Carrol TJ, Herbert RD, Munn J, Lee M, Gandevia SC. (2006) Contralateral effects of unilateral strength training: evidence a possible mechanisms. J Appl Physiol 101:1514-1522.

THE INFLUENCE OF AGE-RELATED CHANGES IN TACTILE SENSIBILITY AND MUSCULAR STRENGTH ON HAND FUNCTION IN OLDER ADULT FEMALES

MURATA, J., MURATA, S., HIROSHIGE, J.

GRADUATE SCHOOL OF BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES, NAGASAKI UNIVERSITY

Introduction: The effects of aging on motor function include a marked decline in strength and muscle mass, leading to impairments of mobility and activities of daily living. Aging also affects human hand function. For example, a decline in manual dexterity often accompanies old age. This decline corresponds to age-related changes in muscle and/or tactile functions. This study investigated whether agerelated changes in muscular strength and tactile sensibility are related to hand function in older adults.

Methods: The subjects were 49 older adult females (young-old, 27 females, 68.8 ± 3.7 years; old-old, 22 females, 80.2 ± 3.0 years).

Hand function was assessed using the Perdue pegboard test. Handgrip strength was measured using a handgrip dynamometer. Tactile-pressure threshold on the distal palmar pad of the index finger was evaluated using Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments.



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