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Methodology: The experimental group of 20 Brazilian male soccer player (mean age 16,3) were tested throughout a 4 basic soccer fundamental in a field test. The fundamentals tested were accuracy shooting, accuracy pass, conducting the ball and penetration throughout obstacles without the ball and with the ball. Group 1 consisted of four fullbacks, group 2 four halfbacks, group 3 four wings, group 4 four midfield and group 5 four forward. Accuracy shooting: consisted of an unobstructed divided goal in 6 quadrants target with different punctuation. The participants were asked to take four shots from a set distance away in 15 seconds. Accuracy pass over a short distance: This test is handicapped by the amount of time a subject has to complete the course. The test was designed so that each pass should be done with alternative feet, left right, left right or visa versa. A participant must score maximum accuracy points before time.
Penetration throughout obstacles without the ball and with the ball: this test was designed to improve close control while at pace without and with the ball. Eight cones are set out in a slalom effect and a single cone is placed a set distance. The idea was for the subject to run the slalom course up and down, with(out) the ball at his feet to the other designated cone.
Results: Observed differences occurred during the Penetration throughout obstacles without the ball were: the wings (mean 7,4 ±0,7 m/s); the fullbacks (7,2 ± 0,2 m/s); the halfbacks (7,5 ± 0,9 m/s); midfielders (7,4 ± 0,6 m/s); and (7,1 ± 0,7 m/s) for the forwards. No significant difference were found between the groups p0,05. Penetration throughout obstacles with the ball the mean were for: the wings (11,4 ± 1,9 m/s) ; fullbacks (10,9 ± 1,4 m/s); halfbacks (10,9 ± 1,3 m/s); midfield ( 9,9 ± 1,6 m/s) and (9,3 ± 2,3 m/s) for the forwards. A significant difference were found t student p0,05 between the wings players and forwards.
Conclusion: the forwards players appear to posses a better speed in the penetration run throughout obstacles with the ball among the others groups. This could be especially important because the speed and the fundamentals skills based on the level of the game and the player can make the difference during the match.
Reference Baumgartner,T;Jackson,A.(1995). Measurement for Evaluation: in physical Education and Exercise Science. Wm.C. Brown Communications,Inc.
National Coaching Commission (1993). AYSO Advance Coach Manual. American Young Soccer Organization.
THE ROLE OF FATIGUE DURING THE PHASES OF THE VERTICAL JUMP IN YOUNG FOOTBALL PLAYERSSANNICANDRO, I., PETITO, A., ROSA ROSA, A., PICCINNO, A., DE PASCALIS, S.
UNIVERSITY OF FOGGIA, 2SSIS PUGLIA (SUPERVISOR SCHOOL OF SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHER TRAINING)Introduction: The analysis of the vertical jump phases becomes relevant in consideration of the epidemiological data of non-contact muscular and joint traumas. Such data have shown that non-contact traumas in team sports constitute 39% of injuries in female basketball and 14% of injuries in men’s football (Junge et al., 2006) Thus, the assessment of the vertical jump is not only a control indicator of performance and efficiency of the neuromuscular system of athletes, but it can also be analysed from the qualitative point of view.
The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of fatigue upon various phases of the vertical jump after a maximal aerobic power test.
Methods: The sample was formed of n=15 young professional football players (mean±SD age, height and weight: 13.7±0.4 years,
166.1±6.1 cm, 58.7±4.7 Kg respectively).
The Counter Movement Jump (CMJ) was used to evaluate vertical jump phases by means of two different dynamometric platforms, one for each limb (Twin Plates and Globus Italia), equipped with specific software for the analysis of the movement. The evaluation of the jump was carried out before and immediately after the execution of an incremental shuttle run test (Léger & Cazorla, 1993). Statistical analysis was carried out using the non-parametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test with p0.05 considered as significant.
Results: The mean values showed a significant decrease in the height of the vertical jump (-12,1%, p0.001), an significant increase in the overstretching time phase, that is, the eccentric loading phase (p0.001) following the performance of an incremental shuttle run; a temporal increase was observed in the isometric stabilization phase when the subject terminates the jump after landing, but statistics did not find the change to be significant.
The mean value of maximal aerobic velocity reached by the sample in the Léger test was 13.0±0.5 km/h; equal to a VO2 max of 57,0 ml/kg/min.
Discussion: During the vertical jump, the athlete reproduces all the patterns of neuromuscular activation that can be found during characteristic sports movements, like breaking, cutting, acceleration and landing after the execution of a jump (Sannicandro, 2008).
The analysis of some phases of the jump demonstrate the considerable influence that fatigue has upon the ability of the athlete to elevate the body and, above all, upon the duration of the extremely important phase of pushing.
Alterations to the usual execution pattern of the jumping movement and, in particular, to the eccentric phase of the jump, could be put compared to slight decreases in postural control and consequently represent a potential risk of joint injury in the lower limbs.
References Junge et al., Am J Sports Med, 34 (4):565-577. 2006 Léger L., Cazorla G., A.R.E.A.P.S..1993 Sannicandro I., Br J Sports Med, 42 (6): 541. 2008
RELATIVE CHANGES IN BODY COMPOSITION AND FUNCTIONAL CAPACITIES IN REGIONAL YOUTH SOCCER PLAYERS10 - 16 YEARS VÄNTTINEN, T.
RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR OLYMPIC SPORTSIntroduction. In general, the changes in body composition and functional capacities that occur with chronological age during puberty in males is well documented (Malina 2004). In addition, Philippaerts & al. (2006) have shown that the peak development in functional
capacities occurs around at time of peak height velocity among youth soccer players. Even though the peak height velocity is obviously independent from exact chronological age, the Finnish junior soccer teams are organized based on chronological age. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine in which chronological age group the peak development of different body composition variables and functional capacities occurs.
Methods. Three age groups (10y, 12y and 14y) of the regional club team (n = 12-14 players/team) representing area of around 160 000 habitants were followed two years in terms of body composition (height, weight; standard techniques, muscle mass; bioimpedance Inbody 720), hormonal status (testosterone; basal venous sample after 12 h fasting), speed (30 m; light cells), agility (8-track; light cells), explosive strength (CMJ; contact mat, 5-step; standard technique), isometric strength (legs 107º, abdominals, back; dynamometer) and soccer skills (passing and dribbling; skill tracks). Thus, in the present set-up age groups from 10y to 16y were covered so that the same players were followed from 10y to 12y, from 12y to 14y and from 14y to 16y.
Results. The relative peak development in measured variable occurred between 10y to 11y in soccer skills (8.4 ± 2.6 %); between 12y to 13y in length (5.0 ± 1.7 %), weight (14.1 ± 4.6 %), muscle mass (15.2 ± 7.9 %), speed (5.2 ± 3.8 %) and agility (3.8 ± 2.6 %); between 13y to 14y in hormonal status (5.8 ± 5.5 nmol/l), CMJ (13.5 ± 10.4 %) and leg strength (24.1 ± 28.4 %); between 14y to 15y in 5-step (8.1 ± 4.2 %), abdominal strength (26 ± 16.5 %) and back strength (17.7 ± 12.7 %). No peak development was found between 11y to 12y or between 15y to 16y in any measured variables.
Conclusions. The results of the present study suggested that the peak development during puberty in Finnish regional soccer players occurred first in the basic soccer skills followed by the changes in body composition and speed related tasks and finally in the explosive and maximal strength. From the results of the present study it can be recommended that the soccer training should focus on exercises which develop speed and basic soccer skills in early puberty. At the age of 14 years the players are ready to begin strength training and are hormonally more ready for “adult-like soccer training”.
References  Malina & al. (2004) Growth, Maturation and Physical Activity. Human Kinetics: Champaign.
 Phillippaerts & al. (2006) J Sports Sci, 24(3): 221-230.
OBSERVATIONAL METHODOLOGY IN FOOTBALL: DEVELOPMENT OF AN INSTRUMENT TO STUDY GOALKEEPER BEHAVIOR IN THE DEFENSIVE PROCESS – SOFGR1.SARMENTO, H., ESTEVES, A., MARTINS, N., OLIVEIRA, C., LEITÃO, J., ANGUERA, T., CAMPANIÇO, J.
UTAD; UNIVERSITY OF BARCELONATraditional methods for quantifying sport performances (e.g., frequency of actions) are limited in their ability to describe the interaction of events that occur over time (Borrie et al., 2002). The aim of our study was to develop an innovative instrument for observation that can strengthen the existing schemes of game analysis in football in order to provide specific additional information on the behavior of Goalkeepers (GK) during the Defensive Process (DP).
The observational design of this study is located in quadrant IV, i.e. it has got a Follow-up design/Nomothetic/multidimensional (Anguera et al., 2000). The observational instrument is formed by a combination of field format and systems of categories. Our research focused on binomial Finalization/GK or attempted Finalization/GK, and investigated what precedes the finalization and what happens to the completion of the GK intervention.
The games were recorded on VHS video and then converted to MPEG-1. Our decision in relation to the observational sample took into account the establishment of 2 sampling levels (intersessional and intrasessional), from which a series of measures were taken. After a series of experimental observational sessions to test the observational instrument and to train the observers, we analyzed the quality of data through the intra-observer agreement (verified by the Kappa index of reliability of Cohen). The comparison of data recorded during the observational period was done using the SDIS-GSEQ program and its function for “calculating the Kappa coefficient”.
The resultant observational instrument ’ad hoc’ was created according to four criteria: i) guiding the offensive process; ii) offensive end of the process; iii) GK in the defensive process; and iv) effectiveness of the GK in the defensive process. The instrument of codification was sufficiently discriminatory; therefore fulfilling the requirements for the purpose it was created. It also demonstrated to be highly reliable, seen by the high correlation values (over 97,5 % for all criteria), and therefore opening the possibility for more objectives studies.
This instrument may be improved in the future by adapting it to the specific aims of the investigation and knowing that one can add or delete criteria, or simply focus on specific aspects of interest in studying certain football match periods.
Anguera, M. T.; Blanco, Á.; Losada, J. & Mendo, A. (2000). La MetodologíaObservacional en el Deporte: conceptos básicos. Lecturas Educación Física y Deportes. Revista Digital. Ano 5 - N.º 24. Buenos Aires. Argentina.
Borrie, A.; Jonsson, G. K. & Magnusson, M. S. (2002) ’Temporal pattern analysis and its applicability in sport: an explanation and exemplar data’, Journal of Sports Sciences, 20:10, 845 – 852.
A COMPARISON OF PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS BETWEEN FOOTBALL PLAYERS AND RUNNERS COMPETING IN
VARIOUS RUNNING EVENTSVUCETIC, V., PUCEK, M., SENTIJA, D.
FACULTY OF KINESIOLGY UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB, CROATIAIntroduction: Which type of endurance is crucial in modern football - aerobic or anaerobic? Over the last 20 years football has evolved, especially in terms of athletic preparation of the players, to answer demands of higher intensity of the game and longer field distances covered by players. All those changes require specific training methods and corresponding physiological adaptations of the players.
Trained runners, competing in different running events, may serve as role models through the whole range of endurance capacities, from purely anaerobic to ultra-distance aerobic endurance. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to compare football players with runners, in parameters of an all-out incremental treadmill test with gas exchange measurements: peak oxygen uptake (VO2max), maximal heart rate (HRmax), maximal running speed achieved in the test (vmax), and speed (vAT) and heart rate (HRAT) at the anaerobic threshold.
Methods: Forty-eight national level male runners, competing in running events with predominantly aerobic (AE: 23 middle and long distance runners, 179.6±6.2 cm, 69.1±6.5 kg) or anaerobic (AN: 25 sprinters and 400m runners, 182.5±4.8 cm, 74.5±5.8 kg) metabolic demands, and 45 national/international level football players: 15 defenders (D, 184.4±5.7cm, 77.2±17.7kg); 15 midfielders (M, 179.7±7.0 cm, 76.1±6.8 kg) and 15 forwards (F, 180.9±6.0 cm, 77.7±8.3 kg) participated in the study. All subjects performed an