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In the analysis of the symptoms associated with dysmenorrhoea, the sedentary group showed greater severity of symptoms in the categories: ’bad pain and being’ (p 0001), ’fluid retention’ (p = 0002), ’feelings negative (p 0001) and ’concentration’ (p = 0017).
Conclusion – Our results suggest that regular practice of physical activity contributed in a positive way to improve the disorders caused by primary dysmenorrhoea.
INFLUENCE OF ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES ADMINISTRATION IN THE CAPACITY OF MUSCLE STRENGTHSANTOS, P., VIEIRA, D., ALVES, O., MIRANDA, L., VALENTE, A., MOTA, J.
FACULDADE DE DESPORTO - UNIVERSIDADE DO PORTOIntroduction / Objectives: This study aims are twofold: (1) to determine whether the administration of oral contraceptives (OC) influences the capacity of muscle strength, and (2) to analyse if there is variation in strength levels between the initial follicular and mean luteal phases of the menstrual cycle (MC) in women who take and don’t take OC.
14 ANNUAL CONGRESS OF THE EUROPEAN COLLEGE OF SPORT SCIENCETH Wednesday, June 24th, 2009 Relevance: The knowledge of the possible influence of CO in the capacity of muscle function will enhance the sports performance and clinical practice.
Methodology: A total of 40 University students participated in this study. Two groups were assigned (young women who take CO n = 20;
young women not taking regular NCO n= 20). An electronic isometric dynamometer was used to measure the maximum voluntary isometric contraction of quadricípite during follicular and mean luteal MC in both groups. T test was used for independent samples to compare the mean muscle strength and t test for paired samples, to compare the intra-group force mean differences in two phases of MC assessed.
Results: No statistical significant differecnes were found between the groups in initial follicular phase (37,86 ± 9,92 vs 34,90 ± 7,32 Kg/N;
p = 0.29); and in mean luteal phase (41,43 ± 7,71 vs 40,00 ± 8,26 Kg/N ;p = 0.58). In women taking OC, there is no statistical evidence (37,86 ± 9,92 vs 41,43 ± 7,71 Kg/N ;p = 0.06) to say that there are differences in the production of strength between the two phases of MC. In women who weren’t taking OC, there were found statistical significant differences in the production of strength between the two phases (34,90 ± 7,32 vs 40,00 ± 8,26 Kg/N; p = 0.01).
Discussion / Conclusion: Our results suggest that the administration of CO does not influence the capacity of muscle strength but eliminates the fluctuations in strength during the different phases of MC.
INFLUENCE OF COMPRESSION STRESS TO THE ARTICULAR CARTILAGE - AN EXTRA-VIVO STUDY USING MAGNETIZATION TRANSFER CONTRAST IMAGING KUDO, H., YAMAGUCHI, T., MUKAI, N., MIYANAGA, Y., MIYAKAWA, S.
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED INDUSTRIAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYIntroduction: Magnetization transfer contrast (MTC) is an imaging method, which creates tissue contrast in a different manner as T1 and T2 relaxation time by the exchange of magnetization between macromolecular protons and bulk water, via cross relaxation or chemical exchange. Therefore, it may be beneficial to evaluate articular cartilage using MTC because it has abundant macromolecules and its function should be specified by macromolecular protons. We had reported the change of MTC effect in human cartilage with exercise (ECSS 2004-2008). In this study, we observed the MTC effect in bovine cartilage during mechanical compression to verify the change of MTC effect reflected behavior of articular cartilage to compression stress.
Methods: Ten 8-mm-diameter cylindrical cartilage plugs were harvested from bovine tibia for the specimens. MTC images were obtained before, during, and after application of mechanical compression using Fast Low Angle Shot (FLASH) (TR(ms)/TE(ms)/FA(deg)=11.9/3..5/30) and FLASH-MTC sequence on a 2T superconducting magnet and a 72-mm birdcage coil. The off-resonance sinc pulse was set at a frequency offset of 1.5KHz from the free proton resonance with a duration of 3msec and an amplitude of 20x10-6T as preparation for MTC images. The mechanical compression (97.6kPa) was applied with a custom-built MR-compatible pressure device. The quantitative analysis of bovine cartilage was performed with Ms/Mo. Ms/Mo was calculated as follows: Ms/Mo = SNR with MTC / SNR without MTC, where SNR is signal-to-noise ratio.
Results: The specimens had mean Ms/Mo of 0.71 before compression. The Ms/Mo of specimens with mechanical compression decreased to 0.53 (p0.05) and recovered to similar level to the pre-compression after compression had been removed.
Discussion/Conclusion We investigated the MTC effect of the bovine cartilage during mechanical compression stress. The Ms/Mo decreased under compression and recovered by removal of compression. These results suggest that water content within the cartilage changed with mechanical compression. Furthermore, this extra vivo study also provides ample experimental support for our recent in vivo study.
13:00 - 14:00 Poster presentations PP-SM04 Sports Medicine 4
INVESTIGATION ON THE RISK FACTOR OF SOCCER-RELATED INJURY FROM PHYSICAL MATURATION ASPECTSNORIKAZU, H.
FACULTY OF SPORTS SCIENCES, WASEDA UNIVERSITY
First, early-matured adolescents, who may be stronger and bigger, are more likely to suffer from acute traumatic injury. Secondly, it is thought that intensive training may be overly stressful for late matured players as compared to early and average matured players because of their physical weakness. Therefore, in this study we examined the relationship between injury rates and biological maturation in adolescent soccer players. In addition we investigated the other risk factor of the over-use injury during puberty.
Mothod: One hundred and twenty five well-trained adolescent soccer players aged 12.2±1.5 years old (9.5~14.8 years old) were participated in this study. Participants were divided into three age categories (U11, U13 and U15), four maturational difference (MD: skeletal agechronological age) groups: Early (MD1.0), Average (MD= ±1.0), Late (MD1.0), and four height increment phase (HIP; Phase1 to Phase4) according to their annual height increment. Then relation between injury rate and these maturational statuses were examined.
Result: The rate of injury increases with age (p0.01). In U15, late maturity players had the highest occurrence of overuse injury, while early-matured players tended to be vulnerable to acute traumatic injury. Moreover, players whose HIP was determined as phase2 (growth spurt) during the pre-season period had significantly higher rates of overuse injury than any other HIP group (p0.001). In terms of acute injuries, players in Phase3 (after growth spurt) had the highest injury rate of all the HIP groups (p0.01). During Phase2, players showed a rapid gain in height. Moreover, in Phase2, 56.9% to 91.7% of proximal tibial apophyses were determined as being in the apophyseal or epiphyseal stage of growth.
Discussion: These result may imply that relative stress forced by training becomes stronger for late matured players in older age group. Moreover, physical growth and apophyseal fragility are thought to be risk factors for soccer-related injuries. A player who’s pre-season HIP is determined as Phase2 might be more vulnerable to overuse injury. Hence, we believe that evaluating individual pre-season HIP and biological maturity would help coaches and athletic trainers to predict and prevent certain kinds of soccer-related injuries.
CHANGES IN HCT AND HB IN RESPONSE TO HIT AND HVTZINNER, C., WAHL, P., HAEGELE, M., ACHTZEHN, S., DE MARÉES, M., MESTER, J.
GERMAN SPORT UNIVERSITY COLOGNEIntroduction: Although there is a lively discussion about different physiological effects of high intensity training (HIT) vs. high volume training (HVT), the effects of these two types of training on blood profiles have been payed less attention. Numerous studies examined the response of blood profiles after short term maximal exercise or long-duration exercise, but to the best of our knowledge no study investigated the different response of blood profiles between these two interventions. Therefore the aim of the study was to compare the changes of hematocrit (Hct), haemoglobin (Hb) and plasma volume (PV) after a HIT session and a HVT session.
Methods: 8 male athletes (27.4 ± 6 years, 182.3 ± 8 cm, 75.6 ± 9 kg, 67.9 ± 4 ml/kg/min) performed two training sessions on a cycle ergometer. The HIT-session consisted of four 30 sec lasting maximal sprints with five minutes rest in between. During the recovery intervals, subjects remained in a sedentary position on the cycle ergometer. The HVT-session consisted of a 60 minute continuous trial at an intensity 41–45% of VO2max.
Both sessions started with a warming up of 10 minutes at an intensity of 1.5 Watt/kg bodyweight. Venous blood samples were taken before the warming up and ten minutes after the last sprint and after the 60th minute respectively.
Results: Hct values showed no significant differences before both sessions (43.0 ± 1.7 % vs. 42.7 ± 1.3 %). After the training Hct values were significantly increased after HIT (46.3 ± 1.7 %), but no significant changes were found after HVT (43.6 ± 1.7 %).
Significant changes in the Hb values were also found only after HIT (pre training 14.7 ± 0.6 g/dl vs. post training 15.5 ± 0.6 g/dl) (HVT: pre
14.7 ± 0.5 d/dl, post 15.0 ± 0.7 g/dl).
The percentage changes in PV were calculated from hematocrit and haemoglobin values (Dill, 1974). The increments of PV after the two interventions were significantly different (5.9 ± 1.9 % HIT and 1.8 ± 3.6 % HVT).
Discussion: The small shift of Hct, Hb and PV after HVT could be explained by the water loss during long duration exercise (sweat), but during the HIT session water loss due to sweat can be ruled out. The shift of PV, Hct and Hb after HIT was likely a result of an increased plasma osmotic pressure and local capillary hydrostatic pressure. During HVT sessions, hemodynamic forces are considerably lower than during the HIT sessions. For endurance athletes the WADA defined upper limits for Hct and Hb concentrations to reduce risk of blood manipulations. In this context focus lies on individual blood profiles to get individual Hct and Hb characteristics. Further studies should examine the effects of on PV, Hct and Hb during an interval of HIT and the shift over the time.
References Dill D.B., Costill D.L.: Calculation of percentage changes in volume of blood, plasma, and red cells in dehydration. J Appl Physiol 37: 247– 248, 1974.
THE PREVALENCE OF METABOLIC SYNDROME IN JAPANESE STUDENT SUMO WRESTLERSSAKAMOTO, S., MIDORIKAWA, T., OHTA, M., TORII, S., KONISHI, M., TAKAGI, S., BEMBEN, M.G., KONDOH, M.
1. WASEDA UNIVERSITY, 2. KANAZAWA SEIRYO UNIVERSITY, 3. UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA, 4. NIHON UNIVERSITYPurpose: The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether obese athletes, i.e., Sumo wrestlers, who are severely obese but have high physical activity levels suffer to metabolic syndrome.
Subjects: Subjects were 19 young Japanese student Sumo wrestlers. Their age was 19.5±0.8 years, body height 178.0±6.8cm, body weight 126.6±14.3kg, BMI 40.0±4.9kg/m2.
Methods: Sumo wrestlers underwent the following measurement ( body composition including waist circumference, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry ( DEX ), MR imaging at abdomen, blood sampling at the fasting state in the early morning and blood pressure ( BP )).These bloods were used for measurements of HDL-Cholesterol ( HDL-C ), triglyceride ( TG ), glucose and insulin level ( IRI ). Thereafter, the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was made by the criteria proposed by the Japanese Society of Internal Medicine.
Results: Abnormally large waist circumferences ( 119.5±9.1cm ) were present in all Sumo wrestlers. Eleven Sumo wrestlers (57.9%) had high blood pressure ( systolic BP 125±23mmHg, 9 wrestlers≧130mmHg; diastolic BP 70±17mmHg, 4 wrestlers≧85 mmHg ) and 6 wrestlers (31.6%) were categorized as dyslipidemia ( HDL-C 44.4±8.7mg/dl, 5 wrestlers 40 mg/dl: TG 98.3±33.0mg/dl 1 wrestler≧150 mg/dl ) as determined by the criteria. None of the Sumo wrestlers had fasting hyperglycemia ( glucose 84.8±5.8mg/dl ) for the criteria. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in these Sumo wrestlers using the criteria was 4 wrestlers ( 21.1% ), although about a half of the wrestlers ( 47.4% )had abnormal values for insulin resistance ( IRI 13.6±6.5microIU/ml, 5 wrestlers≧15.0microIU/ml;
HOMA-R 2.83±1.32 9 wrestlers≧2.5 ).
Discussion and Conclusion: The present study is the report that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in young Japanese obese athletes ( Sumo wrestlers ) was 21.1% following the criteria determined by the Japanese Society of Internal Medicine. The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan reported that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 2.6% in Japanese males in their 20’s, but there was no information how many obese men was included in the report. These results indicated that daily high intensity physical activity as demonstrated by Sumo wrestlers, does not reduce all risk factors for obesity, but the risk factors were somewhat attenuated as evidenced by the unexpectedly low incidence of metabolic syndrome. We think that it is necessary for us to continue further more investigation in this point of view.