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138.2±21.6 vs. 136.5±20.8 km.h-1, -1.1%, P0.05; TS: 126.3±20.2 vs. 124.9±15.3 km.h-1, -0.4%, P0.05). In the literature, contrasting effects of fatigue on tennis serve efficiency have been reported depending on service type, nature of fatiguing protocol or subjects’ characteristics. In the fatigued state, Fzmax was unchanged (P0.05) in FS and SS (1.78±0.30 vs. 1.72±0.29 and 1.60±0.22 vs. 1.65±0.22 BW; -2.9 and +3.8%; before and after the tennis match, respectively). In line with these findings, no significant changes in explosive strength - as measured from squat and countermovement jumps - were observed after a tennis match protocol of the same duration. Unexpectedly, our results also displayed an increased Fzmax (1.62±0.25 vs. 1.75±0.23 BW; +8.2%; P0.001; before and after the tennis match, respectively) in TS under fatigue. Since the ball velocity was unchanged, this stronger lower limb involvement during TS under fatigue might indicate that the contribution of other body segments participating to the kinetic chain (trunk, upper limbs) is modified. This is further supported by the absence of significant correlation between changes in Fzmax and ball velocity (0.03 r 0.62; P0.05) from pre- to post-exercise.
Conclusion After a prolonged tennis match, ball velocity remains unchanged while the effects of fatigue on the lower limb drive are different according to the service type. This indicates a modification in inter-segments coordination that requires further kinematic and kinetic analyses coupling.
13:00 - 14:00 Poster presentations PP-TT05 Training and Testing 5
APPLICABILITY OF THE YOYO INTERMITTENT RECOVERY TEST LEVEL 2 FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF REPEATED HIGHINTENSITY RUNNING CAPABILITY IN YOUTH PROFESSIONAL SOCCER PLAYERSMUKHERJEE, S., CHIA, Y.H.M.
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION, NANYANG TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITYIntroduction: In soccer, the higher the level of performance, the greater is the amount of high-intensity running performed by the players.
The YoYo Intermittent Recovery Test (YoYo IRT L2) is a reliable and valid measure for assessing repeated high-intensity running capability in elite adult soccer players. However, the applicability of this test in youth professional soccer players is apparently not yet evaluated. The aim of the study was to evaluate the applicability of the YoYo IRT L2 for the assessment of repeated high-intensity running in youth professional soccer players during different phases of a complete soccer season.
Methods Twenty youth professional soccer players (mean ± SD: age, 17.5 ± 0.3 years; stature, 1.73 ± 0.04 m; body mass, 67.2 ± 7.5 kg) participated in the study. The participants completed a laboratory-based test of intermittent high-intensity on a motorized treadmill, the YoYo IRT L2 as a field-based test of intermittent high-intensity running, a repeated sprint ability (RSA) test on a non-motorised treadmill (6 × 6 s with 24 s recovery) and a field-based RSA test (8 × 20 m with 15 s active recovery) on three occasions (pre-season, early in-season and end mid-season) during the soccer season. The study also determined the work intensity during match play using heart rate (HR) monitoring for two matches during each phase of the competition season.
Results: Significant correlations (p0.05) were observed between the laboratory test of intermittent high-intensity running (Range; r = 0.53and performance in the YoYo IRT L2 (Range; r = 0.55- 0.81) with the amount of high-intensity work performed during match play (HR 90% of HRmax for % of total playing time). Non-significant correlations were found between the tests of RSA and match play work intensity. Results also showed that the performance in the YoYoIRT L2 (distance covered, mean; 818, 950*, 1032 m; * significant change from the previous phase) and the amount of high-intensity work performed during match play (57.5, 69.5*, 58* %) changed through the soccer season Discussion: The development and assessment of repeated high-intensity running capability should be of important concern for soccer scientists and coaches. The results strongly supported the validity of intermittent high-intensity running tests for the evaluation of match performance in youth professional soccer players in terms of high-intensity work performed during matches. However, the YoYo IRT L2 being field-based, simple to conduct, with the option of simultaneous multiple player testing and therefore is time economical. The YoYo IRT L2 has an advantage over the laboratory-based test that requires specialized facilities and manpower. Furthermore, the results showed that the YoYo IRT L2 was sensitive to the changes in the repeated high-intensity running capability through the playing season in youth professional soccer players.
COMPARISON OF ANTHROPOMETRIC, BODY COMPOSITION, AND PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF IRANIAN
NATIONAL TEAM AND PREMIER-LEAGUE FUTSAL PLAYERSGHARAKHANLOU, R., ESLAMI, R., PARNOW, A.H.
UNIVERSITYThe purpose of this study was Comparison of Anthropometric, Body Composition, and Physiological Characteristics of Iranian National Team and Premier-League Futsal Players. A number of 16 Futsal players of Iran National Team (INT) (25.93± 3.88 age) and a number of 16 players present in Iranian premier-league (IPL) (26.12 ± 4.01 age) of Futsal were tested. As anthropometric characteristics, thigh circumference and length, calf circumference and length, and sitting height and as body composition characteristics, height, weight, body fat percentage, lean body mass, and BMI were measured. Physiological profiles were composed of aerobic and anaerobic power, speed (10 & 20m run), agility, and flexibility. For lean body mass, BMI, agility, and 10m speed, there is significant difference between INT and IPL groups (respectively, p= 0.031, p= 0.017, p= 0.009, p= 0.005). In summary, these results showed that some of body composition and physiological characteristics were higher in INT players than ILP players. These results can help coaches in players choosing.
TECHNICAL ABILITIES IN FEMALE FUTSALBENVENUTI, C.
UNIVERSITY OF ROME FORO ITALICOCinzia Benvenuti, Antonio Tessitore, Corrado Lupo, and Laura Capranica Department of Human Movement and Sport Science, IUSM, Rome, Italy Introduction: Despite the growing worldwide popularity of Futsal, few studies provided information on motion analysis (Barbero et al.
2008; Castagna et al., 2008) and tactical aspects (Amaral and Garganta, 2005), of men’s players, while only one study reported the tactical situations relevant to score a goals in women’s matches (Benvenuti et al., 2008). Since no data are available on technical abilities of female players, this study aimed to analyze the occurrence of individual’s technical aspects in relation to the different zones of the pitch (i.e., zone 1-2, and zone 3-4 respectively for defensive and offensive mild field).
Methods: The performance of eight female players were analyzed during the Italian Futsal Cup 2008 Final Eight. When the team had the possession of the ball (PB), the following indicators were selected: Dribbling (D), Passing (P), Receiving (R), Shooting (S), and Free from marking (F). The indicators during phases of non possession of the ball (NB) were: Covering (C); Intercepting (I), and Anticipation (A). An ANOVA was applied to verify differences (p0.05) between the following roles: central defenders (CD), defender wings (DW), offensive wings (OW), and pivot (PV).
14 ANNUAL CONGRESS OF THE EUROPEAN COLLEGE OF SPORT SCIENCETH Wednesday, June 24th, 2009 Results: In relation to the field-zones, PB showed the highest occurrence of D, P, R, and F in zone 3 (45%, 40%, 41% and 52%, respectively), while S occurred most frequently in zone 4 (55%). During NB, C, I, and A occurred most frequently in zone 2 (43%, 40%, and 37%, respectively). Although no difference emerged between roles in the amount of technical actions, different specific characteristics emerged, with CD showing highest values of D (49%) and A (37%), P the highest values of A (50%) and F (47%), DW and OW the highest frequency of occurrence of P (30%) and R (DW:33%; OW: 29%). Furthermore, DW shooted most frequently (40%).
Conclusions: Although teams defend from zone 2, most of the technical aspects of the attacking teams occur in zone 3 and players tend to shoot from a reduced distance from the goal (i.e., zone 4), probably due to a limited strength in their lower limbs. The individual’s indicators highlighted that CD needs more dribbling and anticipation capabilities to structure the offensive action. On the other hand, the players mainly involved in the tactical rotation (i.e., WD and WO) need more passing and receiving capabilities, while the PV places more efforts to get free form marking during attacking actions and to anticipate while defending.
Amaral, Garganta, (2005) Rev. Port. Cien. Desp, 5 (1) : 298-310 Barbero-Alvarez et al., (2008) J Sport Sciences, 26 (1): 63-74 Benvenuti et al, (2008) 13° Ecss abstract, Estoril Castagna et al., (2008) J Sci Med Sport, in press
THE EVALUATION OF PHYSICAL AND TECHNICAL CHRACTERISTICS OF AMATEUR SOCCER PLAYERSPOLAT, C., CERRAH, A.O., ERTAN, H.
ANADOLU UNIVERSITYIntroduction: The purpose of the current study is to evaluate the physical and technical characteristics of soccer players playing in regional amateur league.
Methods: 89 amateur soccer players has volunteered to the study from different positions (goal keeper (n=9), defense (n=25), midfielder (n=41) and striker (n=14). Subjects were familiarized with the testing protocol via two sub-maximal practice attempts (Jeremy et. all., 2007).
10, 20 and 30 m sprint scores have been measured. HUFA, which supplies information on both technical index and technical score, is a measurement station developed by Ozkara et.all. (2002). Measurement station is totally 30m including slaloms. The subjects performed two jumping protocols [(1) squat jump (SJ) and (2) countermovement jump (CMJ)] on BOSCO jumping mat. Each player performed 2 SJs and CMJs. The best jump of each jumping protocol was selected for analysis (Chamari, et all., 2004). Strength was determined isometrically for back pull-leg lift. The higher trial of two was used for analysis. Maximum voluntary back/leg strength was measured using a digital back/leg dynamometer (BCS-400, range: 0–500 kg, graduation: 1 kg). Flexibility test include sit and reach tests. The main function of sit and reach tests are to determine the hamstring and trunk flexibility. Body weight and height have been measured. Holtain calipers have been used to measure the skin thickness on four sites of the body. Body-density values was calculated from the by use of the Siri equation (1956).
Results: Sprint values consisting 10m, 20m and 30m has shown no statistical difference in terms of players’ positions (p0.05). Besides, there was no significant difference among the players’ position from technical index aspect. However, a significant difference has been calculated (p0.01) in between goalkeepers and defense players in terms of technical scores. The defense players have covered the distance in a shorter duration than goal keepers with ball. The same difference has been observed between goalkeepers and midfielders. No significant difference has been observed among amateur players in terms of the percentages of body fat values and body mass indexes (BMI), flexibility, SJ and CMJ and back-leg strength values (p0.05).
Discussion: The amateur players didn’t show the characteristics of their playing positions when compared with the literature. It can be concluded from the current results that the training program they have does not include the principle of training specificity.
References Chamari K., Hachana Y., Ahmed Y.B., et. all. (2004) Field and laboratory testing in young elite soccer players. Br J Sports Med 38: 191–196.
Jeremy S., Rob N. & Mike M. (2007). The Effect of Accentuated Eccentric Load on Jump Kinetics in High-Performance Volleyball Players.
International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching. Volume 2 • Number 3.
Özkara A. (2002). Tests and Specific Exercises in Soccer, Kuscu Printings, Ankara, 173-179.
OSCILLATIONS IN SMALL-SIDED SOCCER GAMESFRENCKEN, W., VISSCHER, C., LEMMINK, K.
UNIVERSITY MEDICAL CENTER GRONINGEN, UNIVERSITY OF GRONINGENIntroduction: The dynamical systems approach is increasingly adopted in performance analysis in sports. Mainly, the oscillatory behaviour of players in racket sports has been under investigation (Lames, 2006; McGarry et al., 1999; Palut & Zanone, 2005). However, team sports like rugby, basketball and soccer have not been subject of these analyses for various reasons. It is hypothesized that in soccer, attacking and defending is strongly coordinated between teams. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore small-sided soccer games as a dynamical system by means of 2 collective variables, i.e. centroid position and surface area (Frencken & Lemmink, 2008). In addition, we tried to identify patterns in the development of goal-scoring opportunities through visual inspection.
Methods: Ten young male elite athletes (17.3 years ± 0.7) played three small-sided games (4-a-side plus goalkeepers) of 8 minutes on a 28x36 m pitch. Player positions were recorded at 45 Hz per player by means of innovative technology, i.e. local position measurement (LPM) system.
In total, three measures were calculated per team for the centroid position (forward/backward displacement, lateral displacement and radial displacement) and surface area (length, width and surface area). Correlation coefficients (r) were calculated for these measures to analyze coherence of time series data of both teams.
Results: Correlation coefficients of centroid measures were higher for the centroid position (.57 r.95) compared to surface area (-.06 r.39). Highest correlation coefficients were found for forward/backward displacement of the centroid (r.93). For 10 out of 19 goals, a crossing of the centroid positions in forward/backward direction was present prior to the goal being scored.