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2. Five-year practice of physical rehabilitation exercises has significant influence on locomotor and cardio-respiratory apparatuses fitness improvement for children of preschool age with spastic forms of cerebral paralysis of minor and moderate severity. These results are based on improvement of power endurance rate of abdominal muscles and support ability of inferior extremity.
3. Positive changes in operant behaviour and manipulative capability factor structure of children with spastic forms of cerebral paralysis of minor and moderate severity were diagnosed; this modification shows differentiation processes in central nervous system.
QUALITY OF LIFE IN ELDERLY MEN WITH CHRONIC CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE: EFFECT OF COMBINED EXERCISE
TRAININGJANCIK, J., DOBSAK, P., TOMICKOVA, J., POCHMONOVA, J., SIEGELOVA, J., PANOVSKY, R.
FACULTY OF SPORTS STUDIES MASARYK UNIVERSITY ( BRNO, CZECH REPUBLIC), DEPARTMENT OF FUNCTIONAL DIAGNOSTICS AND REHABILITATION, ST.ANNA FACULTY HOSPITAL (BRNO, CZECH REPUBLIC)Introduction: In recent years, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has been increasingly used as an indicator of health outcome.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three months lasting combined endurance/resistance training on the HRQoL in elderly men with chronic coronary artery disease (CAD).
Methods: 26 men older than 65 years with stable chronic CAD (mean age 70 ± 5 years, mean body weight 86,5 ± 11 kg, mean height 173 ± 5 cm, EF 48,5 ± 9%, were examined before and after three months lasting aerobic training combined (from 3rd week in the course) with resistance training.
Symptom-limited spiroergometry was provided before and after the training period. The first spiroergometry was applied for the evaluation of anaerobic threshold to decide on the aerobic training intensity. Load intensity for the resistance training phase was determined by the method of 1-RM (30-60%). The training (exercise unit) was performed three times a week. The impact on quality of life was measured using the Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ).
Results: It is concluded that the all 5 SAQ dimensions were significantly better after the training. Physical limitations (67 ± 25 vs. 76 ± 26**), stability of symptoms (67±26 vs. 82 ±18*), frequency of symptoms (73± 20 vs. 82 ± 18**), treatment satisfaction (84 ± 17 vs. 92 ± 21**) and disease perception (62 ± 20 vs. 73 ± 20**). Peak exercise oxygen uptake (VO2peak) increased from 18,6 ± 3,1 to 19,8 ± 4,0** ml. kg-1.minP 0.05, ** P 0.01, Wilcoxon).
Discussion: The Seattle Angina Questionnaire is a valid and reliable instrument that measures five clinically important dimensions of health in patients with CAD. (Spertus, 1995). CAD negatively affects HRQoL. In patients with CAD, age and sex independently affected the HRQoL. Older patients had worse HRQoL. (Unsar et al., 2007) In recent years was shown, that one-sided preference of endurance training in older age was not able to satisfy all requirements for maintainence of the strength necessary for satisfactory quality of life. (Macek et al., 2006). In our study three months lasting combined endurance/resistance training significantly improves quality of life and aerobic capacity in elderly men with chronic coronary artery disease. There were no exercise-related adverse events during exercise training.
Combination of strength and endurance training seems to be the most effective training schema in older persons.
References Macek M, Mackova J, Radvansky J. (2006). Med Sport Boh Slov, 15 (1) 33-41.
Spertus JA, Winder JA, Dewhurst TA et al. (1995) J Am Coll Cardiol, 25 (2) 333 - 341.
Unsar S, Sut N, Durna Z. (2007). J Cardiovasc Nurs, 22 (6) 501-507.
LOWER LIMBS COMPOSITION AND JUMPING PERFORMANCE IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS WITH DOWN SYNDROMEGONZALEZ DE AGÜERO, A., VICENTE-RODRIGUEZ, G., CASAJUS, J.A.
UNIVERSITY OF ZARAGOZAIntroduction: Jump power is associated to the composition (lean, fat masses and bone masses) of lower limbs in healthy population(1).
Lower levels of strength in quadriceps and hamstring have been observed in children and adolescents with Down syndrome(2). We aimed to elucidate whether children and adolescents with DS have impairments in jumping performance and to find the possible relationships with lower limbs composition.
Material and methods: 30 children (17 male) with DS, mean age 14.7±3 yr. were compared with 30 healthy and without mental retardation (MR) children, matched in age and sex. The total body lean mass and lower limbs bone mineral content (BMC), fat and lean masses of the subjects was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The jump performance was assessed throw the height jumped in counter movement jumps (CMJ) and Abalakov (ABA) jumps. Differences in the jumped height between groups (male and female separately, and as a whole) were established using Student’s unpaired t test, analysis of covariance was performed to test the differences in the upper and lower limbs lean mass using height and Tanner maturational status as covariates. Pearson’s correlations were applied to identify the relationships between lower limbs BMC, fat and lean masses and both jumps.
Results: Significant higher CMJ and ABA jumped height was found in children without DS (p0.01). Children without DS had higher lean mass and BMC in the lower limbs when both sexes were compared as a whole group and also separately (p0.05); there were no differences in the fat mass. Lean mass and BMC in the lower limbs were correlated in both groups (SD r=0.93; control r=0.92, both p0.01); also fat mass and BMC had a relationship in the group with DS (r=0.39, p0.05). CMJ and ABA jumped height was highly correlated with BMC (CMJ r=0.47, p0.01; ABA r=0.55, p0.01), lean (CMJ r=0.46, p0.01; ABA r=0.56, p0.01) and fat masses (CMJ r=-0.68, p0.01; ABA r=-0.71, p0.01) in the control group. In the group with DS, height jumped in the CMJ was correlated with BMC and lean mass (r=0.45; r=0.39, p0.05), and in the ABA with BMC (r=0.45, p0.05).
Discussion: Children with DS showed less lean mass and BMC in the lower limbs than their peers without MR; the jumped height of this population is also lower. CMJ was similarly related with lower limbs composition in both groups; however, the lack of relationship between ABA jump and lean mass could be explained by the technical factor associated to this kind of jump.
1. Vicente-Rodriguez G et al. Bone 2003;33(5):853-9.
2. Angelopoulou N et al. Calcif Tissue Int 2000;66(3):176-80.
13:00 - 14:00 Poster presentations PP-SA01 Sport Statistics and Analyses 1
STATISTICS BETWEEN WINNING AND LOSING TEAMS BY COMPETITION LEVELS IN VOLLEYBALL - WORLD CUP ANDCHAMPIONSHIP 2007 JOÃO, P., MOTA, M., MESQUITA, I., SAMPAIO, J.
1. RESEARCH CENTER FOR SPORTS SCIENCES, HEALTH AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT (CIDESD) PORTUGAL, 2. FACULTY OF SPORT SCIENCES
AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION – UNIVERSITY OF PORTO, PORTUGAL.Introduction: Game analysis (GA) allows for the interpretation of the organization of teams and the identification of game statistics so as to improve competitive performance. Volleyball game-related statistics are used to identify and control team and individual performances, aiming to find a way to score two more points than the opposing team. The characteristics identified in the diverse competition levels might present specificities for each game level. Therefore, the purpose of the present study has been to identify the game-related statistics that allow for the discrimination between winning and losing teams in competition levels in volleyball.
Methods: The statistics of all the games (n=344) of the diverse World championships 2007 (including all levels of competition and both genders) were analyzed using the Software VIS of the ’score box’ of the International Volleyball Federation (FIVB) by undertaking the analysis of the discriminating function (DF) so as to identify the indicators that contributed more to establish the maximum difference between victories and defeats. Through the structural coefficients (SC), we have identified the game-related statistics that best discriminate the levels.
Results: Our results showed that the obtained functions in this discriminating analysis were all statistically significant (p0.05) and classified correctly in 82.3% of the cases. As there are high values of quality reception and excellent sets in the senior teams, they obtained lower values in the continuity reception and faults sets. At the same time, the junior teams presented higher values of continuity reception. Thus presenting a possible explanation for the occurrence of faults sets, seeing as they are two actions preceded by the opponent’s service. The structure coefficients identified team continuity reception (SC=-0.35) and faults sets (SC=-0.30) for function 1. For function 2, only the excellent digs (SC=0.32) contributed to discriminate the groups.
Discussion: The results are going to suggest that the greater the experience with reference to age and competition level of the players, the better the levels of reception. Contrarily, the lower the age of the players and the competition level is, the lower the number of continuity receptions.
A possible explanation for these divergences in the values found in the present study may result from the differences in the tacticaltechnical capacity between competition levels, resulting from the differentiated qualities in the reception between extreme levels.
The ensuing results of the seniors present higher values in excellent distribution, slightly lesser in relation to the following variables; the same takes place for the continuity sets and the faults sets.
These profiles may better help coaches in their preparation according to this specificity, allowing teams to be ready to control these variables in competitions.
STATISTICS BETWEEN WINNING AND LOSING TEAMS BY COMPETITION LEVELS AND GENDER IN VOLLEYBALLJOÃO, P., VAZ, L., MOTA, M., MESQUITA, I., SAMPAIO, J.
1. RESEARCH CENTER FOR SPORTS SCIENCES, HEALTH AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT (CIDESD) PORTUGAL, 2. FACULTY OF SPORT SCIENCES
AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION – UNIVERSITY OF PORTO, PORTUGALIntroduction: The identification of sports skills underlying high-level performances can be information of great value to volleyball coaches, thereby allowing them to establish and monitor playing patterns. The aim of this study has been to identify the volleyball game-related statistics that allow for discriminating performances by gender and level of competition.
Methods: The statistics of all the games (n=344) of the diverse World championships 2007 (including all levels of competition and both gender) were analysed using the Software VIS of the ’score box’ of the International Volleyball Federation (FIVB), and involved the analysis of the discriminating function (DF) so as to identify the indicators that contribute more to establishing the maximum difference between victories and defeats. Through structural coefficients (SC), we have identified the game-related statistics that better discriminate the levels and genders.
Results: The results showed that for gender x level of competition the obtained functions in selective analysis were all statistically significant (p0.05) and classified correctly in 85.6% of the cases.
The structure coefficients from Function 1 reflected team faults percentages (SC=0.39), shots spikes percentages (SC=-0.38) and continuity digs percentages (SC=0.31). Function 2 reflected excellent Digs (SC=0.31) and continuity digs (SC=0.31). Function 4 showed team faults percentages (SC=0.35) contribution for discriminating the groups. Function 5 showed the excellent digs (SC=-0.39), the faults receptions (SC=0.35) the faults digs (SC=-0.34) and Serve aces (SC=0.30) contribution for discriminating the groups.
For the team faults percentages, it may be observed that there are differences between men and women at different levels of competition. The majority of the teams lose many points through the faults made. It is possible to observe that, in men’s Volleyball, the juniors present elevated team faults percentages, following the same pattern as the seniors and, finally, the youth. In the female Volleyball, the seniors present elevated team faults percentages, the juniors an intermediate figure and the youth present a limited number.
Discussion: The results show that the use of this study can help coaches to understand better the differences between players – the different genders of players and level of competition – and better regulate training sessions and competition.
As the game level increased, so did the risk, because not taking a risk can mean losing a point. In the game of senior Volleyball there is a greater error because continuity may provide an opening for the adversary to score. Men versus women: men fail more probably because they also risk more and in so doing end up by increasing the possibility of losing.
It is worthwhile pointing out that the success rate in the attack is almost always higher for seniors, regardless of gender, and decrease gradually until the younger players.