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[Method]Six month interventions were carried out on 351 consenting males taken from 4,233 persons that undertook a physical examination, that were aged above 40 years (48.8±8.9 years), and had the company in-house reference value of more than two items as being a metabolic syndrome risk group/applicable group. Intervention results were split into two groups; a group where the average increase per day was less than 3,000 steps (N=170) and a group where the average increase per day was greater than 3,000 steps (N=89).
[Results ]With regards to changes in body composition and the number of steps pre and post-intervention, comparing post intervention to pre-intervention, a decrease was seen in body weight, BMI, body fat ratio and physical strength age and an increase was seen in muscle ratio and number of steps. In relation to work environments, including increased number of steps and commuting environment, there was no significant difference in job types and commuting time, but significant differences were seen in whether or not commuting was done by car and whether or not overtime was performed. Further, significant differences were seen in the items where commuting was done by walking, walks were taken, and where exercise was taken during breaks from work. In the greater than 3,000 steps group, commuting was by means of public transport such as buses and trains implied that life was also lived with a high awareness of physical activity. In contrast to this, in the less than 3,000 steps group, the result was that more than 40% commuted by car and a large ratio of respondents stated that overtime was performed.
[Discussion and Conclusions]In the event the standard is taken as an increase of greater than 3000 steps per day, it was evidenced that for the work environments studied, the causal factors of commuting method (non-car usage group) and whether or not overtime was performed were significantly high for the number people who managed to achieve the standard. Further, from the fact that whether commuting is by walking or not has an effect, even on awareness of physical activity, potential was evidenced to deliver certain effects on metabolic syndrome outbreak and its prevention through implementation of exercise programs for the mode of commuting amidst working environments.
BODY COMPOSITION, HANDGRIP STRENGTH AND AEROBIC FITNESS IN 6000 FINNISH MENHEISKANEN, J., LÄHDESMÄKI, A., HAKONEN, H., KANKAANPÄÄ, A., KOMULAINEN, J., HAVAS, E.
LIKES FOUNDATIONINTRODUCTION: Obesity is a health threat in Finnish population and there is no wide measured data of Finnish working aged male. Jack the Finn truck tour was executed in September 2007 and May 2008 to increase working aged men’s awareness of their health and physical fitness and at the tour was measured over 6000 Finnish men.
METHODS: Body composition (n=6082) was measured by bio electric impedance device InBody 720, which were 3-4 in a truck according to city.
Aerobic fitness (n=3161) was assessed by Polar OwnIndex (VO2max, ml-1*kg-1*min).
Handgrip strength (n=3241) was measured by Saehan hand dynamometer.
Socioeconomic status was researched in three different inquiries (n=1038).
RESULTS: Of all tested men (n=6187) were 55–64 years 27 %, 45–54 yrs 24 %, 64 17 %, 35–44 15 %, 25 6 % and 25–34 11 %. 51 % of the men consisted of workers.
According to BMI slightly or significantly overweight (BMI25) were 25 years 43% (n=349), 25-34 62% (n=667), 35-44 76 % (n=900), 45n=1452), 55-64 80 % (n=1686) and 64 79 % (n=1028). Estimated by fat percent (F%) slightly or significantly overweight (F%20) were 25 years 24%, 25-34 40 %, 35-44 55 %, 45-54 62 %, 55-64 69 % and 64 76 %. The averages of visceral fat area (VFA=cm2) were: 25 years 60, 25-34 86, 35-44 107, 45-54 120, 55-64 133 and 64 143. According to the device manufacturer for individual’s health the recommendable value should be under 100 m2 regardless the age.
Skeletal muscle mass (kg) averages were: 25 years 36,7, 25-34 37,6, 35-44 38,3, 45-54 37,3, 55-64 36,0 and 64 33,7. Handgrip strength (kg) had a significant correlation to skeletal muscle mass (kg): 0,60. The correlation of fat mass (kg) was -0,52, F% -0,46, BMI and VFA -0,48 to VO2max.
CONCLUSIONS: Obesity is quite common in this kind of population judged by fat percent. Visceral fat tends to increase and skeletal muscle mass decrease according to ageing. Skeletal muscle mass is highly in connection with handgrip strength. Excessive body fat mass reduces aerobic fitness. An average Jack Finn according to this data is approximately 50 years, slightly overweight and abdominal obese, is in fair aerobic shape and has good muscle strength.
This study gives fresh reference value data of working aged male population’s physical fitness and health.
AEROBIC FITNESS OF PHYSICAL THERAPY STUDENTSGJØVAAG, T.
OSLO UNIVERSITY COLLEGEIntroductionIt is reported that aerobic fitness of Norwegian military recruits from 1985 to 2002 decreased by 8%, while body mass and body mass index increased by 7 and 6% (Dyrstad 2005). It is also reported that the number of military recruits that are dismissed from duty because of poor fitness has increased over the years (Kurtze 2003). Consequently, it is interesting to investigate the aerobic fitness of young male and female students that perform some physical activity as part of their curriculum and examine whether their fitness level have changed in the last decade. MethodsEach year from 2000 to 2009, ~10 % of the physical therapy students enrolled at the Oslo University College were randomly selected to participate in an exercise test. The test was performed on a Monark E834 ergometer.
Following warm-up, the work load was increased by 25 W every 60 second until exhaustion. Gas exchange was measured by a SensorMedics 229 metabolic cart. Work rate was recorded in Watts (W). All tests were performed by the same investigator. Results were analysed by ANOVA and independent samples t-test. Statistical significance was set at p 0.05. ResultsMean (SD) age, height, bodyweight and BMI of the 137 persons (67 females and 70 males) in the present study was 23 ±3.9 yrs, 175±9.3 cm, 72 ±12 kg and 23.2 ±2.2. Body weight and BMI did not change during the analysis period.Average (SD) VO2max values over 10 years show significantly higher values for men than for women, i.e. 3.83 ±0.6 vs. 2.67 ± 0.3 L min-1, p0.001.There were no changes in aerobic capacity of neither women nor men during the period from 2000 – 2009. For women and men the average VO2max (SD) values from 2000-2009 were as follows: 2.76±0.2 vs. 3.99±0.5, 2.51±0.29 vs. 4.23±0.29, 2.73±0.49 vs. 4.10±0.36, 2.46±0.27 vs. 3.75±0.41, 2.69±0.36 vs. 3.96±0.66,
2.78±0.27 vs. 3.94±0.56, 2.71±0.28 vs. 3.93±0.43, 2.77±0.15 vs. 3.86±0.63, 2.69±0.43 vs. 3.61±0.68, 2.67±0.43 vs. 3.53±0.75 L min-1.
DiscussionThe present findings suggest that the VO2max of young students is unchanged during the last decade. This is in contrast to the findings of Dyrstad (2005). Our population is, however, small (n=137) compared to the study of Dyrstad (loc.cit.), thus our data may not reflect the true aerobic capacity of the general population of young men. In contrast to Dyrstad (2005), body weight and BMI of the men (and women) in the present study was unchanged during the last decade. Hermansen (1965) examined the aerobic capacity of male and female students and observed values of 3.2 and 2.3 L min-1, respectively, which seem comparable to the present findings.
This suggests that the aerobic capacity of young male and female students have remained unchanged for the last decades, and that the aerobic capacity of young male physical therapy students is somewhat higher than VO2max of young Norwegian recruits.ReferencesDyrstad SM, Aandstad A, Hallen J (2005). Scand J Med Sci Sport 15: 298–303Hermansen L, Andersen KL (1965). J Appl Physiol 20: 425-431Kurtze N, Gundersen KT, Holmen J (2003). Norsk Epidemiologi 13: 171-176
EFFECTS OF THE SLOW SPEED RESISTANCE TRAINING ON ARTERIAL STIFFNESS BY ONE’S OWN WEIGHT.WOORAM, B., RYOSUKE, T., SHO, O.
KAWASAKI UNIVERSITY OF MEDICAL WELFAREProperly done resistance training increased strength, muscle mass, bone mineral density, glucose tolerance, functional abilities, and hence potentially reduces morbidity and premature mortality. However, high strength resistance training increased arterial stiffness of a major contributor to cardiovascular disease (1). Okamoto et al. (2006) reported that arterial stiffness was decreased by low-intensity resistance training with slow lifting and lowering for eight weeks (2). However, it did not clarify the effect of slow speed resistance training on arterial stiffness by one’s own weight. We hypothesized that slow speed resistance training by one’s own weight for eight weeks decreased arterial stiffness.
Subjects were six healthy men (21.2±0.75years old, 169.7±3.93cm, 63.3±5.78kg). Subjects were voluntary participated in this study. Experiments were carried out under the approval of the Ethical Committee of the Kawasaki University of Medical Welfare and all subjects provided written informed consent. Subjects performed slow speed resistance training three times a week for eight weeks. Training was
14 ANNUAL CONGRESS OF THE EUROPEAN COLLEGE OF SPORT SCIENCETH Wednesday, June 24th, 2009 conducted by two sets of 10 repetitions (3s for eccentric and concentric actions, 1-s pause) of push up, reverse push up, sit up, side arm back extension, half squat, hip lift. Each training items of interval was one minute. It was measured height, weight, body mass index, body fat, brachial blood pressure, ankle blood pressure, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), pulse pressure, heart rate by four times (before training, four weeks, eight weeks, twelve weeks) for twelve weeks. Subjects rested in the supine position for 10 min before measurements. baPWV was measured using formPWV/ABI (Colin Co., Ltd, Komaki, Japan) and by the oscillometric method. This device recorded the PWV, blood pressure, an electrocardiogram.
There were no significant differences in the before training baPWV among the four groups. Blood pressure, pulse pressure and heart rate were unchanged by slow speed resistance training for eight weeks. %HRmax was 47±4.04 during the slow training.
Consequently, it was clarified that arterial stiffness was not changed by slow speed resistance training of one’s own weight for eight weeks.
(1) Westcott, W. L. et al. (2001). Effects of regular and slow speed resistance training on muscle strength. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 41:154-8 (2) Okamoto, T. et al. (2006). Effects of eccentric and concentric resistance training on arterial stiffness. Journal of Human Hypertention 20 :
348-354 13:00 - 14:00 Poster presentations PP-HF05 Health and Fitness 5
MEASURING PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN ACTIVE COMMUTINGSCHANTZ, P., STIGELL, E.
THE RESEARCH UNIT FOR MOVEMENT, HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTPurpose From a public health point of view it is of interest to position different forms of existing physically active behaviours in relation to potential health outcomes. In order to do so, there is a need to establish the energy turnover per week related to a certain form of physical activity.
With a research focus on active commuting, it is possible to combine data on route distance, frequency of trips per week and energy demands per kg body weight and km of commuting. For this purpose is has proven to be necessary to develop different methods, and recently we have established a criterion method for route distance measurements (Schantz & Stigell 2009). For reasons of simplicity and large scale studies, the aim of this study is to investigate whether other often used methods for estimating route distances are valid and reproducible.
Methods: A total of 133 individuals participated in the study after having been recruited while walking or cycling to work in the inner urban area of Stockholm, Sweden. They drew their commuting routes on maps and answered different questions in a questionnaire twice, with slightly more than two weeks in between. Route distances were determined with the criterion method (Schantz & Stigell 2009) and compared with distance values obtained by four other methods: self-reported data, straight-line distance, geographic information system (GIS) modelled shortest routes and global positioning system (GPS).
Results: No order effects were noted for any of the methods. All of them, with self-reported data being the sole exception, displayed a very high reproducibility.
However, to varying degrees, the methods either under- or overestimated the route distances (range:
-21 to +27%).
Conclusion: The study reveals that a number of methods commonly used within the transport sector for determining route distances are not successful in accurately describing route distance when walking or bicycling for commuting purposes. By using correction factors, the deviations in mean values from the corresponding values obtained by the criterion method, can be neutralized. However, on the individual level, deviances from the correct value will still exist. This problem exists for all methods, but it is particularly evident for the selfreported data. Therefore, when there is need for distance values for analytical purposes, for example in a scientific context, the criterion method (Schantz & Stigell 2009) is recommended.
Schantz, P. & Stigell E. 2009. A criterion method for measuring route distance in physically active commuting. Med Sci Sports Exerc 4 (2):