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«BOOK OF ABSTRACTS Edited by: Loland, S., Bø, K., Fasting, K., Hallén, J., Ommundsen, Y., Roberts, G., Tsolakidis, E. Hosted by: The Norwegian ...»

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Methods: 5 judokas of the Spanish National Team were studied. The ground reaction forces resulting from the judoka being perturbed from quiet upright stance, for the two legged and single legged condition (Zakynthinaki et al, 2008; Stirling et al, 2007) were modeled and analyzed. With the use of a force platform the maximum correctable angles between the resultant ground reaction forces and the vertical in the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions were obtained. A closed critical curve (Stirling and Zakynthinaki, 2004) was then fit through the maximum correctable angles (for greater angles than these the judoka falls over). The curve was analyzed to find asymmetries. Each judoka also completed a questionnaire regarding their preferred techniques, with video being taken both of these techniques and also all the experiments.

Results: It was observed that the favored side (in the case of the two legged experiment) or leg (in the case of one legged experiment) for balance was connected with technical features of the preferred techniques of the judokas. In some of the judokas this preference was shown to be strong.

Discussion: Non-symmetric behavior caused by muscle imbalances, postural problems, structural problems and differences in the ranges of motion on either side of the body have been identified via the critical curve (Zakynthinaki et al, 2008; Stirling and Zakynthinaki, 2004). Our research has shown how these methods can be used to identify competitive strengths and weaknesses for addressing and correcting via training in elite judo (Stirling and Zakynthinaki, 2005; A. López Díaz de Durana, 2009).

References López Díaz de Durana A (2009). PhD thesis UCLM.

Stirling JR, Cordente Martínez CA, López Díaz de Durana A, Sillero Quintana M (2007). Technical Report, Consejo Superior de Deportes 07/UPB10/07.

Stirling JR, Zakynthinaki MS (2004). Chaos, 14(1), 96-105.

Stirling JR, Zakynthinaki MS (2005). Lecture notes of the ICB Seminar, Mechanical loads of the human motor system - Injury prevention, A.

Wit and F. Vaverka (Eds.) 64, 39-47.

Zakynthinaki MS, Stirling JR, López Díaz de Durana A, Cordente Martínez CA, Sillero Quintana M, Sampedro Molinuevo J (2008). Comp Phys Comm, 179(8), 562-568.




Introduction: Balance and posture in general is often affected by the history of injuries: different injuries affecting the balance or movement pattern of the individual in different ways. The converse of this is also true, in as much as irregularities in an individual’s posture and balance can increase the likelihood of particular injuries. The aim of this study was to apply the model Stirling and Zakynthinaki (2004) and the tools presented in Zakynthinaki et al (2008) to examine the connection between injuries and the asymmetries in the balance of elite judokas.

Methods: 5 elite judokas took part in the study. Each judoka stood on a force platform and was perturbed from quiet upright stance, for the two legged and single legged position (Zakynthinaki et al, 2008; Stirling et al, 2007). The maximum correctable angles between the resultant ground reaction forces and the vertical in both the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions were obtained. A closed critical curve (Stirling and Zakynthinaki, 2004) was fit through the maximum correctable angles at which the judoka could lean. This critical curve was analyzed for asymmetries and the judokas completed a questionnaire regarding their history of injuries. Video was also taken of all the experiments in both the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions so as to allow us to observe some of the basic irregularities in the posture and movement patterns.

Results: A connection between the asymmetries in the critical curve and both the history of injuries and the current injuries was observed.

In particular very strong asymmetries in the critical curve were shown to exist for those judokas who were injured when they completed the test.

Discussion: Injuries can result in muscle imbalances, postural problems, structural problems and hence as a result can cause asymmetric movement patterns which lead to differences in the ranges of motion on either side of the body. Such differences have been identified via the critical curve (Zakynthinaki et al, 2008; Stirling and Zakynthinaki, 2004). Our research has shown how these methods can be used to identify both current injuries and those which have occurred in the past (Stirling and Zakynthinaki, 2005).

References Zakynthinaki MS, Stirling JR, Lopez Diaz de Durana A, Cordente Martinez CA, Sillero Quintana M, Sampedro Molinuevo J (2008). Comp Phys Comm, 179(8), 562-568.

Stirling JR, Cordente Martinez CA, Lopez Diaz de Durana A, Sillero Quintana M (2007) Technical Report, Consejo Superior de Deportes 07/UPB10/07.

Stirling JR, Zakynthinaki MS (2005). Lecture notes of the ICB Seminar, Mechanical loads of the human motor system - Injury prevention, A.

Wit and F. Vaverka (Eds.) 64, 39-47.

–  –  –

Stirling JR, Zakynthinaki MS (2004). Chaos14(1), 96-105.




PURPOSE: To analyze the effect of body composition changes, from a period of weight maintenance to before a competition, on forearm maximal strength in male judo athletes. METHODS: A total of 26 men, top-level athletes (age: 23.2±2.9 yrs), were evaluated at baseline [weight. 73.1±7.1 kg; percent fat mass (%FM): 12.2±3.1 %] and 1-2 days before a competition (Weight: 72.0±7.0 kg; %FM: 11.7±2.8 %), with approximately 1 month apart between moments. Before the competition some of these athletes lost weight through self-determined means while others remained or increased their weight. A 7-day recall of dietary food intake was recorded at baseline and before the competition. At both moments, and after an overnight fasting, total body water (TBW), extracellular (ECW), and intracellular water (ICW) were estimated by bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy while FM, fat-free mass (FFM), lean soft tissue (LST), and arms LST were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absoptiometry (DXA). At baseline and at before a competition, a handgrip was used to assess forearm maximal strength (FMS) of the dominant arm. Changes are expressed as a percentage of the baseline value; comparisons of means, bivariate and partial correlations were used. RESULTS: A significant mean reduction (p0.05) in weight [-1.4±2.4 %, -6.2 to 2.8 % (mean ± SD, range)] and FM (-4.6±9.6 %, -21.9 to 14.0 %) was observed while no significant mean changes were found in FFM (-0.9±2.3 %, -5.4 to 3.1 %), LST (-0.9±2.4 %, -5.8 to 3.2 %), arms LST (-1.7±4.4 %, -9.9 to 4.2 %), TBW (-0.6±3.7 %, -9.2 to 5.9 %), ECW (-0.8±4.8 %, -15.8 to 5.9 %), ICW (-0.4±5.4 %, -10.9 to 8.6 %), energy intake (-6.2±27.9 %, -54.1 to 54.9 %), and FMS (0.7±7.5 %, -16.3 to 18.6 %). From all the above variations in body composition variables, changes in FMS were only significantly related with changes in ICW (r=0.559, p=0.003) but not with changes in TBW (r=0.338, p=0.091); the significant association of ICW and FMS alterations remained after controlling for weight and arms LST changes (r=0.558, p=0.005) which means that those athletes that lost water from the intracellular compartment were those that reduced forearm maximal strength, even after adjusting for the potential effect of variations in weight and arms LST observed before a competition. CONCLUSION: These findings highlight the need of assessing and tracking total-body water, specifically the intracellular water compartment, in elite Judo athletes to avoid reductions in grip strength when a target body weight is desired before a competition.




Introduction: Efficient action of judo for female juniors comperitors, cannot be described as uncontrolled or unorganised, in the same manner as it is not possible that at a certain moment all these typological indicators are maximised at the same time (Kajmović at al., 2007). This research is intended to establish typological situational judo structures for female competitors, is focused on achievement of scientific fact which will have permanent character and which will be used in future as a solid ground for resolution of particularly applicative task in judo. Therefore, the problem and the subject of this work is clearly articulated, and is related to establishment of rules existing at the latent level of situational action in judo, for female competitors. Innovative technique in this work defines as entities the fights and not individual fighters, simply since in this way one can gain more detailed information on existing rules as well as interactions.

Methods: For the purpose of this work the sample used was 126 junior female competitors from 38 European countries, in all weight categories, coming up to 179 fights between female competitors at European championship U-20 for juniors held in Sarajevo, 2003. Each competitor was described with 133 parameters out of which, after the elimination of such variables with exclusively zero values, there were 74 left. Initial results were carefully recorded through watching of VHS tapes, what made the situational aspect of the research really credible.

Results: The data processing was performed in such a way which allowed production of useful information at all levels of analyses multivariant complex models, in which a special place belongs to relation model of action. Results of this research give us the right to see the situational efficiency of judo female competitors comprises one latent dimension, which is separate in: a) tactical action b) global and strategic action, and c) action focused on technical segment.

Discussion: Understanding is seen in the possibility of recognition of isolated latent action mechanisms in situational aspect. Through this the research involves interpretability and repetitiveness, as well as the possibility to compare the results with other patterns and populations. This situational model is composed out of individual building elements representing the wish to win, the knowledge of conditions of realisation of activity and accumulation of efficient actions. A special segment to this theoretical model is added by the fact that the judo fighter has to have a precisely combined match which will give as a result a maximisation of each individual structural element.

References Kajmović H., Raño I., Kapo S. (2007). Differences analysis of situational efficiency performances between three level of judo competition for female seniots. 12th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science (ECSS). Jyvaskyla, Finland, 11 - 14 July 2007.




Introduction: The aim of the research is to evaluate the rapidity of reaction and action in karate techniques. We compared the speed of the techniques of the athletes of kata and kumite categories to confirm that the athletes who practise kumite are really more reactive than the others, as. We started the experimentation of the SOR test (reaction speed) which survey the actual rapidity of reaction in response to visual stimulus.

Methods: To perform the SOR test we used an ergotest which records the inputs coming from a photocell and a luminous starter, which allows to determine the reaction time for each technique. A piezoelectric footboard was placed nearby a punching bag to check the total time of the action, allowing to stop the chronometer of the ergotest when the athlete finishes his execution.

The experimentation was conducted over a group of 20 male athletes who practice karate (age:18/30; height:170/192; weight: 60/94;

degree: brown/black), divided into 2 similar groups: 10 katà and 10 kumitè competitors. We examined 4 techniques: 2 attack techniques with hands, kizami tsuki and gyaku tsuki (leading punch and reverse punch) and 2 attack techniques with foots, kizami mawashi geri and


TH Wednesday, June 24th, 2009 mawashi geri (front roundhouse kick and round kick). The objectivity was guaranteed by an accurate standardization of the protocol. The whole series of tests was repeated after two days to carry out the reliability study. It was also made a cross-comparison between the results of the group of the athletes performing kumitè and the group of athletes performing katà, in order to study the validity of the test and to check the ability to distinguish the athletes performing different disciplines. The reliability of such difference was studied through Anova Methods: Results: The reliability study (test-retest correlation) pointed out r values included between 0,80 and 0,91 (p0.01) for both the groups and the 4 techniques analyzed. In the cross-comparison the group performing kumitè resulted significantly more rapid in responding to stimuli than the group performing katà, with high percentage differences (kizami tsuki = 31%, p0,0001; gyaku tsuki = 32%, p0,0001; kizami mawashi geri = 25%, p0,01; mawashi geri = 27%, p0,01). On the contrary, there wasn’t a significant difference between the 2 groups in the overall time of execution of the techniques, with percentages varying from 3 to 7%.

Conclusions The results of the experimentation allow us to state that karate’s athletes performing kumitè speciality have a rapidity of reaction superior than those performing katà. Probably this is due to the fact that in katà responding rapidly to external stimuli is not so important as execution rapidity, as happens in almost every technical and combinatorial sport.

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