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Results: As expected, VO2max was significantly higher in AE runners (66.4±4.4 ml/kg/min) than AN runners (58.0±4.1 ml/kg/min, p0.05), whose values were similar to those in football players (D: 56.4±4.6 ml/kg/min; M: 57.2±5.1 ml/kg/min and F: 57.0±4.5 ml/kg/min). The HRmax differed significantly between AE and AN runners (191±9 : 198±7 bpm, p0.05), while no difference was present between football players of various playing positions (D : M : F – 192±10 : 193±6 : 193±9 bpm). The AE runners had significantly higher values of vmax and vAT (21.5±1.2 and 16.7±1.5 km/h) than the AN (18.5±1.5 and 13.2±1.2 km/h)(p0.05). The values of vmax and vAT in football players (D: 18.5±1.1 and 13.6±0.6 km/h; M: 18.8 and 13.8±0.7 km/h; F: 19.3±1.5 and 13.9±0.9 km/h) were similar to the values of AN runners (p0.05), and hence also significantly lower than in AE runners.

Conclusion The results of this study indicate that, when comparing physiological parameters from an all-out incremental treadmill test between football players and trained runners, the values of football players approximate most closely those of the 400 m runners. This singles out the possible importance of the anaerobic capacity and a high level of sprint endurance in football players.

References Vučetić, V. (2007). (Disseration), Zagreb: Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Zagreb.




Introduction: During past twenty years, many new elements introduced in the football game have significant changed the way it is played. There are many differences between the old type of playing football and today’s modern view of football but the two most important are speed of the game and the game’s dynamic. This is why significance of conditional component in football training is very important. Guided with this thought, we have asked ourselves if there are any differences in the functional capacity between defenders, middle field players and attackers.

Methods: Forty five football players (24.1±4.4 yrs; 182± 6.2 cm; 79.9 ± 7.5 kg) were divided in three groups: 15-defenders (DEF), 15-middle field players (MF) and 15-attackers (AT). Football players in this research were taken from the National team and the first Croatian football league. All subjects performed an incremental treadmill test (0.5 km/h speed increase per half minute, 1.5% grade) to volitional exhaustion, and walked at 5 km•h-1 during the first two minutes of recovery. The ANOVA was used to determine differences in observed variables between the groups.

Results: As expected, analysis showed no significant difference between players in basic morphological variables according playing position (DEF-184.9±5.8 cm and 83.6±7.5kg; MF=180.3±6.3 cm and 78.4±5.7 kg; AT=180.9±6.0 cm and 77.9±8.2 kg).

In the same time, significant difference we didn’t find in parameters of maximal heart rate (DEF=190.5±12.9 bpm, MF=190.5±7.3 bpm and AT=191.0±8.1 bpm), heart rate on the anaerobic threshold (DEF=149.0±11.7 bpm, MF=169.7±7.9 bpm and AT=170.5±8.8 bpm), maximal relative oxygen uptake (DEF=57.1±4.7 ml/kg/min, MF=56.6±3.4 ml/kg/min and AT=57.1±4.6 ml/kg/min) and relative oxygen uptake on the anaerobic threshold (DEF=48.8±4.4 ml/kg/min, MF=55.6±30.4 ml/kg/min and AT=48.7±3.7 ml/kg/min). Looking at research in general, such results we can ascribe last trends in modern football which from each player requirements equal energetic demand.

Conclusion: There are differences between defenders, middle field players and attackers, but they are not significant. Such results are consequence of requirements that modern football demands from football players. In modern football, each player participates in all phases of the game. So, we can say that the old style of playing football, that divides team into two main groups, defenders and attackers, is history.


• Astrand, P.O., Rodahl, T. (1986). New York: McGraw-Hill, USA.

• Bangsbo, J, and Lindquist, F. (1992).. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 13, 125–132.

• Burke, E.R. (1995): Serious Cycling. Human Kinetics, USA

• Vučetić, V. (2007). (Disseration), Zagreb: Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Zagreb.




Purpose: Soccer requires high leg strength, fit body composition and good postural control especially unipedal posture. In this research, we aim to investigate whether there are relationship between strength (muscle strength and muscle lean mass) and balance (static and dynamic) in soccer players.

Materials and Methods: 17 soccer players (mean: age=15 height=168,5 weight=65,5 BMI=20,8 training years=4,6) were participated in the study. Legs strength was measured with leg dynamometer; body composition was measured x-scan body composition analyzer.

Balance (static and dynamic) was measured Prokin 5.0 Technobody. Static stabilometery tests were done as Opened Eyes (EO) and Closed Eyes (EC) with 30 second duration. Dynamic Stabilometery Tests: a) Slalom test (forward-backward) to one axis a time. The subject’s scope is to hit objectives and follow the blue ideal line within 60 sn duration (a-hold with two hand and b-without hold) with 5 hard degree. b) Unilateral dynamic-stance tests (left and right leg) was done with the controlled load monoaxial test (antero-posterior) for right and left foot with 10 repetitions on an axis controlling player’s load (5 hard).

Results: Correlation was done between strength (muscle strength and muscle lean mass) and balance (static and dynamic) in soccer players. There were significant relationship Static Romberg Test EC/EO Perimeter Ratio and Left leg, right leg, trunk lean mass. No significant correlations were found between dynamic tests and body composition.

There are high negative correlation between lean mass percent and fat percent of soccer players. Thus; this players have enough fit condition for their branches. Besides, there are high correlations among leg strength and legs (left and right), trunk lean mass.

Left and right leg lean mass, left and right leg perimeter error scores for anterior-posterior dynamic balance were compared with paired samples T-test. Left lean mass is better than right lean mass (p0.05), similarly, left leg dynamic balance was greater than right leg dynamic balance (p0.01).

–  –  –

Conclisions: As a result, increases back and leg muscle lean mass and strength is associated with better postural stability, there should be further research for the balance evaluations after the strength training program for different sports.




Introduction: In many sports, players interact during a game. Dynamical systems theory provides tools to investigate these interactions by assessing phase relations. It has been suggested that a squash player with a lead phase relation has an advantage over the player with the lag phase relation with respect to rally outcome (McGarry et al., 2002). Therefore, phase delay between players might be a tool to investigate dominance during rally’s in racket sports (Palut & Zanone, 2005). It can be hypothesized that in ball team sports like soccer, a lead phase relation of the attacker increases the chance to score. Therefore, the aim was to investigate initiative in attacker-defender dyads in small-sided soccer games Methods: Ten young male elite soccer players (17.3 years ± 0.7) participated in three small-sided soccer games (4-a-side plus goalkeepers) of 8 minutes on a 28x36m pitch. Player positions were recorded at 45Hz per player by means of innovative technology, i.e. local position measurement (LPM) system. Cross-correlations and delays were calculated for acceleration profiles of all players 25Hz over a sliding 2,5s interval (NBody software, UMCG Groningen). To exclude less relevant couplings between players, a cross-correlation coefficient of 0.4 was set as threshold value. Only couplings between the attacker and defender prior to a goal or goal-scoring opportunity were included in the analysis. The attacker was the player that attempted to score, whereas the defender was the opponent of that particular attacker. All couplings were investigated through visual inspection.

Results: In total, 66 goal-scoring opportunities were notated of which 19 resulted in a goal. Preliminary results show that for 65% of the goals and goals-scoring opportunities the attacker holds initiative, with no difference between goals and goals-scoring opportunities. In addition, we found that the percentage of the attacker’s initiative decreases with type of attack (100%, 85%, 55% and 33% for 1v1 situations, regular attacks, counter attacks and long distance shots respectively).

Discussion: Results indicate that attackers most frequently take initiative prior to goal-scoring opportunities. The absence of clear differences between goals and goal-scoring opportunities indicates that whether or not a goal is scored eventually, depends on other factors, e.g. technical ability, goalkeepers ability and luck. The trend we found for the attacker’s initiative for the different types of attack is in line with the task of the attacker in the various types of attack. In 1v1 situations, the attacker has to take initiative, whereas that is less required in long distance shots. Based on this study, it can be concluded that encouraging attackers to take initiative increases the chance to score and therefore to win the game.

References McGarry, T., Anderson D.I., Wallace, S.A., Hughes, M.D. & Franks, I.M. (2002). J Sports Sci, 20, 771-781 Palut, Y. & Zanone, P. G. (2005). J Sports Sci, 23, 1021-1032 13:00 - 14:00 Poster presentations PP-TT03 Training and Testing 3




Olympic Taekwondo is a very popular sport, considered appropriate for children also to educate their discipline, control, and respect (Yard et al., 2007). Although athletes start training and competing around 10 years of age, no information is provided on the demands of the youth competitions. In fact, research on youth Taekwondo focused mainly on injury (Beis et al., 2001; Yard et al., 2007; Shin et al.,

2008) and the physiological profile of young athletes (Melhim, 2001), while heart rate and blood lactate responses to simulated (Bouhlel et al., 2006; Butios & Tasika, 2007) and official (Chiodo et al., 2008). Taekwondo competitions have been reported only on elite athletes. The unique chance of cooperation with the Italian Teakwondo Federation (FITA) presented us with an opportunity to have access to physiological and performance measurements on young athletes during the Italian Youth (i.e., Cadetti A) Taekwondo Championship. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the cardiac load of youth Taekwondo matches, and the differences in the athletes all-out performances (countermovement jump and handgrip) assessed before and at the end of their competition.

Seven female and eleven male young (range 13-14 yrs) Taekwondo athletes participated in the study. During Taekwondo competitions mean heart rate (HR) was 187±11 beat.min-1, with no difference between rounds and gender. HR higher than 85%HRmax showed a 77±27% frequency of occurrence. A difference (P0.05) for gender (females: 22±2 cm; males 27±6 cm) and its interaction with session was found for jump performances. Post hoc analysis showed no difference for female athletes while better performances after the match (28±6 cm) than those recorded before the match (25±6 cm) emerged for male athletes. Peak handgrip values were always found for the

right limb (P0.001), with differences (P0.01) for gender and session. Lower grip strength values were observed after the match (females:

272±58 N; males: 297±67 N) with respect to pre-match values (females: 256±54 N; males: 275±64 N).

The findings showed that Taekwondo competition is a high intensity intermittent activity. It could be speculated that the repeated concussions on the upper limbs used to protect from the opponent’s kicks and punches directed toward the scoring area of the torso might be responsible for the decrease in grip strength at the end of the match. The gender differences observed for jump performances at the end of match encourage further research in this area.

References Beis K. et al. Eur. J. Sports Traumatol. Rel Res 2001; 23: 130-136.

Bouhlel E. et al. Science & Sports 2006; 21: 285-290.

Butios S. & Tasika N. J. Sports Med Physical Fitness 2007; 47: 179-185.

–  –  –

Chiodo S. et al. 13th Congress of the European College of Sport Sciences p. 457.

Melhim A.F. Br. J. Sports Med. 2001; 35: 231-234.

Shin Y.W. et al. Am. J. Sports Med 2008; 36: 158-61.

Yard E.E. et al. J. Sci. Med. Sport 2007; 10: 219-226.




Introduction: Balance is fundamental in judo, both in attack when trying to break the opponent’s balance and in the defense of such attacks. Tools from dynamical systems have recently been used to model the process of regaining balance following a perturbation form quiet stance (Zakynthinaki et al, 2008; Stirling and Zakynthinaki, 2004). The aim of this study was to apply the model of Stirling and Zakynthinaki (2004) to look at the connection between the balance of elite judokas and their technique both in attack and defense.

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