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Discussion: The present findings indicate that Beach Soccer is an intermittent sport activity that places a high load on players, with the anaerobic metabolism providing an important energy source during games. Although the marked decrease in intensity of playing might indicate that players undergo fatigue (Mohr et al., 2003), this speculation is in contrast to the increased CMJ performances of players, which might be attributed to an enhanced neuromuscular activation (Vetter, 2007). Thus, it might be hypothesized that players tend to adopt tactical strategies to spare their energies throughout the match and further studies are necessary to clarify these aspects.
References Mohr, M., et al. (2003). J. Sports Sci., 26: 141-148 Vetter, R.E. (2007). J. Strength Cond. Res., 21: 923-929
CORRELATIONS BETWEEN TEAMS’ HEIGHT AND GAME-RELATED STATISTICS IN YOUNG FEMALE INTERNATIONAL
LEVEL BASKETBALL GAMES.RUSSO, L., DE ANGELIS, M., VALENTI, M.
HUMAN MOVEMENT AND SPORT SCIENCE FACULTY, L’AQUILA
Methods The game-related statistics from 496 matches of the Under 20 female European Championship (2005 to 2008) were examined. Teams had an average height of 181 (SD 2.00) cm and an average age of 19.34 (SD 1.34) years. Correlations between height and game parameters were assessed by Pearson correlation coefficient. The significant level was set at p = 0.05 Results: In parallel with a positive significant correlation between the percentage of the games won and defensive rebounds (r = 0.43) and total rebounds (r = 0.35), the data analysis showed positive significant correlations between the teams average height and: percentage of the games won (r = 0.34), defensive rebounds (r = 0.32), offensive rebounds (r = 0.26), total rebounds (r = 0.35), blocks (r = 0.46).
Negative significant correlations was found between the teams average height and: points allowed per game (r = -0.37), opponent field goals percentage (r = -0.45), opponent 2 points field goals percentage (r = -0.40), opponent 3 points field goals percentage (r = -0.41), fouls (r = -0.32).
Discussion: In U20 female European Basketball Championship height appears to be significantly correlated with several “performance indicators” (Hughes et al., 2002) such as: assist, defensive rebounds, 2 and 3 point field goals percentage (Trninic et al., 1999; Gómez et al., 2008). The significant correlation found between average team’s height and percentage of the games won emphasizes the imporANNUAL CONGRESS OF THE EUROPEAN COLLEGE OF SPORT SCIENCE TH Wednesday, June 24th, 2009 tance of height in basketball as a performance indicator. It is therefore necessary to study other age/sex categories to have a full knowledge of all significant parameters.
References Drinkwater EJ, Pyne DB, McKenna MJ. (2008). Sports Med, 38(7), 565-578.
Carter JEL, Ackland TR, Kerr DA, Stapff AB. (2005). J Sports Sci, 23(10), 1057-1063 Gómez MA, Lorenzo A, Barakat R, Ortega E, Palao JM. (2008). Percept Mot Skills, 106(1), 43-50 Hughes MD, Bartlett RM. (2002). J Sports Sci, 20, 739-754 Trninic S, Dizdar D, Fressl ZJ. (1999). Kinesiology, 31(1),29-36 13:00 - 14:00 Poster presentations PP-SM03 Sports Medicine 3
HAEMATOLOGICAL CHANGES, CELL DAMAGE AND OXIDATIVE STRESS DURING A SKI-MOUNTANEERING COMPETITIONGIL, S.M., DIAZ, E., RUIZ, F., HOYOS, I., ZUBERO, J., GRAVINA, L., GIL, J.
UNIVERSITY OF THE BASQUE COUNTRYINTRODUCTION: Blood changes and muscle cell damage have been described in many sports (Nikolaidis, 2008). Also, high intensity exercise produces oxidative stress which has been related to fatigue, damage and overtraining (Fisher-Wellman & Bloomer, 2009).
Information about ski-mountaineering is scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyse the effect of a ski-mountaineering competition on blood measurements.
METHODS: 21 male skiers participated in this study. Blood samples were taken before and immediately after an official two-day skimountaineering competition to measure in serum: red cell count, white cell count, biochemistry, C-reactive protein, cortisol, creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (AP), total antioxidant status (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx).
RESULTS: After the competition there was a decrease in the red cells (4.78 x 106/µl ± 0.0 vs 4.56 ± 0.1**), haemoglobin (15.0 g/dl ± 0.1 vs
14.2 ± 0.3**), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (35.7 pg ± 0.2 vs 34.3 ± 0.3**, whereas bilirrubin (0.60 mg/dl ± 0.1 vs 1.10 ± 0.1**) increased (all maintained within normal parameters).
We also found an increase in the leucocytes (7.4 x 103/µl ± 0.3 vs 11.2 ± 0.6**), neutrophils (3.60 103/µl ± 0.23 vs 8.68 ± 0.60**) and monocytes 103/µl (0.50 ± 0.04 vs 0.90 ± 0.06**); but, lymphocytes 103/µl (2.80 ± 0.13 vs 1.50 ± 0.10**), basophyls 103/µl (0.10 ± 0.01 vs
0.04 ± 0.01*) and eosinophils 103/µl (0.40 ± 0.05 vs 0.07 ± 0.02**) decreased.
Muscle enzymes’ levels were higher after the competition (CK: 173 U/L ± 20 vs 664 ± 74**, AST: 25.7 U/L ± 1.4 vs 43.0 ± 3.2** and LDH:
305 U/L ± 12 vs 402 ± 14**), together with the cortisol (6.6 µg/dl ± 0.8 vs 16.8 ± 1.0**) and C-reactive protein (0.10 mg/d ± 0.02 vs 0.65 ± 0.04**).
On the other hand the capacity of the glutation peroxidase also increased (68.13 U/l ± 26.23 vs 117.70 ± 29.58**).
*p0.05, **p0.05 DISCUSSION: A two-day ski-mountaneering competition produced marked haematological changes: haemolysis, leucocytosis and lymphopenia. There was also muscle cell damage and oxidative stress. It would be interesting to know if these changes may affect performance; and if so, it could be important to design interventions to lower them.
Nikolaidis MG, Jamurtas AZ, Paschalis V, Fatouros IG, Koutedakis Y, Kouretas D. The effect of muscle-damaging exercise on blood and skeletal muscle oxidative stress: magnitude and time-course considerations. Sports Med. 2008;38(7):579-606 Fisher-Wellman K, Bloomer RJ. Acute exercise and oxidative stress: a 30 year history. Dyn Med. 2009 Jan 13;8(1):1.
THE COL5A1 GENE AND MUSCULOSKELETAL SOFT TISSUE INJURIESCOLLINS, M., POSTHUMUS, M., SEPTEMBER, A.V., SCHWELLNUS, M.P.
SOUTH AFRICAN MEDICAL RESEARCH COUNCIL AND UNIVERSITY OF CAPE TOWNPurpose: Genetic elements have been shown to predispose individuals to chronic Achilles tendinopathy (TEN) and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures. The CC genotype of the BstUI RFLP within the COL5A1 gene was significantly over-represented in the age-matched (±38 years) asymptomatic controls, when compared to TEN subjects in South African and Australian populations [1;2]. Similarly, within females but not males, this genotype was also significantly over-represented in age-matched (±27 years) asymptomatic controls when compared to ACL subjects . The frequency of the CC genotype of the age-matched (±27 years) asymptomatic male controls (16%) where distinctly different to the frequency of the combined male and female asymptomatic controls in the TEN studies, as well as the female controls in the ACL study (24-27%).
Aims and Methods: Considered together, these results highlight two important aspects which need further investigation. Firstly, is there a gender-specific COL5A1 BstUI RFLP genotype effect on TEN. Secondly, since the younger male controls within the ACL study had a lower CC genotype frequency is the distribution of this COL5A1 polymorphism within the controls age-dependent, particularly among males.
Results: There was no evidence that the association of the COL5A1 BstUI RFLP with TEN in the two previously published studies were gender-specific. However, when the 299 male asymptomatic controls from all studies were pooled and dived into age-group tertiles, there was a significant linear trend (P=0.047) for the CC genotype frequency amongst the male age groups, with the youngest group having the lowest (17%) and the oldest group the highest (29%). There was however a similar CC genotype content in all three female (n=251) age groups (23 to 26%).
Conclusion: Although the COL5A1 BstUI RFLP CC genotype was under-represented in females, but not males with ACL ruptures there appears to be no gender-specific under-representation of this genotype within TEN. Consequently, there is an age-dependant increase in the CC genotype of this sequence variant within a pooled group of asymptomatic male controls. The practical implication is that the selection of control groups is of critical importance when future studies of this nature are designed. Future research investigating this genetic variant as a risk factor for soft tissue injuries should consider these findings when selecting a control group.
1. Mokone GG et al. (2006) The COL5A1 gene and Achilles tendon pathology. Scand J Med Sci Sports 16:19-26.
2. September AV et al. Variants within the COL5A1 gene are associated with Achilles tendinopathy in two populations. Br J Sports Med; In Press.
3. Posthumus M et al. (2008) The type V collagen (COL5A1) gene is associated with anterior cruciate ligament injuries. Archivos de Medicina del Deporte 25:461.
RISK FOR “TIME LOSS INJURY” AND SKILL LEVEL AMONG 11-TO 12- YEAR-OLD MALE SOCCER PLAYERSSEVERINO, V., GONÇALVES, R., SIMÕES, F., REGO, I., MAZZUCO, M., FIGUEIREDO, A., PÁSCOA PINHEIRO, J., COELHO E SILVA, M.
UNIVERSITY OF COIMBRAAn injury consensus definition was established under the auspices of FIFA Medical Assessment and Research Centre (Fuller et al., 2006).
Risk for injury was already investigated in elite soccer (Ekstrand et al., 2004; Hagglund et al., 2003). Research in youth athletes is less abundant and still lacking in Portugal. The current study adopts the mentioned operational definition of “Time Loss Injury” [TLI] to estimate the incidence and prevalence of injuries among 11 to 12 years old Portuguese soccer players.
Based on soccer players from five clubs, the sample was composed by 62 subjects (11.0-12.9 years). At the starting month of the season players were measured in height, weight, fitness defined as lower limb muscle power (vertical jumps with and without counter movement using an ergo-jump, Bosco, 1994), 10x5-m agility test (Philippaerts et al., 2006), 20-m endurance test (Yoyo, Bangsbo, 1994) and 7sprint test (Reilly & Poran, 2003) and four soccer-specific skills (shooting, dribbling, passing and juggling; see Figueiredo et al., 2009). The authors individually registered the number of sessions, games and respective minutes over two seasons and monitored the episodes of TLI on a weekly basis.
After baseline measurements, 58% of the sample did not registered any TLI, 24% registered two episodes and 18% three or more over two consecutive seasons. The occurrence of injuries resulted in a loss of 490 days of practices and competitions. The total amount of exposures was 13,488 sessions and 1,046,346 minutes. The incidence was 5.19 injuries per 10,000 sessions of exposure and 0.67 injuries per 10,000 minutes. Injured athletes were significantly more talented in skills (juggling; dribbling) and attained better performances in the agility test as well as in best sprint of the anaerobic protocol.
In summary, four out of every ten initiates are victims of sport injuries. The current study also suggests that being skilled is a risk factor for sport injuries. It is of interest to confirm this trend and to consider policies for developing biological readiness among talented young soccer players.
Partially supported by FCT [contact: email@example.com] Bangsbo J (1994). Fitness Training in Football. Bagsvaerd: HO & Storm.
Bosco C (1994). La valoration de la fuerza com el test de Bosco. Barcelona: Editorial Paidotribo Ekstrand et al. (2004). Scand J Med Sci Sports. 14: 34-38 Hagglund et al. (2003). Scand J Med Sci Sports. 13: 364-370 Fuller CW et al. (2006). Scand J Med Sci Sports. 16: 83-92 Reilly T, Doran D (2003). Fitness assessment. Science and soccer,. London: Routledge, 21-46
PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN PRIMARY DYSMENORRHOEASANTOS, P., BALTAZAR, F., ALVES, O., MIRANDA, L., VALENTE, A., MOTA, J.
FACULDADE DE DESPORTO - UNIVERSIDADE DO PORTOPurpose – The aim of this study is to determine the influence of physical exercise in primary dysmenorrhoea and associated symptoms.
Methodology - This analytical cross sectional study comprised 72 volunteers women, aged between 17 and 25 years, of which 37 were physically active (non-competitive) and 35 were sedentary. In order to determine the existence of dysmenorrhoea the Moos Menstrual Distress Questionnaire was applied as well as the Visual Analogue Scale Survey to measure the severity of pain. For statistical analysis chi-square test and Mann-Whitney were used.
Results – Physical Active girls had less menstrual pain compared to sedentary ones (56.8% vs 97.1% ;p 0001). Regular physical activity showed significantly, less duration (p = 0014) and intensity of menstrual pain (p = 0001). In addition, the physical active women felt less disturbs caused by menstrual pain (p = 0,018). Furthermore they felt less incapacity to accomplish to daily activities (p = 0.09) and absenteeism at work or school was lower (p = 0, 02).