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Results: The result of underwater weighing is 10 values of weights under water, of body densities and of fat percentage according to various prediction formulas in every tested person (Brozek et al., 1963; Siri, 1961). On one expiration we record one to two values of the weight under water; the resultant value is, concerning scales oscillation, an average value within 2 s. Applied measurements show that after examinee’s experience it is possible to record even 7 almost equal measurements (in various examinees: 4.89±0.05 kg, 4.40±0.10 kg, 3.81±0.01 kg, 3.95±0.02 kg). For a definitive evaluation it is possible to take the average of three records or the higher weight with the lowest part of fat tissue.
Limitations Limitations of hydrodensitometry consist of an individual fluctuation of hydration of fat free mass and of density of particular components related to age, sex and amount of fat mass. The maximal expiration of the examine and the chosen method of residual volume estimation are also one of the limitations. Assuming minimisation of possible errors sources we may find hydrodensitometry as one of the most suitable laboratory methods for BC assessment.
References Brozek JF, Grande F, Anderson, JT, Keys A. (1963). Ann NY Acad Sci, 110, 113–140.
Kennon T.Francis (1990). Physical Therapy Volume, 70(10), 70–76.
Siri, SE. (1961). Body composition from fluid spaces and density: analysis of methods. In:
Brozek, J, Henschel, A. Techniques for measuring body composition. National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, 223–234.
This study was supported by MSM 0021620864 & GAČR 406/08/1514
VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF SHORT-FORM INTERNATIONAL PHYSICAL ACTIVITY QUESTIONNAIRE IN SEDENTARY
COLLAGE STUDENTS: PHYSIOLOGICAL AND CLINICAL RELEVANT.ALOMARI, M., QHATAN, R., KEEWAN, E., ABUWARDEH, A., AMER, A., KHABOUR, O.
JORDAN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYINTRODUCTION: The international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ) is a simple widespread tool to assess physical activity (PA) pattern in a variety of populations and societies. However, the validity against fitness and circulatory measures and the reliability of the shortform version in Middle Eastern sedentary collage students has not been examined.
METHODOLOGY: Therefore, the IPAQ was administered 3 times in 127 sedentary collage students with age range 18-23 years. Subsequently, percent body fat (%BF), body mass index (BMI), waist/hip (W/H) ratio, maximum walking distance achieved in 6 minutes (6MWD), and maximum handgrip strength (MHG) were examined. Blood pressure (BP) was measured using standard auscultatory method. The questionnaire reliability and validity were performed using intraclass (ICC) and Pearson correlations, respectively, whereas the Student ttests was used to compare the IAPQ items between males and females.
RESULTS: The ICC coefficients for walking, moderate, vigorous and total PA/week were, 0.97, 0.96, 0.97 and 0.97, respectively. Additionally, males as compared with females scored greater in walking (549.3±684.5 vs. 163.5±340.6; p=0.001) and less in moderate (540.0±711.5 vs. 1426.1±2005.1; p=0.006) PAs, while vigorous (4757.3±4583.5 vs. 3565.5±2391.2; p=0.11) and total (5950.7±5028.8 vs.
5132.9±3762.8; p=0.35) PAs were the same. Additionally walking PA correlated with muscle mass (r=0.5; p=0.0001), BMI (r=0.2; p=0.01), W/H ratio (r=0.3; p=0.002), MHG (r=0.3; p=0.004), and 6MWD (r=0.2; p=0.03) as well as with diastolic (r=-0.6; p=0.004), mean (r=-0.5;
p=0.05) and pulse pressure (r=0.5; p=0.01). Moderate PA correlated with body mass index (r=-0.2; p=0.04) and W/H ratio (r=-0.3;
p=0.007). Finally vigorous PA correlated with 6MWD (r=0.2; p=0.04) and total PA correlated with %BF (r=-0.3; p=0.008) and BMI (r=-0.2;
The results indicate that IPAQ items are reliable with the walking and moderate PA items can discriminate between males and females.
Additionally, validity of the questionnaire items against health-related fitness and BP measures is acceptable, with the walking appears to be most representative when assessing PA pattern in sedentary collage students. Finally, the association of walking PA with blood pressure measures is particularly important because of its physiological and clinical relevant.
EFFECTS OF A CUSTOM-MADE MOUTH GUARD ON THE MUSCLE STRENGTH AND POWERSUGAWARA, M.
NAGASAKI UNIVERSITY, FACULTY OF EDUCATIONThe use of the mouth guard is essential in contact sports for mitigating the impact on the head and protecting the mouth, its surrounding tissues, and head and neck from injuries. Recently, mouth guards have come to be used not only to prevent injuries and protect the teeth, but also to improve athletic performance. In this study, effects of custom-made mouth guards prepared by a dentist on dentition models that closely fit the wearers, and are comfortable to wear on the muscle strength and power of athletes were evaluated in 11 college American football players. The leg-flexion strength, leg-stretch strength, arm-flexion strength, grip strength, back strength, vertical jump, standing trunk flexion, jumping reaction time, anaerobic power, and blood lactate level were measured with and without using the mouth guard. The leg-flexion strength and leg-stretch strength were increased significantly by the use of the mouth guard. The armflexion strength, grip strength, back strength, vertical jump, and standing trunk flexion were improved, though not significantly, by the use of the mouth guard. No significant difference was observed in the jumping reaction time between with and without the mouth guard. The anaerobic power was significantly greater (p0.05) with the mouth guard (992.64±81.95 Watt) than without the mouth guard (912.45±84.59 Watt). No significant difference was observed in the increase in the blood lactate level after the measurement of the anaerobic power between with and without the mouth guard, probably because the subjects could exert muscle strength more efficiently by the use of the mouth guard. The results of this study suggest that the use of a custom-made mouth guard is advantageous for exertion of muscle strength and power. Whether the mouth guard is effective for the prevention of dental injuries in actual sports activities is another important question to be addressed in future studies.
13:00 - 14:00 Poster presentations PP-HF07 Health and Fitness 7
STUDY OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSE TO HARVARD STEP TEST IN DRUG ADDICTS IN REHABILITATION PHASESAAVEDRA, F., MARTINS, R., SANTOS, A., RIBEIRO, R.
UNIVERSITY OF TRÁS-OS-MONTESThis case-control study intended to evaluate the physiological response to effort (cardiovascular component) on a group of drug abusers in therapy, and elucidate eventual insufficiencies in cardiovascular performance as compared to a control group.
Our sample was constituted by twelve adult men drug consumers (28 +4.59 years of age; 75.38 +6.57 Kg weight and 179 +0.08 cm height) included in a rehabilitation program (mean of 6.04 +5.79 months of participation in the program), and 14 controls (25.07 +5.30 years of age; 75.25 +10.76 Kg weight and 175.5 +0.07 cm height) took part on this investigation. All the subjects were healthy and had no participation on any organized physical activity. We used the Harvard Step Test to evaluate the recovery index, recording the heart rate every 5 seconds with a polar monitor.
Results show no significant differences (p0.05) in recovery indexes between both groups (69.34 +14.28 experimental group and 67.40 +5.58 the control group), as well as no differences was observed in beats per minute at every minutes of the test and in the percent of variation of heart rate in all 60 seconds. When we excluded from the statistical analysis, the drug abusers that consumed cocaine (n=3), no changes in the relations were noted. The means comparison (T-student) between cocaine consumers and control group didn’t result on differences in any dependent variable. After mean adjustment with ANOVA, the results suggest some effect of weight and age in test performance, or else, this variables account for the variations in results between subjects.
We conclude that cardiovascular capacity, measured has the response to a sub-maximal test is not impaired in drug abusers. Conversely, individuals in therapy for drug abuse should be encouraged to participate in sports activities, representing sub-maximal efforts.
We need more evidence to support our results, namely other tests and functional evaluations, and knowing the cardiovascular response to maximal effort.
Lange, R.A., Hillis, L.D. (2001). Cardiovascular complications of cocaine use. N. Engl. J. Med. 345 (5): 351-8.
Neiman, J., Haapaniem, H.M., Hillbom, M. (2000). Neurological complications of drug abuse: pathophysiological mechanisms. Eur. J.
Neurol. 7(6) : 595-606.
Pu, L., Bao, G.-B., Xu, N.-J., Ma, L., Pei, G. (2002). Hippocampal long-term potentiation is reduced by chronic opiate treatment and can be restored by re-exposure to opiates. J. Neurosci. 22 (5): 1914-21.
Raine, N. M., Cable, N. T., George, K. P., Campbell, I. G. (2001). The influence of recovery posture or post-exercise by potension in normontensive men. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 33(3) :404-12.
Van Bockstaele, E.J., Peoples, J., Menko, A.S., McHugh, K., Drolet, G. (2000). Decreases in endogenous opioid peptides in the rat medullocoerular pathway after chronic morfine treatment. J. Neurosci. 20 (23): 8659-66.
EFFECTIVENESS OF A PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PROGRAM TAILORED TO PATIENTS’ HEALTH STATUS AND ACTIVITY LEVELS:
A PILOT RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALMARTIN-BORRÀS, C., PUIG-RIBERA, A., GINÉ-GARRIGA, M., MARTIN, C., DORDAL, S., CASANOVAS, E., RIERA, M., GUERRABALIC, M.
PRIMARY HEALTH CARE OF BARCELONA, INSTITUT CATALÀ DE LA SALUTCarme Martin-Borràs1,2,3; Anna Puig-Ribera1,4; Maria Giné-Garriga1,2,3; Carlos Martin1,5; Susagna Dordal6; Elena Casanovas6;
Montse Riera6; Míriam Guerra-Balic3 1CardioCat Research Group, IDIAP Jordi Gol (Catalonia, Spain); 2Pimary care of Barcelona, Institut Català de la Salut (Catalonia, Spain);
3Department of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, FPCEE Blanquerna, Universitat Ramon Llull (Catalonia, Spain); 4Universitat de Vic (Catalonia, Spain); 5CAP Passeig Sant Joan, Institut Català de la Salut (Catalonia, Spain); 6ABS Vic Nord, Institut Català de la Salut (Catalonia, Spain).
There is scarce evidence in Spain about effective ways of producing sustained increases in patients’ physical activity (PA) that can be easily integrated into the primary care work routine.
PURPOSE. To evaluate the short and mid-term impact of a PA program over a patients’ total PA and their attitude towards practicing PA, using a pilot randomized control trial (RCT).
METHODS. Following ethical approval, thirty primary care patients with a low level of PA, an associated chronic disease and non medical contraindication to practice PA (5 male, 25 female; 69±10 years; 31.3±2.9 kg/m2) were randomly allocated to a control group (CG)(n=12) (usual care) or intervention group (IG) (n=18) (3-month PA program; two sessions/week; 60 minutes/session). Previously validated questionnaires to measure total PA (IPAQ short version) and Stages of Change (SOC) for PA were administered 4 times: pre, post intervention, 3 and 6-month follow-up. Effects over the intervention were evaluated by calculating the magnitude of change between pre and 3 and 6month follow-up scores for total METS minutes/week and maintaining/changing patient’s SOC for PA. Independent t-test (METS minutes/week) and Chi-square test (SOC for PA) were used to identify significant differences and associations between groups.
RESULTS. Patients’ adherence to the program was high (78% assistance). The average METS minutes/week at baseline were 1662 (±1362) for the CG and 1659 (±1235) for IG. The IG showed higher MET minutes/week in the 3-month follow-up (2823±1813) and 6-month followup (1992±1201) than the CG (1731±1281 in the 3-month follow up and 1707±1249 in the 6-month follow up). The difference between groups was significant (t(18)=-3.12, p=0.006). At baseline, 66% of the IG (8 subjects) and 80% of the CG (8 subjects) were at the precontemplation/contemplation stage for PA. In the follow-up, 95% of the IG (14 subjects) had moved towards the action/maintenance stages while 100% of the CG (12 subjects) remained in the initial SOC.
There was a significant association between participating in the PA program and patients’ changing their SOC for PA (Χ2(3)=24.7, p0.001).
CONCLUSION. This preliminary data indicated the effectiveness of a low-cost PA promotion program on patients’ short and mid term adherence to PA. Further research will evaluate the long-term adherence (12-month) of the program on a RCT with more than 400 patients.
PREDICTING MAXIMAL OXYGEN UPTAKE FROM A PERCEPTUALLY REGULATED EXERCISE TEST PRET.MORRIS, M., LAMB, K.L., BUCKLEY, J., COTTERRELL, D.
UNIVERSITY OF CHESTERIntroduction: Recent investigations (Eston et al, 2005; 2008; Morris et al, 2009, in press) have provided encouraging evidence to support the prediction of maximal oxygen uptake (Vo2max) from a perceptually regulated exercise test (PRET). The PRET has typically required participants to exert themselves over a range of intensities up to a rating of perceived exertion (RPE) of 17 (Very hard) on Borg’s 6-20 scale.
This intensity is, however, considered to be too strenuous and possibly unsafe for non-athletic populations. The purpose of the present study is therefore to examine the validity and reliability of predicting Vo2max from a PRET incorporating a ceiling intensity of RPE 15.