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«BOOK OF ABSTRACTS Edited by: Loland, S., Bø, K., Fasting, K., Hallén, J., Ommundsen, Y., Roberts, G., Tsolakidis, E. Hosted by: The Norwegian ...»

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These findings were concluded as follows. Differences in movements which determine throwing distance appeared from the beginning of throwing movements. That is, it is necessary for throwers to increase discus velocity with rotational velocities of shoulders and hips from the initial phase of throwing. At the middle phase, to maintain a lower translational velocity of CM must obtain higher rotational velocity of hips, and thus a larger torsion angle of trunk is produced by the higher rotational velocity of hips. The increase of rotational velocity of hips, shoulders and arm swing occurred in order during the final phase before discus release.

FOOT STRIKE PATTERNS OF HIGH LEVEL MALE 800M RUNNERS

HAYES, P.R., CAPLAN, N.

NORTHUMBRIA UNIVERSITY

Recently Hasegawa et al (2007) investigated the foot strike patterns and ground contact times during a half marathon. They found that foot strike patterns were related to running speed with forefoot and midfoot strikers exhibiting shorter ground contact times and faster running speeds. The purpose of this study was to conduct a similar analysis in male 800m runners. Ten seeded sub-elite races were filmed on one evening at a British Milers Club meeting. Seventy one runners were filmed by a 100-Hz video camera at a height of 15 cm placed 15 m from the start / finish line. All runners completed their race and were captured on both laps of the race. Average race time showed a range of 14.46 s from 107.53 to 121.99 s with a mean 115.21 +/- 3.41s and coefficient of variation of 3.0%. The mean contact time for lap 1 was 156 +/- 12 ms and for lap 2 it was 168 +/- 16 ms. On lap 1 35%, 48% and 17% of runners made initial ground contact with the forefoot, midfoot and heel respectively. For lap 2 these values were 34%, 51% and 15%. Two way ANOVA s comparing ground contact time across the different races for lap 1 and lap 2 revealed significant main effects for both lap (F1,61 = 46.315; P 0.000) and race (F9,61 = 2.766; P = 0.009). Those runners who displayed the same foot strike pattern on both laps (N = 48) were entered in to a 2x3 ANOVA comparing ground contact times by lap and foot strike position. This showed significant main effects for both lap (F1,45 = 32.600;

P 0.000) and foot strike position (F2,45 = 12.779; P 0.000). Post-hoc analysis revealed significant differences between the heel and both other contact points. The shortest ground contact times were for the forefoot (156 ms) followed by midfoot (161 ms) and heel (177 ms).

For each contact point there was a significant increase (forefoot – t15 = 2.782, P = 0.014; midfoot – t24 = 3.501, P = 0.002; heel – t8 = 5.292, P = 0.001) in ground contact time between lap 1 and lap 2. Linear regression revealed a significant relationship between average running speed and ground contact time for both lap 1 and lap 2, however only a small portion of average running speed was accounted for (10.3% lap 1 and 11.9% lap 2). This study found that foot strike patterns were related to running speed. The relationship between ground contact time and running speed supports the notion of a spring-mass model of locomotion. Over the course of an 800m race ground contact time increased irrespective of foot strike position. This implies an element of fatigue, with runners presumably requiring longer to generate the same impulse. Alternatively, this may have been a reflection of the pacing strategy during the races, with all races adopting a first lap that was quicker than average race speed.

References Hasegawa, H., Yamauchi, T., and Kraemer, W.J. (2007) Foot strike patterns of runners at the 15-km point during an elite level half marathon. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 21(3): 888-893.

FOOT STRIKE PATTERNS OF HIGH LEVEL FEMALE 800M RUNNERS

HAYES, P.R., CAPLAN, N.

NORTHUMBRIA UNIVERSITY

Recently Hasegawa et al (2007) investigated foot strike patterns and ground contact times during a half marathon. They found foot strike patterns were related to running speed with forefoot and midfoot strikers exhibiting shorter ground contact times and faster running speeds. The purpose of this study was to conduct a similar analysis in female 800m runners. Five seeded sub-elite races were filmed on one evening at a British Milers Club meeting. The runners (N = 34) were filmed by a 100-Hz video camera at a height of 15 cm placed 15 m from the start / finish line. All runners completed their race and were captured on both laps of the race. Average race time showed a range of 15.85 s with a mean 132.84 +/- 4.43 and CV of 3.3%. Mean contact time for lap 1 and lap 2 were 163 +/- 14 ms and 179 +/- 16 ms. On lap 1 27%, 44% and 29% of runners made initial ground contact with the forefoot, midfoot and heel respectively. These values

–  –  –

were essentially unchanged at 27%, 41% and 32 % on lap 2. An ANOVA comparing ground contact time across the different races for both laps revealed significant main effects for lap (F1,29 = 35.445; P 0.000) and race (F4,29 = 6.112; P = 0.001). Runners displaying the same foot strike pattern on both laps (N = 27) were entered in to a 2x3 ANOVA comparing ground contact time by lap and foot strike position. This showed significant main effects for lap (F1,24 = 28.707; P 0.000) and foot strike position (F2,24 = 4.299; P 0.025). Posthoc analysis revealed significant differences between heel and forefoot strikers. The shortest ground contact times were for the forefoot (167 ms) followed by midfoot (172 ms) and heel (181 ms). Both forefoot and midfoot strikers exhibited a significant increase (forefoot – t6 = 5.435, P = 0.002; midfoot – t10 = 4.038, P = 0.002) in ground contact time between laps. Heel strikers showed no significant increase in ground contact times across the two laps (heel – t8 = 1.692, P = 0.129). Linear regression revealed a significant relationship between average running speed and ground contact time for lap 1, lap 2 and average contact time. Only a moderate portion of variation in average running speed was explained (29.9 %, 25.6 % and 36.9% for lap 1, lap 2 and average contact time respectively). This study found that foot strike patterns were related to running speed. The relationship between ground contact time and running speed supports the notion of a spring-mass model of locomotion. Over the course of an 800m race ground contact time increased. This implies an element of fatigue, with runners presumably requiring longer to generate the same impulse. Alternatively, this may be a reflection of the pacing strategy during the races, with all races adopting a first lap that was quicker than average race speed.





References Hasegawa, H., Yamauchi, T., and Kraemer, W.J. (2007) Foot strike patterns of runners at the 15-km point during an elite level half marathon. J. Strength Cond. Res 21(3): 888-893.

FOOT STRIKE PATTERNS OF HIGH LEVEL FEMALE 1500M RUNNERS

CAPLAN, N., HAYES, P.

NORTHUMBRIA UNIVERSITY

Recently Hasegawa et al (2007) investigated the foot strike patterns and ground contact times during a half marathon. They found that foot strike patterns were related to running speed with forefoot and midfoot strikers exhibiting shorter ground contact times and faster running speeds. The purpose of this study was to conduct a similar analysis in male 800m runners. Two seeded sub-elite female 1500 m races were filmed on one evening at a British Milers Club meeting. Twenty four runners were filmed by a 100-Hz video camera at a height of 15 cm placed 15 m from the start / finish line. All runners completed their race and were captured on all four laps of the race.

Average race time showed a range of 46.21 s from 254.66 to 300.87 s with a mean 272.04 +/- 10.63 s and coefficient of variation of 3.9%. The mean contact time for laps 1 – 4 was 172 +/- 12 ms, 178 +/- 16 ms, 186 +/- 16 ms and 185 +/- 20 ms. On lap 1 20.8, 50.0 and 29.2% of runners made initial ground contact with the forefoot, midfoot and heel respectively. For lap 4 these values were 25.0, 41.7 and 33.3%. A two way ANOVA comparing ground contact time across the different races for each lap revealed significant main effects for lap (F3,66 = 12.367; P 0.000) but not race (F1,22 = 2.151; P = 0.151). Those runners who displayed the same foot strike pattern on both laps (N = 18) were entered in to a 4x2 ANOVA comparing ground contact times by lap and foot strike position. This showed significant main effects for each lap (F3,45 = 7.014; P 0.001) and foot strike position (F2,15= 4.372; P 0.032). Post-hoc analysis revealed significant differences between the heel and midfoot contact points. The shortest ground contact times were for the midfoot (174 ms) followed by forefoot (179 ms) and heel (196 ms). Lap 1 had shorter ground contact times than any of the other three laps. Linear regression revealed a significant relationship between average running speed and average ground contact time however only a moderate portion of average running speed was accounted for (23.8%). This study found that foot strike patterns were related to average running speed. The relationship between ground contact time and running speed supports the notion of a spring-mass model of locomotion. Over the course of a 1500m race ground contact time increased irrespective of foot strike position. This implies an element of fatigue, with runners presumably requiring longer to generate the same impulse. Alternatively, this may have been a reflection of the pacing strategy during the races, with all races adopting a first lap that was quicker than average race velocity.

References Hasegawa, H., Yamauchi, T., and Kraemer, W.J. (2007) Foot strike patterns of runners at the 15-km point during an elite level half marathon. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 21(3): 888-893.

FOOT STRIKE PATTERNS OF HIGH LEVEL MALE 1500M RUNNERS

CAPLAN, N., HAYES, P.

NORTHUMBRIA UNIVERSITY

Recently Hasegawa et al (2007) investigated the foot strike patterns and ground contact times during a half marathon. They found that foot strike patterns were related to running speed with forefoot and midfoot strikers exhibiting shorter ground contact times and faster running speeds. The purpose of this study was to conduct a similar analysis in male 1500m runners. Five seeded sub-elite races were filmed on one evening at a British Milers Club meeting. Fifty two runners were filmed by a 100-Hz video camera at a height of 15 cm placed15 m from the start / finish line. All runners completed their race and were captured on all four laps of the race. Average race time showed a range of 37.65 s from 225.34 to 262.99 s with a mean 236.91 +/- 8.83 s and coefficient of variation of 3.7%. The mean contact time for laps 1 – 4 was 167 +/- 16 ms, 172 +/- 17 ms, 175 +/- 17 ms and 176 +/- 19 ms. On lap 1 34.6, 46.2 and 19.2% of runners made initial ground contact with the forefoot, midfoot and heel respectively. For lap 4 these values were 36.5, 36.5 and 27.0%. Two way ANOVA s comparing ground contact time across the different races for each lap revealed significant main effects for both lap (F3,141 = 12.109; P 0.000) and race (F4,47 = 3.863; P = 0.009). Those runners who displayed the same foot strike pattern on both laps (N = 44) were entered in to a 4x3 ANOVA comparing ground contact times by lap and foot strike position. This showed significant main effects for each lap (F3,123 = 6.694; P 0.000) and foot strike position (F2,41= 23.132; P 0.000). Post-hoc analysis revealed significant differences between the heel and both other contact points. The shortest ground contact times were for the forefoot (161 ms) followed by midfoot (169 ms) and heel (192 ms). Lap 1 had shorter ground contact times than any of the other three laps. Linear regression revealed a significant relationship between average running speed and ground contact time for all four laps and average contact time, however only a moderate portion of average running speed was accounted for (24.8 – 34.9%). This study found that foot strike patterns were related to average running speed. The relationship between ground contact time and running speed supports the notion of a spring-mass model of locomotion. Over the course of a 1500m race ground contact time increased irrespective of foot strike position. This implies an element of fatigue, with runners presumably requiring longer to generate the same impulse. Alternatively, this may have been a reflection of the pacing strategy during the races, with all races adopting a first lap that was quicker than average race velocity.

References

–  –  –

Hasegawa, H., Yamauchi, T., and Kraemer, W.J. (2007) Foot strike patterns of runners at the 15-km point during an elite level half marathon. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 21(3): 888-893.

13:00 - 14:00 Poster presentations PP-CO02 Coaching 2

THE MEETING IN A SUCCESSFULLY COACH-ATHLETE RELATIONSHIP

JOHANSEN, B.T., SVELA, A.E.

UNIVERSITY OF AGDER

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the meeting that take place in professional coaching in a coach-athlete relationship, all facets related to the process leading up to a successfully coach-athlete relationship (Jowett, 2008), communication in the relationship, type of leadership, and factors related to their satisfaction with performance and instruction of their coach-athlete relationship.

Method Due to the two different types of sports that exist, individual and team sports, two different coach-athlete relationships were included in this study, but only results from the team dyad will be presented in this paper. The team sport coach and athlete are performing at top national level in football, and the dyad is respectively the head coach and the captain of the team. They share a history of three years together. The coach is 42 years of age, coaching experience from top national level for eight years with national cup trophy in 2000. The athlete is 35 years of age and has been playing at top national and international level for more than fifteen years.

In-depth interviews were conducted and arranged to take place individually. An interview guide was used for gathering data and an Ipod recorder was used during the interview. Both interviews lasted for approximately 1 hours and 10 minutes.



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