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Introduction: Muscle contractions in normal resistance training are performed by eccentric (lowering phase) and concentric (lifting phase) muscle contractions. However, the difference in effects of timing of muscle contraction during resistance training on arterial stiffness is unknown. The present study investigated the effect of muscle contraction timing during resistance training on vascular function in healthy young adults.

Methods: Thirty healthy men were randomly assigned to group of resistance training with quick lifting and slow lowering (ERT, n=10), group of resistance training with slow lifting and quick lowering (CRT, n=10) and sedentary groups (SED, n=10). The ERT and CRT groups underwent 2 supervised resistance training sessions per week for 10 weeks. The ERT group performed the on set of 8 to 10 repetitions with 3 sec eccentric and 1 sec concentric muscle contractions. In contrast, the CRT group performed the on set of 8 to 10 repetitions with 1 sec eccentric and 3 sec concentric muscle contractions.

Results: Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) after ERT did not change from baseline. In contrast, baPWV after CRT increased from baseline (from 1049 +/- 37 to 1153 +/- 30 cm/s, P 0.05). No significant changes in flow-mediated dilation were observed in the ERT and CRT groups. These values did not change in the SED group.

Conclusion: These findings suggest that although both training does not deteriorate a vascular endothelial function, resistance training with quick lifting and slow lowering (i. e. ERT) prevent the stiffening of arterial stiffness.

13:00 - 14:00 Poster presentations PP-AP02 Adapted Physical Activity 2




G. Frattini¹,A. Ajani¹, A.Bodini², C. Galvani¹, G. Frattini¹, F. Cereda¹, M. Mondoni¹ ¹Motor Sciences and Sport, Catholic University of Milan, Italy ²Associazione Baskin, Cremona, Italy Introduction: Baskin is a new sport activity, projected and realized in Cremona, Italy. It was created to allow differently and normally skilled people to play together in the same pitch. The word Baskin is the combination of the words basket and integration, not only meant for disabled and normally skilled people, but also for different sexes.

Innovations and analogies compared to ordinary basketball The idea and principles of ordinary basket are maintained the same. Anyway there are some differences, which I point out in the part


- the number of baskets changes to 4; 2 on the short side and 2 on the borders of the centre line. They have different heights so everybody has the actual opportunity to score: the ones on the short side measure 3.05 m, the other measure 2-2.20 m. Under the ones on the centre line even lower baskets (1-1,20 m) can be placed.

- the conventional size of the court is 28 x 15 m, but it’s not mandatory, it can be varied according to needs, contexts and situations.

- there are 2 semicircle shaped areas with a radius of 3 m and they are divided in 3 sectors. These divisions are marked with adhesive tape.

- the match is divided in 4 games, with stops in the same cases as real basket, and also in a player with role number 1.

- to play a Minibasket ball is used; it can be changed in case a role 1 player throws.

- there are 12 players, 6 inside a 6 outside the court. All players must play, and the total add of the shirt numbers must never be more than 23. The number on the shirt is composed by 2 digits: the first one is there to indicate the role, the second one is to distinguish players.

Players are divided, according to their physical characteristics, in classes 1 to 5:

1: a disabled player that can’t move at all. He or she is always in the area of the lower basket, and when gets the ball, he or she has 10” and 2 shots to score;

2: a disabled player with all or some use of the hands but no leg use. He or she stays under the lower basket, and when he/she gets the ball then he or she can have 10” to score;


TH Wednesday, June 24th, 2009 3: a disabled player with all or some use of the hands and partial leg use, which doesn’t comprehend running or walking fluently. He or she can’t run and has 10” to score after he or she receives the ball;

4: a partially disabled player with all or some use of the hands, and full leg capabilities (walking, running, dribbling);

5: a fully skilled basket player.

In conclusion This new sport allows disable people to feel really integrated and socially accepted. It also has good benefits for what concerns self esteem and confidence, but also psychomotor abilities. It is an awesome weapons to fight insecurity, paranoia due to different physical condition, and other disturbing psychological statuses.

References A. Bodini, F. Capellini, Baskin: fondamenti sportivi e sociali, Cremona,2007




Introduction: The aim of this study was to reveal how patients with psychiatric disorders experience participating in different outdoor activities and, moreover, to understand whether activities in ‘nature’ can enhance their quality of life.

Method The study had a qualitative design. Participant observation and in-depth interviews were used. Six patients from a district psychiatric centre took part in a minimum of three days to maximum six days of outdoor hikes during a period of three weeks. The participants suffered from complex psychiatric conditions (e.g. depression, psychoses, personality disorders, and addictions). Their age varied between 18-71 years. The trips were organized in early autumn with a focus on good outdoor locations in the landscape of Sogndal, a small town in the western part of Norway. The trips consisted of short hikes, including a rest by a campfire with good food and a selection of outdoor activities.

Analysis/Discussion: In order to explain outdoor experiences, several theories can be applied. The environmental-psychological perspective, which attempts to explain the connections and experiences between humans and the physical environment, is a natural choice.

Central to environmental-psychological research is the evolutionary perspective. It assumes that humans are adapted through evolution to be living in a natural environment. This perspective looks at which types of environment possess recreational qualities with regards to human health. Several studies have found evidence indicating that humans adopt a more positive emotional condition after having experienced natural surroundings when compared to urban surroundings (Ulrich et al. 1991). One of the participants, ’Hanne’, seems to support this research. When asked about how she experienced being in the outdoors, she answered: ’Feel calm, is not restless. It gives me peace in a strange way. Calm and at peace with nature and myself. I don’t quite know how to explain it. Feel completely calm.’ This calm was also accentuated by other participants in the group. The evolutionary perspective of environmental-psychology provides an answer to why nature has a beneficial and calming effect on humans. However, this approach has problems to articulate how this is experienced by the individual. To better understand the experiential aspects of the participants, a phenomenological perspective is established. The phenomenological perspective, with its focus on the body and its close relation to the environment, can provide us with an understanding of the ways in which a person experiences the surroundings. The study reveals that psychiatric patients with serious disorders, experience participation in outdoor activities in a positive way. Hence, nature and outdoor activities can be integrated into everyday life in treatment of psychiatric patients.

References Ulrich R S, Simons R F, Losito B D, Fiorito E, Miles M A, Zelson M (1991). J of Environmental Psychology, 11, 201-230.




Introduction: The populations of Europe is ageing. Data shows that total population of people over 65 increased 12,86% between 2002 and 2025. Nearly 37% of the European population will be aged 60 years or more in 2050 [EC, 2006]. Although there is some awareness about the benefits of physical activity and many of the issues regarding elderly persons are being discussed nowadays, there is still a long way to go to achieve full awareness and inclusion of older adults and especially older disabled people. The challenge is to expand the concept of an active lifestyle for all elderly persons.

Methods: During three years experts in the domain of ageing and disability from 27 European countries worked together to face this challenge. The project has reviewed the information and statistics, gathered by all the partners on good practices and policies extending throughout Europe. As a network THENAPA II developed many products that facilitate the process of awareness rising in the domain of APA for the Elderly.

Results: This research made the identification and the fulfilment of relevant educational programmes in the students’ curricula. In turn these programmes have to motivate students from different academic domains to work with and for the elderly population and at the same time – to help expand the concept of active lifestyle for the elderly [THENAPA II, 2008].

Our data showed that although many good practicises were presented, not many programmes were exclusive for elderly people with a disability. To better serve the ultimate goal which is to motivate all older adults, regardless their abilities, to participate in different physical

activities, the following products were developed [THENAPA II, 2008]:

-the DVD “Never too old to be active. The joy of movement” contains three motivational movies that are meant to convince elderly themselves to participate in Adapted Physical Activities.

-“Active Ageing Activity Cards” are an excellent tool for everyone who wants to organize an exercise session for older adults with or without disabilities.

Those products complement each other; their specification gives a possibility to reach not only one type of end-user, but a whole spectrum of other potential users.

Another product is the Curriculum of The European Master Programme in Adapted Physical Activity for the Eldery. The Curriculum includes 11 modules that aim in developing competencies for a variety of specialists.

–  –  –

Recommendations have been developed by as part of the THENAPA II project. The Network recommends the European Commission that all EU member states should implement its findings under 3 different headings: (1) the policy, (2) research and/or education programmes and (3) the elderly persons with/without a disability.

References EC [2006] Population statistics. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxemburg THENAPA II [2008]: www.thenapa2.org/publications/products/ Acknowelegment The study was supported by grant THENAPA II Project No 114024-CP-1-2004-1-BE-ERASMUS-TN





Present research actual continuity. Infantile cerebral paralysis has many clinical presentations. To overcome clinical appearances of this disease many scientific research of different effectiveness were carried out. Infantile cerebral paralysis severity depends on disordered motor function evidence which is mainly caused by abnormal distribution of muscular tonus and dystaxia.

Study methods and management. The research was carried out in the biomedical department of the Slavenskiy-on-Kuban Pedagogical State Institute and in the physical education and sanative technologies of the Volgograd State University. The research presents methodology of use of physical culture devices during rehabilitation of infantile cerebral paralysis taking into consideration their physiological characteristics and capacities. The results of five-year exercise according to individual rehabilitation program for 4-7 year old children (18 people) with spastic cerebral paralysis of minor and moderate severity were generalized.

Research results and their discussion. The offered program including therapeutic exercises, mechanotherapy and massage contributed to the desorded motor function decrease, motor activity increase, improvement of daily living activities of children with cerebral paralysis of minor and moderate severity.

Physical exercises with the use of applied, breathing, overall developing, muscle-strengthening and speed exercises correcting faulty positions and deformations are aimed at antagonists` reciprocal interrelation restoration, rise in inferior and superior extremities mobility, movement coordination, equilibrium, locomotor and cardio-respiratory apparatuses fitness improvement. A specific importance was brought to mechanotherapy as one form of remedial gymnastics having an overall and local influence upon infantile body suffering from cerebral paralysis. Mechanotherapy was practiced on different training stimulators such as trampoline, balancing platform, cinder track, fitness cycle, etc.


1. The offered rahabilitation program for children of preschool age with spastic forms of cerebral paralysis of minor and moderate severity with the use of remedial gymnastics, massage and mechanotherapy proved its high effectiveness.

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