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References Villani R., Angiari P., Tomasso A. (2004), 9°Annual Congress of the ECSS, p.295, Clermont-Ferrand Villani R., Ruggieri F., Tomasso A., Distaso M. (2005), 10°Annual Congress of the ECSS, p.419, Belgrade
HEART RATE VARIABILITY AT REST AND DURING EXERCISE OF CHEN-STYLE TAIJI QUAN PRACTITIONERSVARGA-PINTER, B., PETREKANITS, M., PAVLIK, G.
SEMMELWEIS UNIVERSITY, FACULTY OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPOTaiji Quan (TJ), as a moderate physical activity, has an influence on resting heart rate (HR) (Lan et al. 2004), however, few articles deal with heart rate variability (HRV) (Vaananen et al. 2002).
Aim: Our aim was to measure HRV of advanced Chen-style (the root of all TJ styles) TJ practitioners at rest and follow their HR changes during a training session.
Subjects and Methods: Measurements were made in 10 males of the advanced group (age 34±5.2 yrs, years of practicing TJ 6.6±3.4 yrs, training time 11.2±5.5 hrs/wk). Resting HRV was measured before practice with a POLAR Vantage NV watch and belt and during the session they wore a Team POLAR belt. One training session includes a 30-min warm-up -10 min stretching, 15 min practice of kicks and punches and 5 min acupoints’ stimulation – a 26-min 83-step form and finally a 34-min of push hands. Evaluation of results occurred with POLAR Precision Performance 2.0 and SW.
Results: At rest HR was found on the average 73±14.5 bpm. Index stda and stdb (standard deviation of instantaneous and long-term R-R interval variability) was 79.9 ms and 32.6 ms, only one person had low indices (12.7 ms and 2.6 ms). pNN50 (percentage of difference between adjacent R-R intervals that are 50 ms) values’ distributed from 0% to 37%, avg:10.6%. Distribution among very low (VLF), low (LF) and high frequency (HF) power was 35.4%-45%-19.6%, respectively. Three practitioners had very high (over 1000%) LF/HF ratio. From the level of HR in warm-up part one (88±7.1 bpm), kicks and punches increased the HR to 124±17 bpm. During 83-step form the HR was 118±10.3 bpm, and during push hands it was 116±8.2 bpm.
Discussion: Based on HRV, subjects arrived to the class in a good average cardiac state. The first part of warm-up raised their HR to the level of 53-57% of their maximal HR reserve, the second part took the biggest load on individuals (until 61-71%), during the form everyone’s HR decreased to 59-68% and curiously, though the 83-step form is a slow-form of Chen-style, in the fighting part practitioners’ HR was significantly lower (p0,05) than at the end of the form.
Conclusion: Though Chen-style TJ is an inner-style kung-fu, an advanced Chen-style TJ training differs from other TJ classes we can read about; it rather resembles to an outer-style kung-fu class. On the other hand, we are sure about that practicing the form alone, Chenstyle TJ has the same effects as other authors has mentioned about other styles.
1.C. Lan, S-Y. Chen, S. Lai: Relative Exercise Intensity of Tai Chi Chuan is Similar in Different Ages and Gender, The Am. J of Chin. Med.
2004, Vol. 32., No. 1, 151-160
2.J. Vaananen, S. Xusheng, S. Wang, T. Laitinen, H. Pekkarinen: Taichiquan acutely increases heart rate variability, Clin Physiol & Func Im (2002) 22,.2-3 13:00 - 14:00 Poster presentations PP-TT04 Training and Testing 4
EFFECTS OF UPPER EXTREMITY PLYOMETRICS ON THROWING VELOCITY AND ISOKINETIC MUSCLE STRENGTH OF
SHOULDER ROTATORS IN FEMALE HANDBALL PLAYERSGENÇOĞLU, C., AKSU, Đ., ŞAHIN, E., GÜLBAHAR, S., ATEŞ, O., BEDIZ, C.Ş.
DOKUZ EYLUL UNIVERSITY, ĐZMIRIntroduction: Purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of upper extremity plyometrics on throwing velocity and isokinetic muscle strength of shoulder rotators in female team handball players.
Methods: Sixteen subjects were volunteered to participate to this study. The subjects were randomized into plyometric exercises group (PG) (n=8) and daily training control group (CG) (n=8). Plyometric group (PG) performed plyometric exercises in addition to their daily training while control group (CG) just executed their daily training. Throwing velocities were tested in two types of throws which were standing throwing velocity (STV) and 3-step throwing velocity (3STV). Shoulder internal (IR) and external rotation (ER) peak torque were examined in 90, 300 ˚/s velocities before and after six weeks plyometric training period.
Results: Throwing velocities significantly increased in both PG and CG (P0,05). Peak torque of IR (300 ˚/s) in dominant arm and peak torque of ER (90 ˚/s) in non-dominant arm were significantly increased in PG (P0,05). Also, peak torque of IR and ER (300 ˚/s) in dominant arm and peak torque of IR (300 ˚/s) in non-dominant arm were significantly increased in CG (P0,05). But when both groups compared there were no significantly difference neither throwing velocities nor peak torques. There was a significant positive correlation between STV and peak torques of IR (90, 300 ˚/s) (r=0,56 P=0,01, and r=0,52 P=0,01 respectively). There was a significant correlation between peak torque of ER (90 ˚/s) and 3STV (r=0,49 P=0,02).
Discussion: Upper extremity pylometrics are used commonly in handball training (Kvorning T., 2006) but there is no avialable study in the literature. Some findings of throwing velocities after plyometric exercises conflict with a research in baseball which is similar with overarm throwing (Carter et al., 2007). It seems to six weeks plyometric exercises have no additional improvements on throwing velocities and isokinetic muscle strength of shoulder rotators in female handball players in our study. Altough we could not show any additional effect of plyometrics, we think that it could integrated into the handball training as a sport specific exercise.
References Kvorning T, (2006). 5th International Conference on Strength Training Carter AB, Kaminski TW, Douex T, Knight CA, Richards JG, (2007). J Strength Cond. Res, 21(1), 208-215
JUMP CAPACITY AND THE ACL INJURY IN FEMALE HANDBALL PLAYERSESTRIGA, L., CARVALHO, J., BERNARDES, J., MASSADA, L.
UNIVERSITY OF PORTOThe risk of ACL injuries seems to be higher in adolescents and young female athletes in comparison to male athletes of the same age. In handball, the lower limb muscle strength is essential to perform faking movements, changes in direction, accelerations and jumps. These actions are also the most frequently implicated in the ACL injuries mechanism.
Purposes: to examine the influence of maturation, oral contraceptive status, previous knee injuries and handball exposure in jump performance.
Sample: 496 Portuguese female handball players, 16±4 years old, practicing handball for 6±5 years. A cross-sectional experimental design was employed in the 2006-07 season. The testing sessions included initial anthropometric measurements, including standing body height, body mass and percentage of fat mass (by bioelectrical impedance). A screening questionnaire was used to assess some vital data, previous knee injuries and sports related information. Vertical jump tests were used to assess lower limb muscle strength: the squat jump (SJ) and counter-movement jump (CMJ). A contact platform was used to assess the height jumped. The m-eccentric utilization ratio (mEUR) was defined as CMJ/SJ-1.
Results: A stepwise regression on the jump performance revealed that there is a significant dependence only on age, BMI and field position (p3%).
The dependence on age is well described by 3rd degree polynomials (r279%) with a minimum at the start of the series (10 years) and a maximum at about 28 years. However, the CMJ and SJ evolve similarly (r2=0.75), what means that the elastic energy utilization, a frequent indicator of jump competence, has no significant trend during the players careers (r2=0.03). This is unexpected and in contrast with published data.
We have found a small increase in jump performance around the menarche age, not different from other improvements during other phases of the players’ careers (average of 5cm in 4 years).
On BMI, the jump performance dependence is less clear. Both CMJ and SJ are best described by parabolas with peaks at around
22.6kg/m2 but the fits have low adherence (r240%). They are also almost parallel along all range.
There is a statistical relation between field position and jump capacity. While left and right back players, as well as left-wingers, tend to have the higher jump capacities, pivots and right-wingers tend to be on the opposite extreme.
Finally, we have observed that players without previous knee injuries have a lower SJ capacity than players with previous knee injuries (p4%).
Conclusions:Maturation per se is not has decisive on jumping performance as training.
The absolute jumping capacity, the mEUR values and it’s evolution along ages may all be interpreted as a sign of a conditionally under trained population, possible at higher risk of ACL injury due to low dynamic knee stabilization capabilities.
Hormonal therapy does not have a significant effect on jumping performance.
STRENGHT AND ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE IN TRADITIONAL ROWINGSAEZ-SAEZ DE VILLARREAL, E., IZQUIERDO-GABARREN, M., RAFAEL GONZÁLEZ DE TXABARRI, R., IZQUIERDO, M.
UNIVERSITY PABLO DE OLAVIDE (SEVILLA)The purpose of this study was to examine the performance factors between elite (ER) and amateurs (AR) traditional rowers and the relations between the measured variables to determine the best predictors of traditional rowing performance. Average power during the 20 minutes´ all-out test (W20min), average power output which elicited a blood lactate concentration of 4mmol•l-1(W4mmol•l-1), power output in 10 maximal strokes (W10strokes), maximal strength and muscle power output during a bench pull (BP) and anthropometric values were measured in 46 trained male rowers aged 21 to 30 with 8-15 years of rowing training experience. ER group showed higher body mass (5%, p 0.05), free fatty mass (5%, p 0.05), age (21%, p0.001), training experience (43%, p0.001), and lower time in 2000m test (4%, p 0.05) than AR group. Average power output and power output index were higher in ER group (from 6% to 13%; p0.05-0.01) than in AR. ER group exhibited higher power output values in W10strokes (9%, p0.01), and in average power during W20min (15.4%, p0.01) compared with AR group. During W4mmol•l-1 the mean stroke power output was 17.8% higher (p0.01) in the ER than in the AR group. Significant relationships were observed between W4mmol•l-1 and W20min (r = 0.65 and 0.80; p0.01 in ER and AR, respectively).
ER groups was characterized by having higher body mass, having a greater percentage of free fatty mass and obtain significantly better results in the rowing performance test than AR. The indices of rowing performance suggested that W20min, W4mmol•l-1, W10 stokes and 1RMBP were the most important predictors of traditional rowing performance in elite and amateur rowers.
14 ANNUAL CONGRESS OF THE EUROPEAN COLLEGE OF SPORT SCIENCETH Wednesday, June 24th, 2009
STRESS AND RECOVERY OF NEW ZEALAND JUNIOR ROWERS PREPARING FOR THE 2008 WORLD CHAMPIONSHIPS:
COMPARISON TO THE 1998 GERMAN NATIONAL ROWING TEAMNOTTLE, C., VAN WARMERDAM, M.
WAIKATO INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGYIntroduction: Manipulation of training load is a key stimulus for improved performance, however overtraining can result in performance declines and burnout. Previously Kellmann et al  examined the stress, recovery and training duration of the German (GER) Junior Rowing Team preparing for the 1998 World Championships. The aim of the current investigation was to compare these results with the stress, recovery and training duration of the New Zealand (NZL) Junior Rowing Team preparing for the 2008 World Championships.
Methods: Athletes from the New Zealand Junior National Rowing Team volunteer for the study (N=24, mean±SD age: 17.4±0.5 years, height: 181.3±9.5 cm, weight: 81.3±10.1 kg, ∑8 skinfolds: 73.1±20.9). Athletes were monitored for 5 weeks of a training camp held immediately prior to the 2008 World Junior Championships. Athletes completed five Recovery-Stress Questionnaires for Athletes (RESTQSport) and a daily training diary outlining mode, duration and intensity of training. Descriptive data (mean±SD) for each scale of the RESTQ-Sport and training duration was determined for each week. These data were compared with data presented for the German athletes via determination of z- or t-scores.
Results: No differences in training duration between the two groups was recorded (t=0.5) with average weekly durations of 1090 and 1109 hours reported for the NZL and GER athletes respectively. For the stress scales: NZL athletes reported significantly higher scores for emotional stress (z=5.6), social stress (z=3.16), conflicts/pressure (z=3.9), fatigue (z=4.9), lack of energy (z=12.5) and physical complaints (z=7.8). For the recovery scales: NZL athletes reported significantly lower social recovery (z=-11.6), physical recovery (z=-4.6), general well being (z=-4.8) and sleep quality (z=-10.0). For the sport specific scales: NZL athletes reported significantly higher scores for disturbed breaks (z=8.6), emotional exhaustion (z=12.0), and injury (z=10.1) and significantly lower scores for being in shape (z=-3.6) and self efficacy (z=-2.6). At their respective events the GER athletes placed in 14/14 A finals (14 crews), with the NZL athletes placing in 3/3 A finals (5 crews).
Conclusions: While comparisons indicated no differences in training duration, the NZL athletes demonstrated higher stress and less recovery compared to the GER athletes. It is possible this is the result of differences in training intensity not duration, which is demonstrated to be related to overtraining (Halson et al. ). Although it is difficult to compare the performance outcomes of the teams, the long term consequences of high stress: low recovery for the NZL athletes may be a concern with regards to athlete development, and progression to seniors, due to the relationship between stress- recovery and burnout.
References  Kellmann et al. (2001). The Sport Psychologist, 15, 151-167.