«by: Alexander M. Benoliel Thesis submitted to the faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University in partial fulfillment of the ...»
Plotted force data. Smoke flow visualization. With and without leading edge notch. Trailing edge extension. Wing fences. No control surfaces. Tailless configuration. Tested in the Langley 30- by 60-Foot Full Scale Tunnel (α = -4o to 41o, M = 0.07, Re = 2.15x106).
Longitudinal and lateral/directional results include:
Apex notch modification effects.
Fence and fence modification effects.
Trailing edge extension effects.
Grafton, Sue B. and Luat T. Nguyen. “Wind-Tunnel Free-Flight Investigation of a Model of a Cranked-Arrow-Wing Fighter Configuration,” NASA TP 2410, 1985.
F16XL configuration (70o/50o sweep) 0.18 scale model. Plotted force data. Smoke flow visualization. Static and dynamic force tests were conducted along with powered free-flight tests. Leading and trailing edge flaps (no inboard leading edge flaps other than added on vortex flaps). Tested in the Langley 30- by 60-Foot Full Scale Tunnel (α = 0o to 40o, Re =
2.15x106). Longitudinal and lateral/directional results include:
Effects of elevon and aileron deflection.
Effect of leading edge flaps and speed brakes.
Effects of vortex flaps.
Presentation of dynamic derivatives.
Page 63 Johnson, Joseph L., Jr., Sue B. Grafton, and Long P. Yip. “Exploratory Investigation of the Effects of Vortex Bursting on the High Angle-of-Attack Lateral-Directional Stability Characteristics of Highly-Swept Wings,” AIAA 11th Aerodynamic Testing Conference. AIAA 80-0463, 1980.
Tests of a collection of wings (flat plate 70o delta with sharp leading edges, 70o arrow wing-fuselage combination, and several 70o arrow wing flat plate models of different
sizes). Lateral/directional test results include:
Test configuration, including model support interference and tunnel configuration.
Wing fence effects.
Vertical tail location effects.
Lamar, John E. and Jay Brandon. “Vortex Features of F-106B Aircraft at Subsonic Speeds,” 11th AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Conference. AIAA-93-3471, 1993.
Flight study of the vortex flow on the F-106B aircraft in 1-g flight. Methods include vapor screen, image enhancement, photogrammetry, and computer graphics. Plotted location of flow separation and reattachment, and vortex cores. Comparison of results to wind-tunnel data.
Marsden, D.J., R.W. Simpson, and W.J. Rainbird. “The Flow Over Delta Wings at Low Speeds with Leading-Edge Separation,” The College of Aeronautics, Cranfield. Report No. 114, 1958.
Presentation of vortex flow over two delta wings of 60 and 70 degree sweep. Oil flow, smoke flow, flowfield surveys, and pressure plots are presented. Vortex core position (height and spanwise location) is also plotted. Description of vortex flow structure.
Nelson, C.P. “Effects of Wing Planform On HSCT Off-Design Aerodynamics,” AIAA-92-2629-CP.
Presentation on development of supersonic cruise planforms and the effects of planform on the aerodynamic characteristics. Test of three typical supersonic cruise planforms which represent a parametric study of the Boeing B2707-300 planform.
Off-design studies of 1.5% scale models were tested in a 12x8 foot transonic tunnel include:
Plotted force data is presented without actual values to preserve proprietary information.
Oil flow visualization.
Discussion of subsonic pitch-up.
Effects of planform and airfoil on aerodynamics.
Page 64 Quinto, P. Frank and John W. Paulson. “Flap Effectiveness on Subsonic Longitudinal Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Modified Arrow Wing,” NASA TM 84582, 1983.
Untwisted, uncambered modified arrow wing (70/48.8 sweep) with NACA 0004 airfoil section. Plotted and tabulated force data. Segmented leading and trailing edge flaps. No horizontal tail. Tested at the Langley 4- by 7-Meter Tunnel (α = -4o to 20o, M = 0.2, Re =
4.5x106). Results include:
Trailing edge flap effectiveness.
Effect of leading edge flaps.
Combined effects of flaps.
Comparison to theoretical predictions.
Rao, Dhanvada M. and Thomas D. Johnson, Jr. “Subsonic Pitch-up Alleviation on a 74 Deg Delta Wing,” NASA CR 165749, 1981.
Flat plate 74o sweep delta wing with blunt leading edges. Pylon Vortex Generators were used to reduce the leading edge flow separation thus reducing the pitch-up at high angles of attack without increasing the induced drag. Tested at the Langley 7- by 10-Foot High Speed Wind-Tunnel (M = 0.2, Re = 2.7 x 106). Plotted force data, tabulated data available in NASA CR 159120.
Rao, Dhanvada M. “Exploratory Investigation of a Tip Blowing Concept on a CrankedArrow ‘HSCT' Planform,” AIAA-92-2637, 1992.
Test of a 70o/50o sweep flat plate model with sharp leading edges. Blowing on the outer wing section was incorporated to prevent pitch-up and for roll control at high angles of attack. Smoke flow, oil flow, pressure plots, and force plots are presented.
Shah, Gautam H. “Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Aerodynamic and Tail Buffet Characteristics of Leading-Edge Extension Modifications to the F/A-18,” AIAA Atmospheric Flight Mechanics Conference. AIAA 91-2889, 1991.
Test of a 0.16 scale model of an F/A-18 with rigid and flexible vertical tails.
Plotted static and dynamic forces and smoke flow visualization of vortex flow. Report includes discussions on effect of modifications of leading-edge extensions on vortex flow and interactions with vertical tails along with flow with fences and extension removed.
Smith, Donald W., Harry H. Shibata, and Ralph Selan. “Lift, Drag, and Pitching Moment of Low-Aspect-Ratio Wings at Subsonic and Supersonic Speeds - An Investigation at Large Reynolds Numbers of the Low Speed Characteristics of Several Wing-Body Combinations,” NACA RM A51K28, 1952.
Investigation of a series of wings with twist and camber tested at low speeds. Planforms tested were deltas, cropped arrows, and cropped diamond configurations. No control
Wentz, William H., Jr. “Wind Tunnel Investigations of Vortex Breakdown on Slender Sharp-Edged Wings,” Ph.D. Thesis, University of Kansas, 1968 (also NASA CR 98737 with David L. Kohlman).
Experimental study of the effects of planform on leading edge vortex breakdown. All models were flat plates with wedge shaped leading edges. All tests were done at the University of Kansas low-speed tunnel (q = 30 psf, Re = 1.0x106). Plotted data of forces and vortex core breakdown position. Schlieren system used for flow visualization.
A.3 Theoretical Investigations
Carlson, Harry W., Robert J. Mack, and Raymond L. Barger. “Estimation of Attainable Leading-Edge Thrust for Wings at Subsonic and Supersonic Speeds,” NASA TP 1500, 1979.
Theoretical description of the calculation of the attainable thrust of a wing at subsonic speeds as implemented in a vortex lattice code. Description of the development of the method from empirical relations. Analysis of a variety of wings and comparison to experimental data.
Carlson, Harry W. and Kenneth B. Walkley. “A Computer Program for Wing Subsonic Aerodynamic Performance Estimates Including Attainable Thrust and Vortex Lift Effects,” NASA CR 3515, 1982.
Description of the methods used in a computer program to predict the aerodynamic characteristics of wings in subsonic flow. Includes attainable thrust calculations and camber and twist solution incorporation by means of superposition. Vortex lattice method solved my means of perturbation velocity iteration. Comparisons to experimental data.
Carlson, Harry W. and Kenneth B. Walkley. “An Aerodynamic Analysis Computer Program and Design Notes for Low Speed Wing Flap Systems,” NASA CR 3675, 1983.
Modifications to the code described in NASA CR 3515 to include the capability to simply analyze flap systems. Also incorporates an improved method for calculating the attainable thrust and further options for the calculation of the vortex lift. Comparisons to experimental data.
Page 66 Carlson, Harry W. and Kenneth B. Walkley. “Numerical Methods and a Computer Program for Subsonic and Supersonic Aerodynamic Design and Analysis of Wings With Attainable Thrust Considerations,” NASA CR 3808, 1984.
Description of a computer code which incorporates the theories developed in NASA CR 3515 and CR 3675.
Basic theory used for the program.
Detailed description of the options for the calculation of the vortex lift.
Description of the wing design process used by the code.
Detailed description in the use of the code including program application.
Carlson, Harry W. “The Design and Analysis of Simple Low Speed Flap Systems With the Aid of Linearized Theory Computer Programs,” NASA CR 3913, 1985.
Description of a method to design flap systems with the use of the codes described in NASA CR 3808 and CR 3675. Description of the principle behind the method. Design and analysis of a candidate flap system with effects of leading edge radius, flap segmentation, vortex force, and Reynolds number being taken into consideration. Comparison to experimental data.
Carlson, Harry W. and Christine M. Darden. “Applicability of Linearized-Theory Attached-Flow Methods to Design and Analysis of Flap Systems at Low Speeds for Thin Swept Wings With Sharp Leading Edges,” NASA TP 2653, 1987.
Application of the code described in NASA CR 3913 in the design and analysis of a wider variety of configurations and flow conditions for validation of the code. Comprehensive set of data correlation with experimental data. Description of design methodology. Sample input files included.
Carlson, Harry W. and Christine M. Darden. “Validation of a Pair of Computer Codes for Estimation and Optimization of Subsonic Aerodynamic Performance of Simple Hinged-Flap Systems for Thin Swept Wings,” NASA TP 2828, 1988.
More extensive study of the code used in NASA TP 2653 in the design and analysis of flap systems. A wider variety of planforms is used in this study which includes comparisons to experimental data. Description of flap performance considerations and detailed analysis of a set of configurations is presented. Detailed description of the use of the WINGDES2 computer code is presented with sample input files.
Page 67 Carlson, Harry W., Christine M. Darden, and Michael J. Mann. “Validation of a Computer Code for Analysis of Subsonic Aerodynamic Performance of Wings With Flaps in Combination With a Canard or Horizontal Tail and an Application to Optimization,” NASA TP 2961, 1990.
Description of the modifications made to the code described in NASA CR 3675 to allow for two surfaces to analyzed. Complete description of the use of the AERO2S code including sample input and output files. Analysis of a variety of configurations and comparison to experimental data. Examples of configuration optimization. Description of code applications and limitations.
Carlson, Harry W. and Michael J. Mann. “Survey and Analysis of Research on Supersonic Drag-Due-to-Lift Minimization With Recommendations for Wing Design,” NASA TP 3202, 1992.
Description of the use of the code described in NASA CR 3808 in the calculation of the aerodynamic performance of wings in supersonic flow with empirical corrections to more closely approximate the attainable leading edge thrust. Discussion of theoretical wing design, theoretical methods used in the code, and the application and guidelines of the empirical methods. Analysis of a variety of wings and comparisons to experiment.
Comparison of results with output from Euler code analyses. Complete description of the use of the code WINGDES2 and sample input and output files.
Lamar, John, E. “Extension of Leading-Edge Suction Analogy to Wings with Separated Flow Around the Side Edges at Subsonic Speeds,” NASA TR-R-428, 1974.
Discussion of the theory involved in predicting the side edge vortex force used in a vortex lattice code. Example theoretical and experimental cases. Comparison of theoretical results with experiment. and other theories. Force plots on a variety of flat wings.
Lamar, John E. and Blair B. Gloss. “Subsonic Aerodynamic Characteristics of Interacting Lifting Surfaces with Separated Flow Around Sharp Edges Predicted by a Vortex Lattice Method,” NASA TN D-7921, 1975.
Discussion of the theory in predicting the leading and side edge vortex forces incorporated in the vortex lattice code (NASA TM 83303). Sample input file and comparison to experiment is presented.
Lamar, John E. "Analysis and Design of Strake-Wing Configurations," Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 17, no. 1, January 1980.
Analysis and design of straked-wing configurations with the goal of improving high angle of attack aerodynamic characteristics. Includes a theoretical analysis and experimental testing of a variety of configurations. Plotted force data, oil flow photographs, and discussion of theory involved in analysis.
Lamar, John E. and Henry E. Herbert. “Production Version of the Extended NASALangley Vortex Lattice FORTRAN Computer Program - Volume I - User's Guide,” NASA TM 83303, 1982.
User's manual for vortex lattice code which includes the prediction of leading and side edge vortex forces. Includes example input and output files but does not include a discussion of the theories incorporated in the code. Volume II is also available which contains a listing of the source code.
Lan, C.E. and C.H. Hsu. “Effects of Vortex Breakdown on Longitudinal and LateralDirectional Aerodynamics of Slender Wings by the Suction Analogy,” AIAA 9th Atmospheric Flight Mechanics Conference. AIAA-82-1385, 1982.
Incorporation of vortex breakdown in a vortex lattice code in predicting the high angle of
attack aerodynamic characteristics is presented. Report includes:
Comparison to experimental data of a variety of delta, modified delta, and cranked delta planforms (plotted force data).
Discussion of the development of the theory.
Vortex breakdown empirical correlation includes vortex breakdown in sideslip and rolling.
Incorporation of side-edge lift.
Antani, D.L. and J.M. Morgenstern. “HSCT High-Lift Aerodynamic Technology Requirements,” AIAA-92-4228. Aircraft Design Systems Meeting, 1992.