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Discussion: The effect of exhaustive exercise on subjects was significant that may be transient and related with intensity and duration. The results suggest that the exhaustive exercise induced changes in lymphocyte subsets but may not induced suppression immune function.
References Gleesen, M., (2007), J. Appl. Physiol., doi: 10. 1152.
Pedersen, B.K., Toft, A.D., (2000), Br. J. Sports Med., 34:246-251.
Shaukat, A., Ullah, F., Jan, R., (2003), J. Ayub. Med. Coll Abbottabad, 15( 1).
Woods, J. A., ( 2005), Brain, Behavior,Immunity, 19,369-370.
THE ALTERATION OF SOME IMMUNE SYSTEM FACTORS AFTER SIXTEEN SESSIONS OF PHYSICAL EXERCISEPOURVAGHAR, M.J., SHAHSAVAR, A.R.
1. UNIVERSITY OF KASHAN, 2. ISLAMI AZAD UNIVERSITY OF TEHRAN GHARB
In this study, the mean of the subjects’ exercise time was 18.30 minutes and it seems that this time can not affect the immune system and its function. Also, the time allocated to training regarding the response from serum immunoglobulins is a determining factor in a way that the concentration alteration of serum immunoglobulins after 2 hours of pedaling was measured in an article. Another issue is the frequency of exercise sessions per week. The researches leading to a change in immunoglobulins result from more exercise sessions per week and even during one competition season.
1.Karacabey K, Saygin O, Ozmerdivenli R, Zorba E, Godekmerdan A, Bulut V. (2005) The effects of exercise on the immune system and stress hormones in sportswomen. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 26(4):361-6.
2.MacKinnon LT, Jenkins DG, (1993) Decreased salivary immunoglobulins after intense interval exercise before and after training. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 25(6):678-83.
LYMPHOCYTES APOPTOSIS INDUCED BY MARATHON RACE IN ATHLETESCURY-BOAVENTURA, M.F., ALVES, S.R., MARQUES, C.C., CONEGLIAN, V.S., LEVADA-PIRES, A.C., PITHON-CURI, T.C., CURI, R.
INSTITUTE OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND SPORTS, CRUZEIRO DO SUL UNIVERSITYIntroduction: Physiological Stress induced by marathon race is able to promote transient changes on immune function. Post-exhaustive exercise of immunosuppression is characterized by a decrease in number of leukocytes, suppression of natural killer (NK) cell activity, and lymphocyte proliferation. Recent studies have been suggested that the role of leukocyte death on immunossupression is induced by exercise. Objective: Lymphocyte function and death, after a race was investigated. Methods: Nine athletes (training 170 + 15 km/wk, body fat, 6,5 + 1,7 %, race time 2h 46 + 11 min; IMC: 21,5 + 0,4) and eight non-athletes volunteers were recruited. Athletes blood samples were collected (3-7 days before, on rest) and immediately after the marathon race (42,195 km, Curitiba, Brazil). Non-athlete’s blood samples were collected on rest periods. Lymphocytes were isolated by density gradient, using Histopaque-1077 and studied immediately after Wednesday, June 24th, 2009 isolation, or after 18h ConA stimulation. The following determinations were carried out: lymphocyte proliferation, parameters of lymphocyte death (viability, DNA fragmentation, phosphatidylserine externalization, mitochondrial depolarization) and TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and ILproduction. Results: Marathon race had no effect on lymphocyte proliferation, viability and mitochondrial membrane polarization, but increased phosphatidylserine externalization (35 %) and reduced by 70 % TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta and IL-10 production, compared with athletes before race and non-athletes volunteers. Conclusion: Marathon race induced lymphocytes death in athletes volunteers predominantly by apoptosis, and reduced pro and anti-inflammatory cytokine production. These facts may contribute to the hypothesis that endurance exercise induce immunosuppression and raise incidence of upper tract respiratory infection in athletes.
CORRELATION BETWEEN SALIVALRY AND SERUM CORTISOL CONCENTRATION AFTER ONE SESSION SEVER ENDURANCE AND RESISTANCE ACTIVITY IN WOMENPARIAD, M., HASANLOUI, H., GOLI VARJOEI, M.
1. ISLAMIC AZAD UNIVERSITY, 2. CENTER FOR SENSORY-MOTOR INTRACTION,DEPARTMENT OF HELTH SIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, AALBORG
UNIVERSITY,AALBORG, DENMARKIntroduction: Measuring of stroeidal hormone which play an important role in metabolism regulating,specially during physical activities,has been remarkable for the researchers.a good correlation has been reported between amounts of salivarly and serum cortisol in exercise and clinical situation.but the results showed that there are some conflicts between salivarly and serum cortisol correlation.so,if we abtain a significant relation between salivarly and serum cotisol after strength and endurance training,we can abtain a better understanding of the hormone responces to physical activities.therefore,the aim of this study was to investigate the relation between salivary and serum cortisol concentration after resistance and endurance exercise protocol.
Metods: Twenty subjects (23.03±1.5yr,weight 63.88±5.88,height 168.69±6.63 kg)randomly divided into two group.endurance group participate in endurance protocol(Bruce test) and resistance group participate in resistance protocol(3 exercise,5sets×10 repetitions at 70%1RM with 3 min rest between sets).samples of salivary and serum cortisol were collected befor and immediately after both exercise protocol,and were measured using the spetial RADIM kits.data obtained from the assessing of the samples were analyzed using the statistical T-test and Pierson correlation ( R). P≤0.05 was considered as the significant level.
Results: The result of this study showed that salivary and serum cortisol concentration increased in two group following both exercise protocol.and the rate of increases in salivary cortisol in both group was more than in serum cortisol concentration.and there is significant correlation between salivary and serum cortisol concentration in both group.
Discussion: We found a significant correlation between saliva and serum cortisol concentration after both exercise protocole,so this would suggest that salivary cortisol concentration might be a more suitable variable for assessing glucocorticoid activity in exercise than serum cortisol concentration,probably being less sensitive to pre-exercise emotional state.
References Kraemer, RR., Aceredoe. O, Dze walto Wski. D, Kilgore. JL, Kraemer. GR, Gastracane. VD. (1991). Effects of Low Volume Resistive Exercise on Beta Endrophin and Cortisol Concentrations. Int. J. Sports. Med. 17(1):12 Dimitriou, L., Sharp. NCC. Doherty. M. (2002). Circadian Effect on the Acute Responses of Salivary Cortiaol and IgA in Well Trained Swimmers. Br. J. Sports Med. 36(4):260-264.
Jaffre, LG., Benhamou. L, Courteix. D. (2002). Effects of Chronic Intensive Training on Androgenic and Cortisol Profiles in Premerarchal Female Gymnasts. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 87(1):85-89
THE EFFECTS OF 2-DAYS REPEATED COMPETITIVE STRESS ON SALIVA IMMUNOGLOBULIN-A RESPONSES IN TRAINED
MALE ATHLETESLAING, S., JACKSON, A.R., DJEDOVIC, N., CARDINALE, M.
OLYMPIC MEDICAL INSTITUTEA decrease in the salivary concentration of immunoglobulin A (IgA) has been implicated as a possible causal factor in the increased susceptibility of athletes to upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). The aim of this investigation was to determine the effects of two days of competitive biathlon roller-ski racing upon s-IgA concentration and secretion rate, and salivary cortisol and testosterone concentrations.
Five male athletes (mean ± SEM; age 25 ± 1 years; height 177 ± 2 cm; body mass 74 ± 2 kg; body fat 10 ± 1 %; VO2max 59 ± 2 ml.kgmin-1) volunteered to participate in this study. All athletes were members of the British national team. None of the athletes was taking medications and/or reported symptoms of infections in the 4 weeks prior to the study. On two consecutive days separated by 20 hours, athletes completed 2 biathlon roller ski races consisting or roller skiing and rifle shooting. Race 1 was a 9.3 km SPRINT race characterised by 3 x 3.1 km roller ski loops on an undulating course with 2 x rifle shooting (one lying in a prone position and one from a standing position). Race 2 was a 13 km PURSUIT race characterised by 5 x 2.6 km roller ski loops on an undulating course with 4 x rifle shooting (two lying in a prone position and two from a standing position). During rifle shooting athletes were required to hit five targets positioned at a distance of 50 meters. For every target missed athletes were required to complete a 200 meter penalty loop. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected pre- and post- SPRINT and PURSUIT races. Saliva was collected for 3 ± 0.25 minutes by the athlete leaning forward and passively drooling into pre-weighed polypropylene tubes with minimal orofacial movements The s-IgA, cortisol and testosterone concentrations were determined using sandwich-type ELISAs. Saliva IgA secretion rate was determined by multiplying the s-IgA concentration by saliva flow rate. Saliva flow rate increased post-SPRINT (P 0.01) and post-PURSUIT (P 0.05) races. Saliva IgA concentration decreased by 53 % following the SPRINT race (P 0.05) and 47 % following the PURSUIT race. Saliva IgA secretion rate showed a trend to increase following both races however was not significant. Salivary cortisol concentration increased post-SPRINT and postPURSUIT (P 0.01) races whereas, salivary testosterone decreased post-SPRINT (P 0.01) and increased post-PURSUIT race (P 0.05).
There was a strong correlation between salivary cortisol concentration and the percentage race time spent between 90-100 % HRmax (R2 0.71, P 0.01) in the SPRINT race, and there was also a strong correlation between salivary cortisol concentration and the percentage race time spent between 80-89 % HRmax (R2 0.65, P 0.05) in the PURSUIT race. These findings suggest that athletes undertaking repeated intensive competitions over consecutive days do not demonstrate a reduction in saliva flow rate or s-IgA secretion rate., Sympathetic stimulation does not appear to inhibit saliva flow rate and s-IgA output (secretion rate) shortly after the race.
THE EFFECT OF AEROBIC INTERVAL AND MAXIMAL STRENGTH TRAINING ON STROKE VOLUME IN CORONARY ARTERY
DISEASE PATIENTSKARLSEN, T.
NTNU TRONDHEIMBackground: High aerobic intensity endurance training is an effective means for improving peak oxygen uptake and endurance performance in coronary artery disease patients. The purpose of the present investigation was to study the effect of high aerobic intensity interval endurance training and maximal strength training upon peak stroke volume in coronary artery disease patients. Design: Eight coronary artery disease patients (age 61.4 +- 3.7 years) trained 30 interval training sessions with 4 x 4 minutes intervals at 85-95% of peak heart rate while ten coronary artery disease patients (age 66.5 +- 5.5 years) training 24 sessions of maximal horizontal leg press. In the interval training group peak stroke volume increased significantly by 23 % from 94.1 +- 23.0 mL. beat-1 to 115.8 +- 22.4 mL. beat-1 (p less than 0.05) from before to after training. Peak oxygen uptake increased significantly by 17 % from 27.2 +- 4.5 mL. kg-1. min-1 to 31.8 +- 5.0 mL.
kg-1. min-1 (p less than 0.05) in the same group. No change was observed in peak stroke volume or oxygen uptake from before to after training in the maximal strength training group, despite a 35% improvement in submaximal walking performance. In the endurance training group a trend towards increased resting left ventricle ejection fraction was noted with increase in left ventricle ejection fraction from 62.3 6.5 to 65.4 7.2 % (p=0.06) from before to after training. Conclusion: High aerobic intensity interval training significantly improves peak oxygen uptake and peak stroke volume in coronary artery disease patients. Improved submaximal endurance after maximal strength training does not improve peak stroke volume or peak oxygen uptake in coronary artery disease patients.
GLUCOSE CONTROL WITH MINOR STRESS DURING RESISTANCE EXERCISE IN INDIVIDUALS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETICSMOREIRA, S.R.
CATHOLIC UNIVERSITY OF BRASILIAIntroduction: Resistance and aerobic exercises has been proposed to treatment and/or control of diabetes (Albright, 2000), but there is a necessity to other investigations among different intensities for the glycaemia of diabetics. Therefore, the aim of this study was compare the effects of resistance exercise (RE) intensity on reducing blood glucose (GLUC) on type-2 diabetes (T2D) and healthy (NT2D) individuals.
Methods: Nine T2D (47.2±12.4 years; GLUC-179.6±70.1 mg.dL-1) and 10 NT2D (50.8±12.0 years; GLUC-80.3±14.9 mg.dL-1) performed: 1) a RE circuit (3 laps of ~25min) composed by Knee Extension, Bench-Press, Leg-Press, Pull-down, Knee Flexion and Seated Row, being 30 repetitions of 23% of one maximal repetition (1RM); 2) The same circuit but 16 reps x 43%1RM; and 3) Control session. Before each session the participants ingested a standard breakfast (285 kcal). Blood lactate (LAC) and GLUC were measured during exercise and at each 15min of the 120min of post-exercise recovery. Heart rate (HR), rate-pressure product (RPP) and rating perceived exertion (RPE) were also measured.