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Methods: The sample consisted of 80-videotaped Basketball games from the 2003, 2005 and 2007 Mail European Championships. The phases recorded were the outside game and the offenses with and without screen, as well as the effectiveness of the above offenses. To define effectiveness, the authors considered the successful or missed two-point and three-point shots, the won offenses and the turnovers. The following equipment was used: A video set to record the games shown on various channels; a video card for the digitalisation of the games; A computer (P/C); the “Sportscout” programme for the analysis of the digital video. For the statistical analysis of the data, the method used was the analysis of frequencies and the non-parametric test x2. The p.05 was defined as level of significance.
Results: The outside game took up 65% of the executed offenses. 4 out of 10 of the offenses far from the basket were realized after a screen, while 6 out of 10 without a screen. The teams performed a higher score of two-point and three-point shots, after a screen. The dominant offense with screen was the pick and roll, while the most frequent offense without screen was the 1 on 1.
Discussion: The dominant offensive tactic without screen was the offense 1 on 1, which is in accordance with Tavares et al., 2003. As for the offenses without screen, the dominant element of control offense was the pick and roll (Ociepka, 2004; Filipovski, 2005). Both the distribution of the offensive strategy and the effectiveness of the players are similar to those of previous researches (Tavares et al., 2003).
The development of an offensive strategy must satisfy players, coaches and fans, but it must also be successful (Wissel, 2006).
References Filipovski, S. (2005). The pick-and-roll offense. FIBA Assist Magazine, 12, 29-31.
Gillen, P. (1993). Pete Gillen. IN: Masters Press, Indianapolis.
Ociepka, B., (2004). Defending the Pick n’ Roll. FIBA Assist magazine, 11,30-34.
Smith, D. & Spear, B. (1981). Basketball Multiple Offence and Defense. Prentice Hall Inc. Englewood Cliffs N. J.
Tavares, F. & Gomes, N. (2003). The offensive process in basketball – a study in high performance junior teams. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 3 (1), 34-39.
Wissel, H. (2006). Man-to-man offense: passing game. FIBA Assist Magazine, 18, 6-10.
14 ANNUAL CONGRESS OF THE EUROPEAN COLLEGE OF SPORT SCIENCETH Wednesday, June 24th, 2009
SPACE-TIME COORDINATION DYNAMICS IN BASKETBALL: INVESTIGATING THE INTERACTION BETWEEN THE TWOTEAMS BOURBOUSSON, J., SEVE, C., MCGARRY, T.
NANTES ATLANTIC UNIVERSITIYIntroduction: Bourbousson, Seve and McGarry (submitted) reported an investigation of space-time patterns of basketball players in terms of the couplings among player dyads. The present study examined basketball game behaviour from analysis of the interaction between the two teams, addressing whether basketball subscribes to dynamical system descriptions at different levels of analysis.
Methods: Six game sequences were selected for analysis from which the x-y coordinate data of each player was obtained. From these data the longitudinal and lateral movements of the teams were then analyzed using two metrics, the centre of gravity and the stretch index. The former assesses the central position of a team and the latter the dispersion of a team about its central position. The relative phase between the centres of gravity, as well as the stretch indexes, and a new measure termed the differential stretch index (i.e., the difference between the stretch indexes of the two teams) were then used as collective variables to assess the interaction between the teams. Investigation of correspondences between game events (i.e. shot attempts and ball possession) and the collective variables used was realized.
Results: In regard to the phase analyses, an in-phase relation between the teams was evidenced with more stability reported for the longitudinal direction than for the lateral one. The differential stretch index in contrast demonstrated two separate and stable properties for both the longitudinal (-0.6 m and 0.8 m) and lateral directions (-0.4 m and 0.6 m). In the investigation of correspondence between game events and collective variables, qualitative analyses identified two classifications of shot attempts: individual shots and team shots, with the second shot type being produced seemingly just after a large perturbation in relative phase between centres of gravity when measured in the lateral direction. Major variations in the differential stretch index were related with changes in ball possession.
Discussion: The different results obtained by using different metrics and collective variables demonstrate that the information obtained from the analysis is much informed by the particular indicator used. The relative phase perturbations of the centres of gravity were forecasting shot attempts when produced by team work. This indicator might well contain useful information for sports practitioners. Otherwise, the supposition that in general the attacking team tends to expand and the defending team contracts was supported by the differential stretch index, with the teams switching between expansion and contraction in alternating fashion with changes in ball possession.
In sum, the space-time patterns of basketball teams, while different with regard to the particular indicators used, were nonetheless consistent with a unified description of self-organizing behaviours in sports competition.
References Bourbousson J, Seve C, McGarry, T. (submitted). J Sports Sci.
COMPARISON BETWEEN WOMEN’S AND MEN’S GAME AT RUGBY WORLD CUP LEVELVAZ, L., MOUCHET, A., CARRERAS, D.
1. RESEARCH CENTER FOR SPORTS SCIENCES, HEALTH AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT (CIDES) – PORTUGAL, 2. UNIVERSITÉ PARIS 12 - FRANCE,
3. INSTITUT NACIONAL D´ÉDUCACION FÍSICA DE CATALUNYA (INEFC) - SPAINNo study has accounted for the comparison between women´s and men´s game at rugby world cup level. The rugby men’s game has developed since 1995, so has the women’s game, but while the women’s game is structurally similar to that played by men in RWC 99.
The aim of this study is to determine if any relationship exists between women´s and men´s game at rugby world cup level. Archival data report to game-related statistics from thirty matches played in Women´s RWC 2006 and forty-eight matches played in Men´s RWC 2007.
We analyzed and compare matches during the different stages (pool, knockout and final stages) of RWC finalist countries. The statistical review and match analysis are analysed to help identify the most powerful game-related statistics to discriminate the game. In women´s RWC 2006 the average number of points per match was 39. 179 tries were scored in the 30 matches and there were six times more tries than penalty goals. The activity cycles: ball in play time averaged 41%, rucks/mauls averaged 131 per game, passes averaged 220 per game and almost 80% of all passing movements contained 2 passes or less. Open play kicks averaged 43 per game. Women set pieces: average 31 lineouts per game, 68% were contested and possession was retained on 73% of occasions. There were an average of 28 scrums per game and the possession retained was 89%. In men´s RWC 2007, the average number of points scored per match was
52. In RWC 296 tries were scored in the 48 matches, average 6.2 tries per game. 32% of tries came from lineout possession, 18% from scrum, 17% came from turnover or handling error and 15% came from opponents kick. The men´s activity cycles: ball in play time averaged was 44%, the men’s game produces 40% more rucks and mauls and around 35% more passes, average 144 per game. The men´s set pieces were lineout also average 31 per game just over 60% were contested and possession was retained on 80% of occasions. There were only 19 scrums per game/RWC 2007 some 9 more than in the Women’s RWC 2006. Apart from scrums - which were 33% more frequent in the men’s game, all core elements were recognizably the same, but with one significant exception - kicking. While the average number of tries were similar, when it came to kicks there were huge differences between the men’s game and the women’s game. Kicking therefore was a far less noticeable part of the women’s game with fewer kicks at goal, a lesser success rate and fewer kicks from hand during open play. What is clear therefore is that kicks at goal are less frequent and less successful than in the men’s game. This also illustrates the fact that kicks over a certain distance cause considerable difficulty to many women’s teams. There are some common tendencies in men´s and women´s game at rugby world cup level. The various teams may find the data of benefit in establishing benchmarks and performance indicators for future tournaments. REFERENCES I.R.B. (2006/2007) Statistical review and match analysis of Game. Dublin
RUGBY UNION GAME-RELATED STATISTICS AS A PREDICTOR OF WINNING OR LOSING TEAMS IN CLOSE GAMESVAZ, L., SAMPAIO, J., FERNANDES, S., MAÇÃS, V., VICENTE, J., LEITE, N., GOMES, I.
1. RESEARCH CENTER FOR SPORTS SCIENCES, HEALTH AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT (CIDES) - PORTUGALStudies rarely differentiate the characteristics of winners or losers in rugby union games. Rugby game-related statistics are a powerful tool to analyze teams` and players performance in different skills (Vaz, 2008). Unlike other team sports, available research is still unclear about the game-related statistics that discriminate between winning and losing teams. Only Jones et al. (2004) have identified lineout’s won on oppositions throw and tries scored as statistically different between rugby union game winners and losers. The aim of this study was to identify the rugby union game-related statistics as a predictor of winning or losing teams in close games. Archival data report to game-related statistics from 135 IRB games and 207 Super twelve games played between (2003-2006). Afterwards, a cluster analysis
was conducted to establish, according to game final score differences, three different groups for the subsequent analysis. Only the close games group was selected for analysis (IRB n=64 until 15 points difference and Super twelve n=95 until 11 points difference). Finally, an analysis to the structure coefficients (SC) obtained through a discriminant analysis allowed to identify the most powerful game-related statistics in discriminating between winning and losing teams. The discriminant functions were statistically significant for Super twelve games (Xi-square = 33.8, P0.01), but not for IRB games (Xi-square = 9.4, P=n.s.).In the first case, winners and losers were discriminated by possessions kicked, (SC=0,48) tackles made (SC=0,45), rucks and pass (SC=0,40), passes (SC=-0,39), mauls won (SC=-0,36), turnovers (SC=-0,33), kicks to touch (SC=0,32) and errors made (SC=-0,32).The minus sign denotes higher values in losing teams. Rugby union game-related statistics were able to discriminate between winners and losers in close games. The need for objective, accurate and relevant feedback about player’s performance from both training and competition has led to the development of match analysis systems based on computer and video technology. Coaches can use these results for players’ recruitment, team preparation and for directing the competition.
REFERENCESJones N M, Mellalieu S and James N (2004) Team performance indicators as a function of winning and losing in rugby union. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 4 (1), pp. 61-71.
Vaz; L. (2008). Identifying the rugby game-related statistics that discriminate between IRB and Super twelve winning and losing teams in close games. World Congress of Performance Analysis of Sports VIII (WCPAS) -Magdeburg-Germany
MATCH DEMANDS OF BEACH SOCCER: A CASE STUDYSCARFONE, R., TESSITORE, A., MINGANTI, C., FERRAGINA, A., CAPRANICA, L., AMMENDOLIA, A.
1. UNIVERSITY OF MAGNA GRAECIA, CATANZARO, ITALY, 2. DEPARTMENT OF HUMAN MOVEMENT AND SPORT SCIENCES, UNIVERSITY OF
FORO ITALICO, ROME, ITALYIntroduction: Despite the increasing worldwide popularity of Beach Soccer, played either at amateur and professional level, few scientific studies focused on this sport, leaving open several questions about its performance profile. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the responses to a Beach Soccer friendly match in varsity players.
Methods: Ten male players (age 23.6±4.4 yrs; body mass 71.8±3.8 kg; height 1.77±0.05m) of the Magna Græcia University beach soccer team provided their written consent to participate in the study. The subjects were divided in two teams (1 goalkeeper, 2 defenders, 1 pivot, and 1 attacker). The beach soccer match consisted of three 12-min periods with 3-min breaks in between. During the match heart rate was continuously recorded every 5 s (Polar Team System, Polar Electro, Finland). Before the match and at the end of each period blood lactate concentrations (La; Accusport, Roche, Switzerland) and power performances (countermovement jump, CMJ; Optojump, Microgate, Italy) were measured. To estimate the intensity of efforts during the match, HR was expressed as a percentage of HRmax using 5 categories: 95%, 86–95%, 76–85%, 65–75%, 65%. ANOVA for repeated measures was used to test differences (p0.05) between periods.
Results: Match intensity showed differences for HR categories (p=0.001) and their interaction with match periods (F(8, 64)= 4.18;
p=0.0005), and La values (p=0.03). A progressive decrease of occurrence toward the end of the match emerged for HR85% (periods:
first=75%, second=61%, third=31%). A similar trend emerged for La values (periods: first=8.7±4.0mmol.L-1; second=6.7±3.8mmol.L-1;
third=5.3±2.7mmol.L-1). With respect to pre-match condition (36.6±5.3cm), higher (p0.004) CMJ performances were found at the end of the match periods (first=39.5±6.5cm; second=40.9±6.4cm; third=39.2±6.0cm).