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«BOOK OF ABSTRACTS Edited by: Loland, S., Bø, K., Fasting, K., Hallén, J., Ommundsen, Y., Roberts, G., Tsolakidis, E. Hosted by: The Norwegian ...»

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Objective : Measuring the time displacement of the ball between two consecutive touched by two players including the contact time for different sport teams Methodology : Video analysis of the matches of same rank. Performance analysis software and time measurement by statistics central index as mean and mode, comparing time distance and contact with ball in different team sports Results: Volleyball has the first lower time, basketball has the second lower time, handball has the third lower time and finally football has the last time Discussion: Rejection is a very fast movement, the fastest one among those that are usually performed in team sports. The information is taken and processed in mind very quickly and the response must be equally fast. The small size of the playing field decreases the time with which the ball moves.

Conclusion : In order to correctly analyze the phenomenon, it is required to deepen the main theories on motor control. We need to take into account perception, aspects and include team sports training methodology.

References Schmidt R.A., Wrisberg C.A.(2008), Motor learning and performance, Human Kinetics, USA Latash M. (2008), Neurophysiological basis of movement, Human Kinetics, USA Iacoboni M.(2008) Mirroring People. The new science of how we connect with others, Farrar Straus & Girox, USA

GYMNASTICS ACTIVITIES: A PROPOSITION OF ACTIVITY PHYSICAL ABOUT TO CHILDREN OF 4 THE 6 YEARS OLD

NABEIRO MINCIOTTI, A., OBARA, M.L.B., VOLPI, M.M., SOUZA, S.P., SANTOS, T.V., MAIO, L., GARE, T.R., ARAÚJO, L.M., SÁ, C.S.C.S.

UNIVERSIDADE MUNICIPAL DE SÃO CAETANO DO SUL

Introduction: The infancy is the period what the child develops at every the dimensions (motor, physics, affective, social or cognitive). The quality from the experiences lived by children this period they’ll determine of certain forms, the adult on which they if they’ll become. The gymnastics activities are practices beneficial about to the persons at every the period of life. On first infancy they contributory on encouragement and development from the body movements and the functions all-important, just as on skill control and body dominate in different situation and on acquisition of standards basic of movement. Owing to the multiples factors what can step in on performance motor of jobs of life diary, it works and/ or activities sporting realized for children this study object observe the influence from practice of gymnastics activities into the development motor of children among 4 the 6 years old.

Method: Twenty eight children between 4 and 6 years old, both the types from community of São Caetano do Sul have been appraised based on the Protocol of tests of balance and coordination (Lefévre, 1976). After the appraisals initial the children they performed the practice gymnastics twice a day week with one hour of duration each class for 3 months. The practice gymnastics offers activities focused about to the development from the capacities physics, skills manipulativas and the parts gymnastics (stars, rolls, forwards, backwards, round off, flic flac, among another). The finish from the 3 months the children have been reappraising. For each test, observed the success or failure comparing the two appraisals.

Results and Discussion: The tax of success on the tests of balance static and dynamic was of 70% initially at every the ages, inferior the 75% description for Lefévre (1976). After the practice gymnastics observed 100% of success on the states tests for all the ages. The results indicates the importance from activity physical into the daily from the children for the purpose of develop the capabilities physics, skills manipulativas and bring up a lifestyle more healthy for the child.

References

–  –  –

Lefévre, A. B. (1976) Exame neurológico evolutivo. São Paulo: Savier.

A PROGRESSIVE APROACH TO MAP COMMUNICATION WITH CHILDREN - THE USE OF HAND-DRAWN MAP

GRÆSLI, J.A., BJERVA, T., SIGURJÓNSSON, T.

HEDMARK UNIVERCITY COLLEGE

Introduction: The ability to interpret map symbols and understand the relationships between maps and terrain is to a high degree a complex activity. It includes a number of sequences of processes that have not sufficiently been explored (Keates, 1996, Sigurjonsson, 2007). Progress in education within this topic has not sufficiently been based on how children can benefit from different maps. [last sentence difficult to intgerpret] Methods: The results presented in this context ARE quantitative data related to the use of EMIT (electronic timer system). The task was to find 7 controls on the basis of a hand-drawn map. The children should decide in what order they would find the controls. The study involved 106 children, 53 boys and 53 girls, aged 5 to 12 years. The selected area was near a primary school. None of the children in the study were pupils at this school. This paper grew out of a larger project which includes both other quantitative data and qualitative data through participatory observation, where the children were shadowed in the terrain.

Results: Among 5-year-olds 17 out of 41 children found all the 7 controls. Furthermore 21 out of 30 children in lower primary school, and 26 out of 28 children in upper primary school completed the task. In the group with 5-year-olds who mastered the task, we find no clear strategies in relation to the order in which controls are found. Among pupils in lower and upper primary school, the results show that the children to a greater degree considered appropriate route choices. Among 5-year-olds who mastered the task, There are 47% boys and 32% girls. In the lower primary stage 85% of girls and 65% of boys mastered the task and on the upper primary stage there are no gender differences.





Discussion: The results show that children far down in the age group mastered expected complex tasks when they where presented with simple aids (Blades & Roberts, 2000, Sigurjónsson, 2007). The difference from the youngest children to the older is that a greater proportion of the older kids master the task. The data indicate an incremental development in mastery of the task. From 5 to 6 years there is a clear decline, while there from 6 to 8 years are no significant changes. Similarly, there is a clear distinction between the 8-year-olds and the 10-year-olds, while there are no differences between 10-year-olds and 12-year-olds. The results show minor gender-related differences among the smaller children.

References Blades, M. & Roberts, K. (2000). Children’s source monitoring.

Keates, J. S. (1996). Understanding maps.

Sigurjónsson, T. (2007). Barns kartlesing.

A PROGRESSIVE APROACH TO MAP COMMUNICATION WITH CHILDREN - THE USE OF DETAIL-PHOTO

BJERVA, T., GRÆSLI, J.A., SIGURJÓNSSON, T.

HEDMARK UNIVERSITY COLLEGE

Introduction: The ability to interpret map symbols and understand the relationships between maps and terrain is to a high degree a complex activity. It includes a number of sequences of processes that have not sufficiently been explored (Keates, 1996, Sigurjonsson, 2007). Progress in education within this topic has not sufficiently been based on how children can benefit from different maps.

Methods: The results presented in this context are quantitative data related to the use of EMIT (electronic timer system). The task was to find 10 controls on the basis of detail-photo distributed in two sets of 5 photoes. The first set was assumed easier, and the controls were initially closer. The study involved 106 children, 53 boys and 53 girls, aged 5 to 12 years. The selected area was near a primary school.

None of the children in the study were pupils at this school. This paper grew out of a larger project which includes both other quantitative data and qualitative data through participatory observation, where the children were shadowed in the terrain.

Results: Boys (5-year-old) using on average 67 seconds to find the controls in the first set and 90 seconds in the next. The girls are using respectively 65 and 97 seconds. For boys and girls who are 6-year-old, the time has decreased to 39 and 42 seconds on the first set, and 67 and 64 seconds on the next. 8-year-old uses 37 and 67 seconds (boys) and 38 and 64 seconds (girls). The 10-year-olds have decreased the time to 21 and 33 seconds (boys) and 24 and 32 seconds (girls). Finally 12-year-olds uses 20 and 30 seconds (boys) and 24 and 30 seconds (girls). The boys in total spent an average of 37 (set 1) and 58 seconds (set 2). The girls spent an average of respectively 38 and 57 seconds.

Discussion: The results show that children far down in the age group mastered expected complex tasks when they where presented with simple aids (Blades & Roberts, 2000, Sigurjónsson 2007,). The difference from the youngest children to the older is consumed time per task. The 5- year-old spend, on average, nearly twice as much time in relation to pupils in the lower primary school. Pupils in the upper primary school using additional third less time per. task than the pupils in the lower primary school. The data indicates an incremental development in the time spent per. control. From 5 to 6 years there is a clear decline, while there from 6 to 8 years are no significant changes. Similarly, there is a clear distinction between the 8-year-olds and the 10-year-olds, while there are no differences between 10year-olds and 12-year-olds. The results show no gender-related differences.

References Blades M & Roberts K (2000) Children’s source monitoring.

Keates J S (1996) Understanding maps.

Sigurjónsson T (2007) Barns kartlesing.

THE QUALITY OF TEACHING GYMNASTICS IN THE 7 TO 9TH GRADES OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS IN SLOVENIA

BUCAR PAJEK, M., CUK, I., KOVAC, M., PAJEK, J., TURSIC, B.

UNIVERSITY OF LJUBLJANA, FACULTY OF SPORT

In Slovenian elementary school curriculum, the gymnastic contents of physical education (PE) are defined. The aim of our study was to assess quality of the implementation of gymnastic curriculum at the PE in the last three years of elementary schools.

One houndred fourty-seven PE teachers involved in active teaching in the study year 2004/2005 were recruited to the study. The selection of recruited PE teachers was representative for Slovenian population. They were instructed to answer the questionnaire with 25 questions

–  –  –

divided in 4 main topics: socio-economical indexes, opinions about curricular gymnastic contents implementation, opinions about the work at specific school and opinions about minimal and optimal conditions for teaching gymnastics. Three and five point Likert’s gradation was used to grade the answers. Also, there were yes/no questions and questions of the open type (a written answer) present in the questionnaire.

The majority of PE teachers expressed highly positive opinions about the presence of gymnastics in the physical education curriculum:

they believe it is important and of positive impact for the psycho-physical development, it helps develop the sense of altruism, persistence and creativity and encourages mutual assistance, and it does not induce aggression. Despite this, teachers in average only performed

9.8 hours of gymnastics (out of 70 hours total per year) predominantly without performing the full curricular gymnastic content with pupils.

Teachers ascribed the low rate of full gymnastics content realisation to poor material conditions, insufficient pupils’ physical fitness and inappropriate curriculum (inappropriate gymnastic elements). According to the questionnare results, all these factors came before the teacher-dependent reasons (knowledge, motivation, lack of confidence at assisting with gymnastic elements).

According to this results, we conclude that there are diverse and numerous reasons for insufficient gymnastic teaching in elementary schools. Only in part could this problems be solved with a better continuing PE teachers’ education and motivation. Especially as regards to the insufficient pupil physical fitness it is a fact, that they are often the consequence and not the reason of inadequate PE curriculum implementation. However the material conditions could also be improved to better perform the gymnastic contents of the curriculum.

SWIMMING ABILITIES ARE NOT ENHANCED BY USING A FLOTATION SUIT FOR ADVANCED BEGINNERS IN DEEP WATER SWIMMING TEACHING

KJENDLIE, P.L.

NORWEGIAN SCHOOL OF SPORT SCIENCE

Introduction:

There are few empirical data on the effect of using flotation aids in swimming teaching. Flotation aids, such as body suits - giving extra buoyancy, may have advantages: a safer child, more able to do exercises on their own, independently of the teacher, and possibly increasing the activity level. Disadvantages of using flotation aids in general are that children become dependent on the aid, not learning to float free and independently, and that self confidence of learning to swim unaided is not developed.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of wearing a flotation suit on swimming, arm stroking and leg kicking performance of children in a learn-to-swim program.

Methods: Ninety-nine (99) children, with previous swimming school experience, but not yet able to swim, were taught swimming once a week for ten weeks. Each group were randomised to use flotation aids (FL, n=40, mean age 7.4±1.1 years) in the form of a flotation suit, or to not use the suit (CON, n=59, mean age 7.4±1.0 years). The reported previous beginner-swimming teaching experience was 3 or 4, 10 hour courses for the CON or FL respectively (p0.03). FL did also exercises at the end of each lesson without the suit to enhance their unaided abilities. Their skills after 10 lessons were observed through video recordings, using a modified Aquatic readiness assessment test (Langendorfer and Bruya 1995) with tagging of events in the Dartfish software. Combined swimming, leg kicking, arm recovery and arm propulsion were evaluated on a score ranging form 1 (no performance) to 5 (advanced skill). Additionally the leg kicking velocity was measured both pre and post intervention by use of a swimming velocity meter.

Results: The mean scores were for combined swimming 3.0±0.6 and 3.1±0.9, arm propulsion 2.6±0.5 and 2.7±0.5, arm recovery



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