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Discussion: In this study, we analyzed small-sided soccer games from a dynamical systems perspective. Results indicate inphase oscillations for the centroid position. The strongest inphase pattern is found for the forward-backward displacement of the centroid position.
Teams coordinate attacking and defending primarily in this direction. No specific oscillatory pattern was found for all surface area related measures. Although rules of these small-sided games were similar to 11 vs. 11, players behaviour is constrained differently when com
pared to 11. vs. 11. This results in the absence of a clear pattern. Finally, we showed that deviations of the inphase pattern of centroid position indicate goal-scoring opportunities in small-sided games. We conclude that the small-sided soccer games can be considered a dynamical system and this approach opens up new types of analyses in performance analysis in team sports.
References Frencken, W. G. P. & Lemmink, K. A. P. M. (2008). Science and Football VI, 161-166. Routledge, London.
Lames, M. (2006). J Sports Sci Med, 5, 556-560.
McGarry, T., Khan, M. A., & Franks, I. M. (1999). J Sports Sci, 17, 297-311.
Palut, Y. & Zanone, P. G. (2005). J Sports Sci, 23, 1021-1032.
ASSOCIATION OF PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS OF PROFESSIONAL ELITE SOCCER PLAYERS THROUGHOUT THE SEASON
FACULTY OF SPORT, UNIVERSITY OF PORTOIntroduction: The achievement and maintenance of an adequate level of physical fitness is a complex process, since adaptations to training and competition are specific to each individual. Thus, one of the central aspects of high performance training concerns the behaviour of the performance dynamics (Maia et al., 2001). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the association of soccer players’ performance-related parameters throughout the season.
Methods: Twenty-two Portuguese elite professional soccer players were evaluated in four occasions throughout the season [prior preseason (PPS), end pre-season (EPS), mid-season (MID) and end-of-season (EOS)] for counter-movement jump (CMJ), 5 and 30 m sprint (T5 and T30), agility (T-test), maximal concentric isokinetic knee extensor (KE) and flexor (KF) strength (90ºs-1), and intermittent endurance performance (YYIET2; no YYIET2 data were collected in MID due to Club match commitments). The association of soccer players’ performance-related parameters throughout the season was analysed by the Pearson correlation coefficients (R).
Results: The SCM, T30, KE, KF and dominant leg hamstring/quadriceps ratio (H/Q-DL) R coefficients were high (p0.05) between the different assessment moments (r ranging 0.7-0.9). In YYIET2, agility, and non-dominant leg H/Q (H/Q-NL) a lack of correlation between some season periods were observed (p0.05). Concerning T5 performance, only a moderate correlation was found between PPS and MID.
Discussion: Although some parameters were sensitive to change throughout the season (SCM, H/Q-DL, YYIET2 and agility), there were differences regarding athletes’ performance in the different moments. The SCM, T30, KE, KF and H/Q-DL tests had individual stability through the season, as observed by the high values of R between the different occasions. However, YYIET2, agility, H/Q-ND, and particularly T5, showed a high intraindividual variation throughout the season. This is particularly relevant as acceleration (Cometi et al., 2001) and intermittent endurance (Bangsbo et al., 2008) are essential variables to soccer high performance. Also, individual instability in H/Q ratio suggests that this parameter should be often controlled. In conclusion, data suggest that the continuous assessment of performance-related parameters throughout the season is a fundamental tool in the development of training programs suitable to the specificity of players’ performance dynamics.
References Bangsbo J, Iaia F, Krustrup P. (2008). Sports Med, 38 (1) 37-51.
Cometi G, Maffiuletti N, Pousson M, Chatard J, Maffulli N. (2001). Int J Sports Med, 22 (1), 45-51.
Maia J, Silva R, Seabra A, Lopes V. (2002). Portuguese J Sports Sci, 2 (4), 41-56.
RHYTHMIC TRAINING AND PERFORMANCE IN FEMALE FUTSALIANNARILLI, F., BENVENUTI, C., DE PERO, R., AMICI, S., CAPRANICA, L.
UNIVERSITY OF ROMEIntroduction: Futsal matches are characterized by fast passing, shooting, intercepting, dribbling and free for making actions. In particular, to get “free for marking” the players need very complex technical capabilities in choosing the proper timing to anticipate the opponent, and in selecting the appropriate field zone for correctly realizing the skill (Nuccorini, 2002). Rhythmic training proved to improve the locomotor and jumping abilities of children (Derri et al., 2001; Zachopoulou et al., 2004) and the technical abilities of young tennis players (Zachopoulou & Mantis, 2004). Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects a rhythmic training on the “free for marking” capacity of female futsal players following a rhythmic training.
Methods: Sixteen female futsal players (25±5 yrs) involved in the Italian First League “Serie A” 2006-2007 Women’s Futsal Championship participated in this study. They were equally divided in the experimental and control groups. For 16 weeks the experimental group performed a rhythmic training twice a week during which futsal drills with or without ball were performed according to the music. The exercises and music varied every two weeks. The ratio between the “free for marking” and the total performed actions during three-minute matches was used to evaluate the players’ futsal ability. A video-analysis was performed at the beginning and at the end of the 16-week experimental period. ANOVA for repeated measures was applied to evaluate the differences (p0.05) between pre and post training performances.
Results: At the end of the 16 experimental weeks, the experimental group significantly (p=0.01) improved the “free for marking” ability (pre=58±21%; post=67±9%), while no significant difference emerged in the control group (pre=58±21%; post=61±5%).
Conclusions For a futsal player “free for marking” is one of the most important capabilities, often crucial to positively conclude the attacking actions (Nuccorini, 2002). The present findings showed that futsal players could benefit from a rhythmic training to improve this specific skill, which strongly rely on timing (Zachopoulou & Mantis, 2001).
References Nuccorini A. (2002). Società Stampa Sportiva Publ.
Derri at al. (2001). Phy Edu Sport Ped, 6, 16-25 Zachopoulou, E. & Mantis K. (2001). Phy Edu Sport Ped. 6, 117-126 Zachopoulou, E. et al. (2004). Early Childhood Res. Quar. 19, 631-642
14 ANNUAL CONGRESS OF THE EUROPEAN COLLEGE OF SPORT SCIENCETH Wednesday, June 24th, 2009
EFFECT OF COMPLEX VS. REPEATED SPRINTS TRAINING ON REPEATED SPRINT ABILITY AND ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE
IN YOUNG ELITE SOCCER PLAYERSBUCHHEIT, M., BRUGHELLI, M., DELHOMEL, G., AHMAIDI, S.
FACULTY OF SPORT SCIENCES, UNIVERSITY OF PICARDIE, JULES VERNESIntroduction: Repeated sprint (RS) ability (RSA) is related to maximal speed and metabolic-related factors (e.g., PCr recovery, H+ buffering) (Bishop et al., 2004). RS training has been shown to improve RSA in adult soccer (Bravo et al., 2008) and adolescent handball (Buchheit et al., 2008) players. Nevertheless, the respective impact of a strength/speed (aimed at improving maximal speed) vs. a ‘metabolic’ (aimed at improving the ability to repeat sprints) training program is unknown. Thus the aim of the present study was thus to compare the effects of strength/speed vs. RS training on RSA in young elite soccer players.
Methods: Fourteen elite male adolescents (14.5±0.5 y; Tanner Stage III = 8, IV = 6; 64.1±7.7 kg; 1.77±0.9 m; 9 h.week-1 + 1 game) were assigned to either complex (C; n=7) or repeated sprint (RS; n=7) training groups. During 10 weeks; C consisted in 4 to 6 series of 4 to 6 exercises (e.g., counter movement jumps (CMJ), depth and plyometric jumps, agility drills, standing start and shuttle sprints), each repetition interspersed with at least 45 s of passive recovery; RS training consisted of 2-3 sets of 5-6 x 15-20 m shuttle sprints (interspersed with 14 s of passive or 23 s of active recovery [≈2 m.s-1 (Buchheit et al. 2008)]). The groups performed either C or RS once a week and maintained similar external training programs. Before and after training, performance was assessed by a CMJ, a hopping test (Hop), 10 and 30 m sprint times (10m and 30m), and best (RSAbest) and mean (RSAmean) times on a repeated shuttle sprint ability test (Buchheit et al. 2008).
Results: After training, except for 10m (P=0.22), all performances were significantly improved in both groups (all P0.05). Relative changes in 30m (-2.1±2.0 %) were similar for both groups (P=0.45). C tended to induce greater improvements in CMJ (16.9±12.9 vs. 8.7±4.5 %, P=0.08, ES=0.9) and Hop height (27.5±19.2 vs. 13.5±13.2 %, P=0.08, ES=0.9) height compared with RS. In contrast, RS training induced greater improvement in RSAbest (-2.90±2.1 vs. -0.08±3.3 %, P=0.04) and tended to enhance more RSAmean (-2.61±2.8 vs. -0.75±2.5 %, P=0.10, ES=0.70) compared with C.
Conclusion Both complex and repeated sprint training regimens represent effective means to increase physical performance in young elite soccer players. Nevertheless, changes in performance are likely training regimen-specific, with repeated sprint training being more effective at improving running performance (i.e., RSA) and complex training more effective at improving jumping ability.
References Bishop D. and Spencer M., (2004). J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 44, 1-7.
Bravo D. F., Impellizzeri F. M., Rampinini E., Castagna C., Bishop D. and Wisloff U., (2008). Int J Sports Med, 29, 668-74.
Buchheit M., Millet G. P., Parisy A., Pourchez S., Laursen P. B. and Ahmaidi S., (2008). Med Sci Sports Exerc, 40, 362-371.
THE EFFECT OF EXTERNAL RESISTANCE METHOD ON THE CHANGE OF ELITE FOOTBALL PLAYERS’ SHOOTING SPEEDMALÝ, T., ZAHÁLKA, F., DOVALIL, J., MALÁ, L., HRÁSKÝ, P.
FACULTY OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT, CHARLES UNIVERSITY PRAGUEIntroduction: Speed abilities belong to the most difficult trained abilities within coordination abilities and therefore it is necessary to look for such methods, means and forms that are effective for their development (Bompa, 1999). The research objective was to find out about the effect of external supplementary resistance usage on the speed of elite football players’ instep kick and to find out possible changes in kinematical parameters of the kick.
Methods All players were professionals (n = 8, age = 24,0 ± 4,7 years, height = 179,5 ± 4,1 cm and weight = 70,4 ± 5,1 kg). The sample was randomly divided into resistance group (RG) and control group (CG). Ankle weight resistance (0 % or 1 % from the body weight of player) was an experimental factor. The usage of ankle band weight was applied 2x / week in speed load, or in technical training focused on shooting. There was 383 minutes when training with ankle band weights totally, which means 8,09 % of total load 4732 minutes. We observed maximum speed of the ball after the kick and the chosen spatio-temporal characteristics of the kick. To gain data we used 3D kinematical analysis and radar device STALKER ATS. From evaluative methods we used ANOVA RM 2 x 2, Bonferonni correction for multiple average comparisons, effect size and magnitude of increasing (Thomas and Nelson, 1996).
Results: We discovered significant relation between interaction of both factors (time x resistance) F(1,6) = 9.73, p 0.05, η2 = 0.40.
The main effect of time was also significant F(1,6) = 8.89, p 0.05, η2 = 0.36. The level of speed of the ball after the instep kick increased in RG from pre-test values (M1 = 31.62 m/s, SE1 = 0.69 m/s) to post-test values M2 = 32.73 m/s, SE2 = 0.88 m/s), F(1,6) = 18.62;
p 0.01. From the point of view of effect size evaluation, middle effect was discovered ESRG = 0.63. The importance of intervention increase is MOIRG = 3.51 %. The speed of the ball in CG did not show changes between pre-test values (M1 = 32.01 m/s, SE1 = 0.69 m/s) and post-test values (M2 = 31.99 m/s, SE2 = 0.88 m/s), F(1,6) = 0.01; p = 0.93. Regarding mater-of-fact significance there was no intervention effect indicated in the difference between averages of input and output values of speed of the ball when ESCG = 0.01 and importance of increase MOICG = 0.09 %. We did not find changes during evaluation of kinetic structure of the kick in any group.
Conclusion It appears that the external resistance method may positively influence the shooting speed and the supplemented resistance is not terminal as the spatio-temporal characteristics did not change.
References Bompa TO. (1999). Periodization Training for Sports. Champaign: Human Kinetics.
Thomas JR, Nelson, JK.(1996). Research methods in physical activity. Champaign: Human Kinetics.
This study was supported by MSM 0021620864 & GAČR 406/08/1514
PERCEIVED STRESS AND RECOVERY IN OVERREACHED YOUNG ELITE SOCCER PLAYERSBRINK, M., VISSCHER, C., LEMMINK, K.
UNIVERSITY MEDICAL CENTER GRONINGEN, UNIVERSITY OF GRONINGENIntroduction: A disturbed balance between stress and recovery is considered to be the cause of overreaching. Monitoring the stress recovery balance might prevent athletes from symptoms such as fatigue and disturbed mood, eating and sleeping patterns (Nederhof et al. 2008). Since overreaching is characterized by sport-specific performance decrement (Meeusen et al. 2006), research is needed that relates measures of stress and recovery to performance decrement. Therefore, the goal of this study was to investigate if stress and recovery can be used as a tool to prevent overreaching in elite soccer players.
Methods: Stress, recovery and performance were prospectively monitored in 94 young elite soccer players during two competitive seasons. The Dutch version of the Recovery Stress Questionnaire for athletes (RESTQ-Sport) was used monthly to assess the stress-recovery state of players (Nederhof et al. 2008).