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«BOOK OF ABSTRACTS Edited by: Loland, S., Bø, K., Fasting, K., Hallén, J., Ommundsen, Y., Roberts, G., Tsolakidis, E. Hosted by: The Norwegian ...»

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Introduction: The association of an inactive lifestyle with obesity and Type 2 diabetes is well known (Ackermann et al., 2008; Schneider & Elouzi, 2000). Correspondingly, research over the last decades has provided strong support for the positive effect of physical activity in the treatment and obviation of Type 2 diabetes (Califf et al., 2008; Krook et al., 2003). The aim of the study was to elucidate attitudes and

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concerns about motivation to adopt a new lifestyle with physical activity and other health promoting elements to reduce impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and, consequently, the risk of having Type 2 diabetes.

Methods: Eighteen subjects in central Norway participated in a semi structured interview study, defined as participants with IGT according to guidelines by WHO (1999). The sample consisted of 4 men and 14 women divided into two groups with 9 individuals in each. Both Group 1 and Group 2 included two men and seven women. Group 1 was enrolled in a physical exercise program from start of the project, whereas Group 2 was put on hold until Group 1 had completed their instructed training program. The participants were between 33 and 69 years old. This interview study is part of a larger research project.

Results: The participants attributed great significance to their physical health and were strongly motivated to prevent disease development. This focus changed their priorities regarding daily living in certain ways, and related issues were frequently addressed in the semistructured interviews. Manifest analysis of the content across all interviews justified the identification of four important categories of content: Structure and rhythm, Sickness, Activity and Social relations.

Discussion: The participants in the project increased their awareness of the importance of structure in everyday life, including rhythm of meals and regular exercise to avoid developing Type 2 diabetes. These findings are in line with those of a review study by Yates et al., (2007), which indicates the contribution of physical activity may be of importance, but independent of dietary changes and weight loss, in the prevention of Type 2 diabetes in people with symptoms of pre-diabetes is equivocal.

References Ackermann, R. T., Finch, E. A., Brizendine, E., Zhou, H., & Marrero, D. G. (2008). Am J.

of Preventive Medicine, 35(4):357-63.

Califf, R. M., Boolell, M.,Haffner, S. M., Bethel, M. A., McMurray, J., Duggal, A., Holman, R. R.; NAVIGATOR Study Group. (2008). Am Heart J. 156(4):623-32.

Krook, A., Holm, I., Petterson, S., Wallberg- Henriksson, H. (2003). Clinical Physiology & Functional Impairment, 23, 21 – 30.

Schneider, S. H., & Elouzi, E. B. (2000). New Brunswick: UMDNJ- Robert Wood Johnson Medical School.

WHO; Consultation Group. (1999). Definition Part 1: Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes mellitus. Geneva: World Health organization; WHO/NCD/NCS/99.2 Yates, T., Khunti, K., Bull, F., Gorely, T., & Davies, M.J. (2007). Diabetologia, 50, 1116-112.





Introduction: It has been demonstrated that the construction of footwear mimicking a barefoot condition can affect knee pain and joint loading (Nigg et al., 2006; Shakoor et al., 2008). Furthermore differences in energy requirement depending on the type of soles were reported in intensive running (Nigg et al., 2003) and prolonged walking (Saito et al., 2007). However, the impact of an unstable shoe construction on the physiological demand was not measured yet and was the subject of that investigation.

Methods: Twenty eight adults aged 24.1±2.8 yrs (67±8.1 kg, 22±1.7 kg/m) participated in 3 tests. An incremental step-test until exhaustion was conducted on a motorized treadmill (1% inclination, 5 min steps, 30 s rest, 0.5 m/s increment, Saturn 4.0, hp/cosmos, GE) to determine running velocity at 2 mmol/l blood lactate concentration (v-2LA; arterialized earlobe blood; lactate analyzer Biosen 5040, EKF Diagnostics, GE). After 2 wks four 30 min lasting sub-maximal tests at v-2LA with the conventional jogging shoe of the individual (CS) or the unstable Masai Boot Technology® shoe (US) were completed in the sequence CS-US on first day and US-CS on second day separated by 48 hrs from each other (1h rest in between daily bouts). Each 30min-test was split in 10min bouts with a 30s rest period in between to sample arterialized blood for determination of LA. During the whole test oxygen uptake (VO2) and energy expenditure (kcal) were measured with a respiratory gas exchange analyzer (K4b², Cosmed, IT). Heart rate (HR) was monitored via beat-to-beat transmitter (Polar, FI).

Before completing the submaximal tests subjects got a standardized instruction into running with the US over 2 wks. The mean values of the two measures in each situation were used as criterion variables. The hypothesis was tested with a paired sample t-test at p-level of

0.05. Cohens’ d was determined for effect size.

Results: The physiological response while running with US at v-2LA increased significantly by 23% in LA (t(27)=-5.6, p=.0001, d=1.1), 7% in kcal (t(27)=-4.3, p=.0001, d=0.7), 4% in VO2 (t(27)=-2.4, p=.02, d=0.4) and 2% in HR (t(27)=-3.2, p=.003, d=0.6) compared to CS.

Conclusion As indicated by the medium to large effect size (d) low-intensive running over 30 min with the unstable shoes enhanced the physiological load compared to the CS significantly. We assume that the larger involvement of lower-extremity small muscle groups was responsible for the response as demonstrated by studies on instable shoe construction (Nigg et al., 2006).

References Nigg BM, Emery C, Hiemstra LA (2006). Med Sci Sports Exerc 38(10), 1701-1708.

Nigg BM, Stefanyshyn D, Cole G, Stergiou P, Miller J (2003). J Biomech 36, 569-575.

Saito S, Muraki S, Tochihara Y (2007). J Phyisol Anthropol 26(5), 521-526.

Shakoor N, Lidtke RH, Sengupta LFF, Block JA (2008). Arthritis & Rheumatism 59(9), 1214-1220.





Introduction: Estonian draftees are divided into 4 category based on their health condition – healthy, healthy with restrictions, unfit temporary and unfit steadily. Only draftees from first and second category are allowed for entering into service. All soldiers in Estonian Defence Forces must take the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) in four stages (first in the beginning, second at the end of the basic training


TH Wednesday, June 24th, 2009 course,third in the middle and fourth at the end of the service) during the service. Current follow-up study continues recent investigations among conscripts having revealed relations between their physical performance and health problems.

Methods: 1312 male conscripts, aged 18-22 participated in the survey in years 2007-2008. The individual medical records of freshmen as well as their APFT results were collected, stored in a data base and analysed.

Results: The division of received conscripts in years 2007-2008 is following: 76% healthy and 24 % healthy with restrictions. In spite of that, 9-15 % from conscripts were excluded from service before the end of conscript time (in years 2006-2008). When exploring the dynamics of physical progress on conscripts serving in Estonian Military, most recent studies have been indicated, that the soldiers within category healthy did not deviate significantly from normal average physical test development dynamics of the last five years (r=0,87, p0,05). Simultaneously the physical test development dynamics of the soldiers`group healthy with restrictions has weakly correlated with the average physical test development dynamics of the latest five years (r=0,18, p 0,005).

Discussion: M-type (musculosceletal) diseases (49 % from all within category healthy with restrictions) expressed less decreasing effects to the soldiers´fitness dynamics than any type of diseases. Most of soldiers, who did not pass any stages of APFT belonged to the F- (16 %), I- (5 %), Q- (5%) and H-type (5%) group of diseases (F-mental disorders, I- diseases of circulatory system, Q- congenital malformations, H-diseases of the eye). The soldiers from latter groups didn´t acquire necessary fitness rate by the end of service time and a lot of them didn´t hold out (they were excluded to reserve before the end). Consequently, physical efficiency and training suitability of the health restricted conscripts is quite low (excluding M-type diseases).Thereby, there is an indirect evidence that economical cost for livelihood of conscripts within the category healthy with restrictions for groups of F-, I-, Q- and H-type diseases can be considerable.


Antson, Henn, Märks, Heino. The diseases of the musculoskeletal system and conscripts’ physical readiness related to this in the unit of the Estonian Army. ECSS Estoril, 09-12. July 2008.




Effects of exercise on physical fitness factors, body composition and blood lipids of addicted persons after one year quitting drugs 1-Ebrahim Banitalebi (M.Sc) Islamic Azad University of Shahrekord Branch. 2-Mohammad Faramarzi (Ph.d) Shahrekord University. 3Mohammad Marandi (Ph.d) Isfahan University. 4-Akbar Azamian-Jazi (Ph.d) Shahrekord University.

Introduction: There is some concern that drugs abuse treatment may actually pose a risk toward unhealthy eating and weight gain.

Dysfunctional eating patterns and excessive weight gains have been observed during recovery from drug and alcohol addictions (Cowan and Devine 2008). The purpose of this study was to determine amount of weight gain, Lipids, WHR, BMI, fat percentage some physical fitness factors after quitting drugs. In addition, the study of the efficacy of a selected physical activity on some anthropometric variables (weight, BMI, and WHR), blood lipids, and physical fitness factors such (Vo2max, flexibility, and fat percentage) on subjects who have quitted abusing drugs between 30-60 days.

Method: 37 subjects who were 23-49 years old, and had one-year quitting history. Participants were randomized at approximately 1:1

ratio under the supervision of a project investigator (exercise group 18 persons and control group 19 persons), and 38 individuals completed the entire study; 16 persons were in exercise group and 15 persons were in control group. Exercise consisted primarily of some plays such as badminton playing, walking and so on. Exercise duration progressed from 20 minutes at the baseline to 45 minutes at the end of 12 weeks, and Intensity of exercise progressed from 50% of heart rate reserve of baseline to 70 % at 12 weeks. Body composition was assessed using the sum of three skin-fold measurement specific for males (chest, abdomen, and tight) (ACSM 2000). Total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) were measured enzymatically using Diagnostic kits.

Results: There were significant decrease in weight(p=0.002), BMI(P=0.001), WHR(P=0.004), Ch(P=0.009), HDL(0.045) and LDL(0.002), Vo2max(p=0.000), flexibility(P=0.000) and Pull-up(P=0.001), but There were not in VLDL(P=0.9) and TG(P=0.544).

Conclusion: One of the reasons for weight gain is because nicotine and drugs speed up body metabolism (Cowan and Devine 2008). It postulates that for these measurements, increasing is inevitable (Abrantes 2006). Exercise without changes in diet produced significant reduction in weight gain, and increasing BMI (p0.01). It appears that, physical activity and exercise can prevent or manage overweight after quitting drugs, substances and smoking.

References Abrantes., A (2006). Butler Hospital / Brown Medical School.

ACSM (2000). Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore 24: pp 63-66.

Cowan., J and Devine., C (2008). Appetite Journal; 50 (1): pp 33- 42.




Problem The actual problem of body composition (BC) evoked the formulation of five models of BC and development of evaluating methods.

Currently used methods are principally based on measured values of indicators (body density, total body water), which are later on converted into parameters identifying BC. The results of methods correlate together, but the methods do not show identical results. Coming out from multi-componential methods of assessment of BC, hydrodensitometry is one of reference methods (Kennon T. Francis, 1990).

Methods: In hydrodensitometry we use a water tank (90x110x145 cm) above which there is a weighing chair assembly and mobile scales with an accuracy of 0.001kg. The measured person is weighed on land at first, than under water after maximal expiration. Before the measurement the weight of device calibrated so that recording of net weight is enabled. The scales communicate with a PC which records the weight during a constant time period. By means of specific prediction formulas coming out from the assumption of constant density and hydration of fat and fat free mass it deduces amount of fat mass and lean body mass in an organism. A residual volume is regarded by a constant.

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