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«BOOK OF ABSTRACTS Edited by: Loland, S., Bø, K., Fasting, K., Hallén, J., Ommundsen, Y., Roberts, G., Tsolakidis, E. Hosted by: The Norwegian ...»

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Introduction: The aim of this poster is to (1) evaluate intervention studies aiming at increasing physical activity and (2) suggest new approaches to the study of physical inactivity and behavioral change from the sociological and social psychological points of view. Most of the people in the developed countries are not sufficiently physically active for physical activity to have a beneficial effects on their health. In addition, physical inactivity decreases productivity in the work place, causes workplace absenteeism and has significant effect on social and health care costs.

Methods: A review of the current literature and earlier physical activity intervention studies.

Results: Researchers have used a wide variety of interventions to stimulate increased physical activity (Biddle & Mutrie, 2008). Informational approaches aim at increasing knowledge and changing attitudes, while behavioral and social approaches aim at teaching behavioral management skills and at creating facilitative social environments. Environmental and policy approaches in turn aim at building a safe and attractive structure for physical activity (e.g., on the institutional/legislative level through changing organizational regulations, policies, and laws). Targets of interventions have been individuals, groups and communities (e.g., school, workplace). In general, it is relatively easy to increase physical activity in the short term, but not permanently (Biddle & Mutrie, 2008). Strategies that would be successful in enhancing physical activity have been hard to determine.

–  –  –

A less studied approach to the investigation of physical activity is to apply tools used in the sciences of sociology and social psychology.

Researchers would then be able to focus ”hard to reach” segments of the population and identify their complex social and environmental determinants. There is a need to understand the interaction between these inactive individuals and their everyday environment, such as combining work/school and leisure time, shared family time, especially around the (hidden) norms of eating, or evaluating the effect of the information society on physical activity. Inactive individuals in different groups should be identified and the effect of these groups on their physical activity studied. It would be valuable to understand how the role of an inactive person develops.

Conclusions : The challenge of getting people to be physically active is a global one. There is a need for a greater understanding of the determinants of inactivity in people’s everyday lives. Long-term studies focusing on inducing change in exercise behavior, explaining what works, how and for whom are missing. Identifying such factors could provide essential guidance for behavioral change.


Biddle, S. J. H., & Mutrie, N. (2008). Psychology of physical activity. Determinants, well-being and interventions (2nd ed.). London:





INTRODUCTION: During exercise, subjects can perceive fatigue at different workout intensities. Gender seems to be scarcely related to the perception of fatigue, as well as the age between young and middle-aged people. Borg’s RPE (Ratings of Perceived Exertion) and CR10 (Category Ratio anchored at the nr 10) surveys have been designed in order to measure the perception of fatigue [1, 2].

The aim of this study was to analyze the perception of fatigue in middle-aged women during a mid, high and very high intensity water exercise, both in lower (L) and upper (U) body.

METHODS: 11 middle-aged women (44.4±2.9 years, 55.8±4.5 kg, 165±3 cm, BMI 20.5±1.7) participated in the study. Through the Borg’s CR10 scale questionnaire, the perception of the fatigue in L and U exercises has been evaluated. During 5 successive training sets, for each body part, CR10 was collected twice (after warm up and after the first block of workout) in order to evaluate two 6-minutes exercises randomly performed, based on standard external charge of workout carried out at three levels: mid (MI), high (HI) and very high (VHI) intensities.

Intensity settings for L exercise (running) were: L-MI = 24 beats at 135 bpm + 8 beats at speed max; L-HI = 16 beats at 135 bpm + 8 beats at speed max; L-VHI = 8 beats at 135 bpm + 8 beats at speed max.

Intensity settings for U exercise (arm ad/abductions) were: U-MI = 6 arm ad/abs at 135 bpm (24 beats) + 8 beats at speed max; U-HI = 4 arm ad/abs at 135 bpm (16 beats) + 8 beats at speed max; U-VHI = 2 arm ad/abs at 135 bpm (8 beats) + 8 beats at speed max.

The effective perception of different intensities during water exercise and the differences between lower and upper body perception have been analyzed.

RESULTS: Subjects were able to properly differentiate exercise intensities, both in lower body and in upper body. Significant differences (p.001) were found.

Comparing L and U, the perception of fatigue differed at MI and VHI (4.95±0.96 vs. 3.85±1.02, p.05 and 7.88±0.60 vs. 6.63±1.28, p.05, respectively) whereas did not differ at HI (6.15±.62 vs. 5.27±1.28, p.05).

CONCLUSION: Middle-aged women are able to differentiate the efforts in water exercise among Mid, High or Very High intensities. However, the intensities proposed were not exactly perceived from our subjects and the efforts were differently perceived in the lower and the upper body exercises. Hence, exercise intensities have to be modified in order to proper manage the efforts and to perform at adequate intensities corresponding to the expected CR10 scores.


[1] Borg G (1998). Borg’s Perceived Exertion and Pain Scales. Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL.

[2] Borg G (2004). The Borg CR10 Scale® Folder. A method for measuring intensity of experience. Hasselby, Sweden. Borg Perception.




Introduction: The acute and chronic effects of aquatic exercise for health and fitness has received more and more attention, especially as a mode of exercise for special populations. Aquatreadmill classes are performed in group and conducted by an instructor who with the aid of music regulates exercise intensity on land by showing the velocity per minute (vpm) to reach during each phase of the lesson.

Hydrobike has already been shown to be extremely intensive for young participants (Piacentini et al 2007 and 2008, Giacomini et al 2007). Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate energy cost, heart rate (HR) response and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) during an aquatreadmill lesson in young and older individuals.

Methods: Six young (age: 26.8±4.8 yrs) and 12 middle aged participants (age: 53 + 3.5 yrs) were recruited for the present study. All participants performed the same lesson on an aquatreadmill (HYDRORIDER), that was structured in 9 different phases characterized by different vpms each five minutes long. Ventilatory gases were collected (FITMATE, COSMED, Italy) and HR monitored (Polar, Finland) during exercise and RPE was measured at the end of each phase. A non parametric Friedman test was performed for significance (p0.05).

Results: As expected, there was a difference in VO2, RPE and HR between the different phases of the lesson. Exercise intensity was significantly (p0.05) different between young and older adults. The average intensity measured as %HRmax was 61+5% for the young and 70+5% for the middle aged while %VO2max did not differ between groups (56+14% and 57+13% for young and middle aged respectively). The average RPE measured during the classes was 10.6+0.8 and 10+2.5 for young and middle aged respectively.

Discussion/Conclusions For the young group, this activity does not represent an intensive training. According to ACSM guidelines, they reach an intensity classified as moderate, both for HR and RPE. Therefore, to increase cardiovascular fitness other types of activities are suggested for young individuals (ACSM 1998). Instead, the group of middle aged participants, showed higher HR but moderate perception of effort. These results are in contrast with previous work (Raffaelli et al 2007), that found that at the same relative intensity, the perception of effort is lower in land based compared to water based activities. According to our results, the RPE alone could be misleading in programming exercise for


TH Wednesday, June 24th, 2009 individuals above 50 years of age, in an aquatic environment, because despite low RPE values, the HR increased throughout the whole lesson.

The authors acknowledge Cosmed for financial support References ACSM position stand (1998) Med Sci Sports Exerc Piacentini MF et al. (2008) Proceedings of the 13th ECSS congress Piacentini MF et al. (2007) Proceedings of the 12th ECSS congress Giacomini et al. (2007) Proceedings of the 12th ECSS congress Raffaelli etl al. (2007) Proceedings of the 12th ECSS congress




Introduction: We have long been studying about the benefits of water exercise for elderly in cold snowy region (CSR). It is important to keep physical fitness to prevent slips and falls in these people (Hanai et al, 2006), especially during winter season when their physical activity fall due to snowy climate. In the present study, to facilitate the beneficial effects and their adherence of water exercise program, we developed a self-training protocol of water exercise that could be performed in swimming pool and also at Japanese bathtub. This protocol was recorded visually in DVD media, and distributed to participants who continued, or discontinued the water exercise class during winter season (Oct to Feb 2008). The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of self-training protocol prescription for elderly in CSR on physical fitness levels and exercise adherence.

Methods: Twelve subjects were participated water exercise class from May to November 2008. Prior to winter season, (September) we distributed a water exercise protocol by DVD media to facilitate exercise adherence during winter season. From December 2008 to March 2009, half of the subjects continued WE class (CWE group), and the other half discontinued (DWE group). The state of exercise adherence was asked by the questionnaire. Also, Life-related fitness assessment(LRFA) for the people in Northern regions included side jump, sit ups and step over and duck under the rope (Watanabe et al. 2008) were tested in the periods at May, October 2008 and March

2009. Analyzed data were compared between the groups.

Results: Life-related fitness tended to improve or maintain at most of the subjects during the periods from May to November 2008. However, the data of LRFA showed significant decline at DWE group in the periods from November 2008 to March 2009. Also, the state of exercise adherence was low at DWE group.

Discussion: The contents of water exercise DVD media was developed including lower limbs strengthening, balance and stretching training at swimming pool, also exercise at Japanese bathtub as home-based exercise. Both groups applied self-training prescription by DVD media, however, high percentage of exercise adherence and improvement of LRFA were found only at CWE group.

DVD media was useful tool to raise exercise adherence with participation of group-based exercise class.

References Hanai A et al. (2006). Rev Port Cien Desp 6(Supl.2) 361-365.

Watanabe M et al. (2008). Bulletin of Hokusho College, 46:83-96.




INTRODUCTION: Recently the relationship between martial arts and physical fitness (1) has been pointed out, specially in the elderly (2).

Along with other martial arts Jeet Kune Do is a complete activity in terms of physical demand, such as strength and flexibility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical fitness impact due to a 6 months training programme based on Jeet Kune Do martial art in untrained people.

METHODS: Ten untrained males (M, mean±SD, age 26.3±5.6 years, height 174±0.1 cm, body mass 71.1±8.4 kg) volunteered for this study.

None of them had previous experiences in martial arts. After familiarisation with all the tests, each participant underwent a series of physical fitness evaluations: upper limbs rapidity (UR) measured by the time (s) of 20 consecutively arm extensions, back and hamstrings flexibility (BF) measured by the distance of the reached point (cm) after a trunk flexion, hip flexibility (HF) measured by the degree (deg) of maximum legs width on the transverse plane in the sitting position, reaction time (RT) measured by the seconds (s) employed to punch an aim after a sound signal, lower limbs power (LP) measured by the distance (m) reached after a long jump, punch attack endurance (PE) measured by heart rate (HR, bpm) after two series of punch combinations. These tests were repeated after six months of a specific Jeet Kune Do training programme.

The programme was divided as follows: endurance (months 1-2: 400 min, months 3-4: 320 min, months 5-6: 240 min), submaximal strength (months 1-2: 240 min, months 3-4: 320 min, months 5-6: 320 min), maximal strength (months 1-2:

320 min, months 3-4: 240 min, months 5-6: 240 min), rapidity (months 1-2: 240 min, months 3-4: 320 min, months 5-6: 480 min) and relaxation and flexibility (months 1-2: 240 min, months 3-4: 240 min, months 5-6: 160 min).

RESULTS: Between pre and post training, improvements expressed as absolute percentage were statistically significant (p0.05) in UR (13%), BF (90%), HF (1%), RT (23%), LP (2%) and PE (9%).

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