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14 ANNUAL CONGRESS OF THE EUROPEAN COLLEGE OF SPORT SCIENCE
CAROTID FLOW VOLUME IN EVALUATING EXERCISE CAPACITYTANAKA, S., YAMADA, A., YOTSUMOTO, M., YAMAMOTO, S., NAKAMURA, T., YASUI, T., NAKANISHI, T., MITSUI, M., KITAJIMA, M., KASHIZUKA, S.
MUKOGAWA WOMEN`S UNIVERSITYCarotid flow volume in evaluating exercise capacity TANAKA, S,. YAMADA, A,. YOTSUMOTO, M,. YAMAMOTO, S,. NAKAMURA, T,. YASUI, T,. NAKANISHI, T,. MITSUI, M, M,. KITAJIMA, M,. KASHIZUKA, S.
Mukogawa women’s university Japan Introductions Echocardiography is the basic and non-invasive method in assessment of heart’s structure and function in elite athletes, so it is sometimes used for medical check and studying in some special sports. In men, it has been studied that prediction of the peak oxygen consumption with evaluation of the cardiac output at rest or diameter of the left ventricular at the end diastolic phase by echocardiography.
In this study, we examined carotid blood flow and cardiac output, and we also studied peak oxygen consumption (VO2), then we evaluate the relationship between carotid blood flow or cardiac output and peak oxygen consumption.
Methods: For 23 well general female college students, we examined wall- thickness ( LVPWd: left ventricular posterior wall diameter), IVSd (Inter-ventricular septal end diameter ) at the end of diastolic phase, a cardiac output (CO) and carotid flow volume (FV) by ultrasonography. We also examined peak VO2 using breath by breath analyzer by gradual increasing work load with treadmill running.
Results: Peak VO2 was 47.07 (SD: 0.67) ml/kg/min, and was significantｌｙ correlated with IVSd, LVPWd and CO. In addition, cervical artery flow volume was also significantly correlated with peak VO2.
Discussion: In the previous study of men, athletes compared to normal controls, LVPWd and IVSd were significantly larger and LVPWd or IVSd could be used for evaluating training effects. In this female study, we suggests that FV can be used for evaluating training status or level besides IVSd, LVPWd and CO.
References Macchi C, Catini C, Catini CR, Contini M, Zito A, Urbano F, Miniati B, Molino Lova R, Gulisano M, Brizzi E. (2001). Ital J Anat Embryol, 106(3).
Basavarajaiah S, Wilson M, Naghavi R, Whyte G, Turner M, Sharma S. (2007).
Br J Sports Med, 41(11), 784-8.
Braksator W, Król W, Mamcarz A, Krysztofiak H, Wrzosek K, Dłuzniewski M. (2006). Przegl Lek. 63(2), 53-7.
Bassett DR Jr, Howley ET. (2000). Med Sci Sports Exerc, 32(1), 70-84.
EFFECTS OF AEROBIC EXERCISE INTENSITY ON CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN PATIENTS WITH METABOLIC SYNDROMEKANG, S.J., KIM, B.R., KIM, J.H., LEE, D.K., OAK, J.S.
1. CHANGWON UNIV., 2. INJE UNIV., 3. SEOUL NATIONAL UNIV. OF EDUCATION, 4. DANKOOK UNIV.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise intensity on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with metabolic syndrome. The subjects were middle-aged women. Promotion Center of the C city. The subjects were randomly divided into the following three groups: moderate-intensity group(n=9, 40-60% of the heart-rate-reserve(HRR) method), high-intensity group(n=9, 60-80% of the HRR), and control group (n=8). The exercise groups were invited to participate in an exercise program consisting of a motor-driven treadmill walking and/or running for 12 weeks with frequency of 5 times per week, while the control group remained in normal lifestyles but refraining from any type of regular exercise.
The Fasting glucose were significantly decreased than those after treatment in both moderate and high-intensity exercise groups before treatment whereas the control group showed no difference. However, no significantly difference between moderate and high intensity exercise groups.
The Total cholesterol and LDL-C levels were significantly decreased than those after treatment in both moderate and high-intensity exercise groups before treatment. The HDL-C levels were increased in both moderate and high-intensity exercise groups after the treatment.
The triglyceride levels were no difference among the group, but the triglyceride was decrease after treatment then before treatment.
However, no significantly difference between moderate and high intensity exercise groups.
The Insulin and Insulin resistance were significantly decreased than those after treatment in both moderate and high-intensity exercise groups after treatment.
The Renin-angiotensin Ⅱ levels were significantly decreased than those after treatment in both moderate and high-intensity exercise groups before treatment.
The C-reactive protein were significantly decreased than those after treatment in both moderate and high-intensity exercise groups before the treatment.
Consequently, the moderate and high-intensity aerobic exercise during 12 weeks effect positively on cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, inhibition of renin-angiotensin Ⅱ activation and decrease of Creactive protein of patients with metabolic syndrome.
13:00 - 14:00 Poster presentations PP-TT06 Training and Testing 6
DEVELOPMENT OF A TEST BATTERY FOR THE SOCCER GOALKEEPERKNOOP, M., PISCHETSRIEDER, H., LANGE, P., FERRAUTI, A.
RUHR UNIVERSITÄT BOCHUMUp to now regular performance diagnostics in professional and upper-league amateur soccer have only dealt with the requirement profiles of outfield players. The goalkeeper´s special workload demands in competition and training have not been given enough attention. In order to close this gap we began to develop a specific test battery focused on the offensive and defensive requirements of the goalkeeper in the modern game. Therefore, in accordance to a systematic analysis of all goalkeeper activities during the European
Championships 2008, we designed the following tests:
• Elementary ability tests: Squat Jump (SJ), Counter-Movement-Jump (CMJ), Foot Tapping (FT)
• Complex offensive ability tests: precision and speed of passes, throws and kicks
• Complex defensive ability tests: 5 and 10 m sprint, sidestep sprint (SS), reaction and action velocity (RAV) and safe hands (SH).
RAV is measured by a self developed measurement system, the “Keepers Time Detector” (KTD 4pro), consisting of a fourfold selected optical signal and four respective defense actions to a fixed and contact sensitive ball (top right, top left, bottom right, bottom left of the goal). We analyze time and split time for singular or multiple defense actions. SH was measured using a ball cannon and a protocol with a stepwise increasing ball velocity.
The test battery was applied with seven 1st division teams (“Junioren Bundesliga”). Sixteen junior goal keepers (18.0±0.9 yrs; 187±5 cm;
80.4±7.7 kg) participated in the study. Selected results (mean values, standard deviation) are presented: SJ height (39.4±4.4 cm); CMJ height (47.5±5.8 cm); FT (11.4±1.1 Hz); throwing distance (39.2±3.3 m); speed of kicks (109.9±5.0 km/h); 5 m sprint (1.11±0.05 s) and 10 m sprint (1.87s±0.05 s). Singular RAV in different directions did not correlate very closely, neither to the top left and right angles of the goal (left 1.41±0.07 s vs. right 1.39±0.06 s; r=0.5), nor to the bottom left and right angles (left 1.30±0.05 s vs. right 1.23±0.07 s).
The individual results are compared to the collected mean values and specific training recommendations are given to the coaches.
Specific differences in the reaction and action velocity (RAV) to the left vs. right or to the top vs. bottom angles, respectively, are analyzed individually. Further detailed analysis of movement processes (footwork, step-sequences, upper body work) are planned focusing on an increasing efficiency of motor solution.
PHYSICAL AND PHYSĐOLOGICAL PROFĐLE OF ELĐTE SOCCER REFREES IN PRE PREPERATĐON AT HIGH ALTITUDEKIZILET, A., KIZILET, T., TOPSAKAL, N., ORTA, L.
MARMARA UNIVERSITYBACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between maximal aerobic power and fatique index in elitee soccer referees and assistant referees. The second purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between after multistage Shuttle run test’s actıve recovery heart rate, blood lactate level with maximal aerobic power and fatique index in elitee soccer referees and assistant referees.
METHOD: 5 top class and 25 elitee soccer male referees mean age 33,47 ±4,76, height 178,83 ±3,80 cm, weight 79,25.±5,60 kg., body mass index 23,46 ±1,99, % body fat 14.8 ± 2,35; and 7 top class and 44 elitee male assistant referees mean age 29,76 ±3,64, height 178,13 ±4,78 cm, weight 74,82 ±6,11 kg., body mass 21,03 ± 1,48, body fat 15,02 ±2,47 gr. took part in the study. Maximal oxygen uptake (maxVo2) during Multistage Shuttle run test and fatique index during 6x40 metre repeated-sprint performance test were measured in the soccer field. All tests were performed higher than 1500 metres altitude before preperatıon term. Blood lactate were measured by Roche, Micro Volume Lactate Analyser. Significant correlations were examined via Pearson product correlation coefficients.
RESULTS: Elite referees demonstrated a mean aerobic power of 46,23 ±3,03 ml.kg-1/ min-1. Mean final heart rate, after 1 min, 2 min and 3 min resting heart rate were 179±9, 141±12, 118±9, 108±8 b.min¯¹, respectively. After multistage shuttle run testing blood lactate level were 7,84±1,97 mmol l (-1), mean fatique index were 0,25 ± 0,13 s. and mean sprint time were 5,96 ± 0.21 s. Assistant referees demonstrated a mean aerobic power of 46,83 ±2,93 ml.kg-1/ min-1. Mean final heart rate, after 1 min, 2 min and 3 min resting heart rate were 180±10, 139±13, 119±10, 110±9 b.min¯¹, respectively. After multistage shuttle run testing blood lactate level were 7,64 ±1,95 mmol l(-1), mean fatique index were 0,62 ±0,43 s. and mean sprint time were 6,19 ±0.24 s. No significant correlations were established between maximal oxygen uptake and the fatique index (r= -125 and -042, p0.05) in referees and assistant referees. There was no significant correlation between active recovery heart rate, blood lactate level with maxVo2 and fatique index in referees and assistant referees.
There were just significant negative correlation between maxVo2 and blood lactate concentration in elite assistant referees (r= -,424 p0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Tests were performed before pre-sessıon and hıgh altitude, because of thıs will be expected to affect negative on maxımal aerobic power and fatıque index variables. Đmproved of maximal aerobic power might reduce the negative effect on blood lactate accumulatıon.
References Carlo Castagna, Grant Abt ve Stefano D’ottavıo, ‘The relationship Between Selected Blood Lactate Thresholds and Mactch Performance in Elite Soccer Referees’, Journal of Strenght and Conditioning Research, 16(4), 623-627, 2002