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«BOOK OF ABSTRACTS Edited by: Loland, S., Bø, K., Fasting, K., Hallén, J., Ommundsen, Y., Roberts, G., Tsolakidis, E. Hosted by: The Norwegian ...»

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Performance was monthly assessed by means of a submaximal Interval Shuttle Run Test (Lemmink et al. 2004; Brink et al. 2009). Subjects with a heart rate increase ≥ 5 b•min-1 of four up to eight weeks were classified as overreached. A sports physician screened all subjects to exclude other causes of performance decrement.

Individual differences in perceived stress and recovery over the previous two months of eleven overreached soccer players and six controls were analysed (mean ± SD: Age (years) 17 ± 1, Height (cm) 176.56 ± 5.33, Weight (kg) 69.50± 6.06). Positive stress scores indicated increased stress, whereas negative recovery scores indicated decreased recovery.

Results: Mann-Whitney tests showed that there were no significant differences between overreached and control soccer players in general stress (mean± SD: 1.5 ± 4.0 vs. 0.5 ± 1.3), general recovery (-0.7 ± 2.1 vs. 1.2 ± 2.5), sport-specific stress (-0.1 ± 1.5 vs. -0.1 ± 0.3) and sport-specific recovery (0.3 ± 1.9 vs. 0.8 ± 2.6).

Discussion: The results demonstrate no differences in perceived stress and recovery between overreached and control soccer players.

However, there is a tendency that overreached soccer players experience more stress and less recovery. The large standard deviation indicates that some players do not report changes in stress and recovery, despite performance decrement. Possible explanations are the relative young age of the players and different psychosocial awareness of team sport athletes. This should be kept in mind when using these subjective ratings.

References Nederhof E, Brink M, Lemmink K. (2008). Int J Sport Psych 39, (4), 301-311.

Meeusen R, Duclos M, Gleeson M, Steinacker J, Rietjens G, Urhausen A. (2006) Eur J Sport Sci 6, (1), 1-14.

Lemmink K, Visscher C, Lambert M and Lamberts R. (2004). J Strength Cond Res, 18(4), 821-827.

Brink M, Nederhof E, Schmikli S, Visscher C, Lemmink K. (2009) J Strength Cond Res, (accepted).

13:00 - 14:00 Poster presentations PP-PP03 Physical Education and Pedagogics 3

WHAT DOES YOGA MEAN TO YOU?

HUATORPET, S.

HEDMARK UNIVERSITY COLLAGE

Introduction: In Norway, as elsewhere in the western world, there has been an increase in the number of people participating in yoga in recent years. Yet the reasons for the increase in popularity of yoga are unclear and this remains an under-researched area. Definitions of yoga embrace physical, psychological and spiritual notions of health and well-being and reflect a view of yoga as a way of life rather than simply a form of physical exercise. This suggests that there may be very many different reasons why people engage with yoga.

This small scale, qualitative research study set out to explore why yoga teachers engaged in the practice of yoga by exploring the meanings they attached to the activity.

Methods: Thirteen yoga teachers were asked to participate in the study by responding to the question: What does yoga mean to you?

They were asked to write their responses down. Yoga teachers were chosen because they were likely to have established views on yoga through their commitment to their regular and frequent practice.

Results: Eight yoga teachers participated in the study. Their qualitative responses were analysed thematically in order to identify key themes in their narratives. Preliminary analysis revealed that yoga was important in their lives at quite a fundamental level. For example, participants linked their own personal development as something beyond themselves; as an offering to the rest of the world. Participants also gave expression to the view that it was an activity that related to their body, soul and mind and connected it to both physical and mental health. Furthermore, it was evident that yoga was seen in terms of transformation, elevation and liberation.

Conclusion: While it’s obvious that yoga is essential and a big part of the lives for the yoga teachers, the next step will be to explore what yoga means to yoga students.

THE EXCELLENCE IN SPORT. A CASE STUDY OF A TOP-LEVEL VOLLEYBALL COACH.

PEREIRA, A., LEITÃO, J.

POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE OF VISEU; UNIVERSITY OF TRÁS-OS-MONTES AND ALTO DOURO

Introduction: During the last years, the interest in studying the excellent coach has increased (Jones et al., 2002). Janssen & Dale (2002) and Orlick (2008) talk about some interesting topics, even though they deserve further research. This way, it becomes urgent to further investigate this issue, so that it becomes possible to gather more data concerning the coach’s interpretation of his own professional

14 ANNUAL CONGRESS OF THE EUROPEAN COLLEGE OF SPORT SCIENCE

TH Wednesday, June 24th, 2009 experience, the principles which guide his actions and the meaning of his behaviors (Jones, 2007; Jones et al., 2003). The aim of this study was to identify the values and the references that guide Professor Percy Oncken, a Brazilian volleyball coach and winner of various world-wide championships, in his work.

Methods: The research technique used was ’life stories’(Tierney, 2000). The data was collected by carrying out in-depth interviews and non-participative observation. The technique used for data analysis was content analysis (Strauss & Corbin, 1998). The computer programme of qualitative data analysis QSR NVivo 7 was used in coding the transcripts of the interviews.





Results and Discussion: Among the concerns that have followed his life-long career, we can highlight his great passion for his profession, respect for athletes and determination when facing difficulties. In terms of ambitions, we can point out the will to do his best every day and to one day train senior athletes. He regards difficulties that arise as being indispensable to a process of perfection. Having deprived his family of his attention is what has distressed him the most. The most important moments of his career were when he achieved good results and the ones that generate more suffering are those when he dismisses players from the national team. In terms of his social intervention, he is concerned with permanently carrying out his work with great quality and fully developing athletes.

References Janssen, J. & Dale, G. (2002). The seven secrets of successful coaches. Tucson, AZ: The Mental Game.

Jones, R. (2007). Coaching redefined: an everyday pedagogical endeavour. Sport, Education and Society, Vol. 12, nº 2, May, pp. 159-173.

Jones, R.; Armour, K. & Potrac, P. (2003) Constructing expert knowledge: a case study of a top-level professional soccer coach. Sport, Education and Society, Volume 8, Issue 2, October, p. 213-229.

Orlick, T. (2008). In pursuit of excellence (4th Edition). U.K. Human Kinetics.

Potrac, P.; Jones, R. & Armour, K. (2002). ‘It’s all about getting respect’: the coaching behaviors of an expert english soccer coach. Sport, Education and Society, Vol. 7, Nº 2, pp. 183-202.

Strauss, A. & Corbin, J. (1998). Basics of qualitative research: techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory (second edition).

London: Sage Publications.

Tierney, W. (2000). Undaunted courage: life history and the postmodern challenge. In: Denzin, N. & Lincon, Y. (Eds), Handbook of Qualitative Research (2nd ed.) (pp. 537-553). London: Sage Publications.

FORMER TRACK AND FIELD EXPERIENCES INFLUENCE BEGINNERS’ POLE VAULT LEARNING

VAGO, B., KOVÁCS, N., SZALMA, L., BENCZENLEITNER, O.

SEMMELWEIS UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT SCIENCES

Introduction: One of the key points beginner pole-vaulters must deal with is whether their dominant hand is in consonance with their opposite-side takeoff foot. This cross-dominance (CD) is an integral part of the vaulting technique. However, if an athlete is same-side dominant (SD), e.g., a right-handed athlete uses the right foot for takeoff in long/high jump, he has to either use the non-dominant hand for upper (dominant) grip on the pole, or execute the takeoff from the non-dominant leg. The objectives of this study were to gain information of the participants’ subjective feelings about the effect of their former track and field experiences on the learning process, to investigate the learners’ decisions on the bilateral hand/foot issue, and to highlight the chosen approach length of the run-up.

Methods Ninety-one well-trained physical education university students (47 women and 44 men) participated in an eight-week/eight-lesson unit on pole vaulting. None of the subjects had previous experience in this event, but all of them were proficient in relevant track and field and gymnastic skills. During the lessons they participated in traditional learning drills, followed by commonly accepted short-approach (4-6-8running strides) vault attempts, and finally, a short-approach pole vault competition (8-10 running strides).

Besides registering their vaulting results, a questionnaire was administer in order to find out the subjects’ opinion about the relationships between their learning progression and initial motor skills in track and field and gymnastics, their decision on the dominancy of hand/foot, and their preferred approach length.

Results: By the end of the eight weeks the women averaged 2.10+-0.17m, men’s average result was 236+-0.20m. Fifty percent of the subjects indicated that their former high jump experience had the greatest positive intertask transfer on their learning progression.

The long jump was named as the most important even by 38.9% of subjects. In addition, 83.3% of the subjects appointed jumping ability to be more important than gymnastic abilities. Twenty-three participants were SD, but only 4 reported difficulties choosing the takeoff footupper hand combination. Eighteen (78.3%) of SD decided to change their hand position and to do the takeoff from their long/high jump takeoff foot in order to obtain the proper technique, while 5 (21.7%) performed the takeoff from their non-takeoff foot. The majority of the subjects (61.5%) felt the 8 strides as the most effective length for their approach, while others (20.9% and 15.4%) preferred 6 and 10 strides, respectively.

BECOMING A GOOD COACH

HEMMESTAD, L., STANDAL, Ø.

NORWEGIAN SCHOOL OF SPORT SCIENCES

Good coaching does not necessary mean good, in the sense of an effective and successful coach who receives good results. Good can also be viewed as doing what is morally right.

It is argued that sports coaching should be understood as an everyday encounter (Jones, 2007) where the practitioner is fully immersed in the activity. This emphasizes the importance of the coach reacting to situational events, which comprises flexible adoptions to cognitive anticipations and situational happenings.

Sports coaching then is viewed as a deliberate practice that is not only depended on facts and explicit coaching skills, but also of personal judgements and decisions. Both the `how to coach´ text book recipes and much of the scientific knowledge which support coaches’ work builds on a technical means-to-an-end thinking. In this case the coach becomes a `technican´ expert. But, the means are not neutral but value-laden and therefore interaction in sports coaching is thus not a neutral process of applying means to ends, but should

rather be viewed as a value-laden practice´. For example considering a few examples:

1. In many instances, the coach makes decisions in an ethical twilight zone where the performance of the individual athlete and the team must be balanced with the well-being of the athlete.

–  –  –

2. Athletes are subjected to the coaches’ power and they may go far in order to gain recognition and goods from the coach (e.g. sacrifice their future health).

In these examples there will be no formula that can tell the coach how to act. Rather, each situation calls for ethical judgements by the coach.

The Aristotelian notion of phronesis is useful in order to understand more clearly the ethical challenges involved in professional judgement in coaching. Phronesis is a form of practical wisdom that balances knowledge of universals with a sound appreciation of the particulars of each case (cf. Gallagher, 1992). The characteristic feature of practical rationality is judgement, which is a crucial aspect to take into account when you navigate within the complexities and context-dependent features that are in play in the messy sport coaching landscape.

We will discuss the relevance of phronesis to coaching, and ask if and how phronesis can be learned and practiced by coaches. For Aristotle practical knowledge in general and phronesis in particular can only be learned by taking part in the practice one is concerned with. This should suggest that for a coach phronesis could be learned through some form of apprenticeship in sports coaching, through following `the good example´.

References Gallagher, S. 1992. Hermeneutics and education. New York: SUNY Press.

Jones, R.L. (2007). Coaching redefined: an everyday pedagogical endeavour. Sport, Education and Society, vol.12, no2, pp. 159-173

STUDY OF TIME DURATIONS: “THE TRAJECTORY OF THE BALL IN TEAM SPORTS AND HYPOTHESIS ABOUT ITS EFFECT

ON PERCEPTION’ RAIOLA, G., AIELLO, P., SIBILIO, M.

UNIVERSITY OF CASSINO, UNIVERSITY OF SALERNO

Introduction: Sport teams have been the subject of various research concerning the quantitative aspects of performance, strength, endurance, speed, the technical aspects of gestures, biomechanics, motor control, qualitative tactical aspects as game scheme and the strategy as well as the educational issues for an appropriate teaching and training. We consider that these aspects can also help to build up a theory about training methodology in team sports. It has never been studied how the ball is touched by the body: grasp, throw, the reject of the ball and the time that it takes between two consecutive touches by two different players. These aspects have never been searched or tested on the game court although they are present in all team sports. This affects the dynamics of the game as well as the movement. Knowing how the ball is touched by the body and the relationship between the time and the space in different team sports is related to perception and its effects on training methodology.



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