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«by: Alexander M. Benoliel Thesis submitted to the faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University in partial fulfillment of the ...»

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This bibliography includes a brief description of what type of information is included in each paper. A brief description of the wind-tunnel model, test conditions, and tested parameters is also given for reports that are related to experimental investigations. The list of sources is organized by major topic, then alphabetically by author, and finally by year (most recent dates last).

The major topics are:

Experimental Investigations of Supersonic Transports Experimental Investigations Related to Supersonic Cruise Planforms Theoretical Investigations Configuration Design Reference Reports Control Issues Note that this list is in no way complete and is concerned primarily, but not limited to, the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of supersonic cruise type planforms. This list is also not limited to sources cited in the report.

A.1 Experimental Investigations of Supersonic Transports Coe, Paul L., Jr., H. Clyde McLemore, and James P. Shivers. “Effects of Upper-Surface Blowing and Thrust Vectoring on Low-Speed Aerodynamic Characteristics of a LargeScale Supersonic Transport Model,” NASA TN D-8296, 1976.

AST-100 type configuration (74/70.5/60 sweep) powered model. Plotted force data. Tuft flow visualization. Leading and trailing edge flaps. Horizontal tail. Rounded leading-edge.

Engines with deflectable nozzles mounted above the wing. Powered tests done in the Langley 30- by 60-Foot Full Scale Tunnel (α = -10o to 34o, Re = 5.17x106). Results

include:

Flap effectiveness with engines on upper surface.

Flap effectiveness with engines mounted below wing.

Horizontal tail effectiveness.

Variation of thrust coefficient and nozzle deflection.

Discussions of performance and considerations of aircraft with these engine configurations.

Effect of sideslip and engine-out characteristics.

Effect of spoiler deflection.

Page 57 Coe, Paul L., Jr., Paul M. Smith, and Lysle P. Parlett. “Low Speed Wind Tunnel Investigation of an Advanced Supersonic Cruise Arrow-Wing Configuration,” NASA TM 74043, 1977.

AST-100 type configuration (74/70.5/60 sweep) 0.045 dynamically scaled model. Plotted and tabulated force data. Krueger leading edge flap, trailing edge flaps. Horizontal tail.

Rounded leading edges. Powered test done in Langley V/STOL Tunnel (α = -5o to 25o, Re = 2.5x106).

Results of longitudinal and lateral/directional data include:

Effect of leading and trailing edge flap deflections.

Effect of thrust vectoring.

Horizontal tail effectiveness.

Effect of forebody strakes.

Coe, Paul L., Jr. and Robert P. Weston. “Effects of Wing Leading-Edge Deflection on Low-Speed Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Low-Aspect-Ratio Highly Swept Arrow-Wing Configuration,” NASA TP 1434, 1979.

AST-100 type configuration (74/70.5/60 sweep) dynamically scaled model. Plotted and tabulated force data. Tuft mast flow visualization. Krueger leading-edge flap. Segmented leading and trailing edge flaps (4 leading-edge segments). Horizontal tail. Rounded leading edge. Tested in the Langley V/STOL Tunnel (a = -10o to 17o, M = 0.07, Re = 2.0x106).

Results of longitudinal and lateral/directional data includes:

Leading and trailing edge flap effectiveness with the goal of minimizing the formation of leading-edge vortices.

Horizontal tail effectiveness.

Aileron effectiveness.

Coe, Paul L., Jr. and James L. Thomas. “Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Ground-Induced Effects for a Low-Aspect-Ratio Highly Swept Arrow-Wing Configuration,” NASA TP 1508, 1979.

AST-100 type configuration (74/70.5/60 sweep) dynamically scaled model. Plotted and tabulated force data. Segmented leading and trailing edge flaps (4 leading-edge segments).

Horizontal tail. Rounded leading edge. Tested in the Langley V/STOL Tunnel (α = -2o to 12o, M = 0.07, Re = 2.0x106) with a moving ground plane. Results of ground induced

effects includes:

Longitudinal stability.

Effects on performance.

Effect of horizontal and vertical tails.

Effect on landing/approach maneuver.

Comparison to numerical predictions.

Discussion of theory behind ground induced effects.

Page 58 Coe, Paul L, Jr., Jarrett K. Huffman, and James W. Fenbert. “Leading-Edge Deflection Optimization for a Highly Swept Arrow-Wing Configuration,” NASA TP 1777, 1980.

AST-100 type configuration (74/70.5/60 sweep) model. Plotted and tabulated force data.

Includes input data set for numerical calculations. Segmented leading and trailing-edge flaps (12 leading-edge segments). Variable anhedral. No aft fuselage. Tested in the Langley 7- by 10-Foot Tunnel (α = -6o to 15o, M = 0.14, Re = 2.8 x 106). Longitudinal and lateral

directional results include:

Effect of leading edge deflection (30o deflection and optimized continuously varied deflection so that the leading edge is aligned with the local upwash along the span).

Effect of geometric anhedral.

Comparison to numerically predicted data.

Coe, Paul L., Scott O. Kjelgaard, and Garl L. Gentry Jr. “Low Speed Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Highly Swept, Untwisted, Uncambered Arrow Wing,” NASA TP 2176, 1983.

AST-200 configuration 0.0359 scale model (74/70.5/60 sweep). Tabulated and plotted force data. Plotted pressure data for chordwise and spanwise stations. Single leading edge flap. Outboard vertical tails. No horizontal tail. Rounded leading edges. Tested at Langley 14- by 22-Foot Tunnel (α = -7o to 17o, M = 0.25, Re = 4.8 x 106).





Results include:

Effectiveness of leading and trailing edge flap deflections on forces and pressures.

Effectiveness of various spoiler deflections on forces.

Vortex core locations for various angles-of-attack.

Comparison to VLM code results (includes numerical model input file).

Comparison of suction parameter and forces to cambered and twisted wing.

Freeman, Delma C., Jr. and Richard D'Amato. “The Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Fixed Arrow Wing Supersonic Transport Configuration (SCAT 15F-9898) Part II Stability Characteristics In the Deep Stall Angle of Attack Range,” NASA LWP-724, 1969.

SCAT-15F-9898 configuration 0.03 scale model. Plotted force data. Outboard vertical tails, leading edge notch, leading and trailing edge flaps, and canard. Tested in the Langley 30by 60-Foot Full Scale Tunnel (α = -3o to 62o, Re = 3.92x106). Discussions are limited,

results include:

Effect of leading edge radius.

Effect of wing apex notch.

Canard effectiveness.

Horizontal tail effectiveness.

Leading and Trailing-edge flap effectiveness.

Page 59 Lockwood, Vernard E. “Effect of Leading Edge Contour and Vertical-Tail Configuration on the Low-Speed Stability Characteristics of a Supersonic Transport Model a Having Highly-Swept Arrow Wing,” NASA TM 78683, 1978.

SCAT -15F configuration model (74/70.5/60 sweep). Plotted force data. Single leading edge flap. Outboard vertical tails. Horizontal tail. Forebody strake. Rounded leading edges.

Tested at Langley High Speed 7- by 10-Foot Tunnel (α = 8o to 32o, M = 0.13, Re =

3.0x106). Results include:

Effect of side-slip.

Effect of various leading edge radii.

Effect of vertical tail positions.

Effect of forebody strakes.

McLemore, H. Clyde, Lysle P. Parlett, and William Sewall. “Low-Speed Wind-Tunnel Tests of 1/9-Scale Model of a Variable-Sweep Supersonic Cruise Aircraft,” NASA TN D-8380, 1977.

SCAT-16 configuration 1/9 scale model. Plotted force data. T-tail configuration. Inboard and outboard leading and trailing edge flaps. High horizontal tail. Rounded leading edge.

Wing sweep varies from 20o to 72o. Tested at Langley 30- by 60-Foot Full-Scale Tunnel (α = -5o to 36o, Re = 3.92 to 5.95x106).

Results include:

Presentation of tuft flow patterns for 20o sweep condition with variation of strake incidence, leading edge deflection, sideslip, and flow velocity.

Effects of Reynolds number, wing sweep, and horizontal tail position.

Effects of high lift devices.

Effects of various strake designs and strake leading edge devices.

Effect of horizontal tail incidence.

McLemore, H. Clyde and Lysle P. Parlett. “Low-Speed Wind-Tunnel Tests of a 1/10Scale Model of a Blended-Arrow Supersonic Cruise Aircraft,” NASA TN D-8410, 1977.

Blended fuselage low-boom concept aircraft configuration (80o/70o continuous sweep)

0.10 scale powered model. Plotted force data. Tuft flow visualization. Low mounted canard. Segmented leading and trailing-edge flaps. Four centerline engines with vectored thrust nozzles. Fixed twin vertical tails, no horizontal tail. Powered tests done in the Langley 30- by 60-Foot Full Scale Tunnel (α = -6o to 30o, Re = 6.78 to 13.85x106).

Longitudinal and lateral/directional results include:

Reynolds number effects.

Vertical tail effects.

Flap deflection effectiveness of varying flap deflection configurations.

–  –  –

Radkey, R.L., H.R. Welge, and J.E. Felix. “Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Mach 2.2 Advanced Supersonic Cruise Aircraft Configuration at Mach Numbers from 0.5 to 2.4,” NASA CR 145094, 1977.

Douglas D3230-2.2-5E configuration 1.5% scale model (71o/57o sweep). Single vertical tail, Krueger leading edge flaps. Horizontal tail. Table of wing and nacelle coordinates.

Plotted force and pressure data (tabulated data is available on microfiche).Tuft, schlieren, and sublimation used for flow visualization. Tested at NASA Ames Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel, Ames 11-Foot transonic tunnel (M=0.5 to 1.3, Re = 4.0x10 6) and Ames 9- by 7Foot Supersonic Tunnel (M=1.6 to 2.4, Re = 4.0x106). Main goal of the report was to build the database on this configuration. No flap deflection data other than Krueger flap is presented.

Re, Richard J. and Lana M. Couch. “The Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Fixed Arrow Wing Supersonic Transport Configuration (SCAT 15F-9898) Part III - Reynolds Number Effects on the Stability Characteristics In the Deep Stall Angle of Attack Range,” NASA LWP-735, 1969.

SCAT-15F-9898 configuration 0.03 scale model. Plotted and tabulated force data.

Outboard vertical tails, leading edge notch, leading and trailing edge flaps, and canard.

Tested in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel (α = -10o to 45o, M = 0.13 to 0.27, Re =

3.0 to 5.94x106). Discussions are limited, results include:

Effect of Reynolds number.

Effect of leading edge radius.

Effect of wing apex notch.

Canard effectiveness.

Horizontal tail effectiveness.

Leading-edge flap effectiveness.

Shivers, James P., H. Clyde McLemore, and Paul L. Coe, Jr. “Low-Speed Wind-Tunnel Investigation of a Large-Scale Advanced Arrow-Wing Supersonic Transport Configuration with Engines Mounted Above Wing for Upper-Surface Blowing,” NASA TN D-8350, 1976.

AST-100 type configuration (74/70.5/60 sweep) powered model with elastic wing construction. Plotted force data. Wake surveys. Trailing edge flaps with blowing. With and without horizontal T-tail. Rounded leading-edge. Engines with exhaust deflectors mounted

–  –  –

Horizontal tail characteristics.

Downwash characteristics.

Pitch trim considerations and performance issues.

Lateral/directional control and engine-out characteristics.

Effect of exhaust deflection.

Smith, Paul. “Low-Speed Aerodynamic Characteristics from Wind-Tunnel Tests of a Large-Scale Advanced Arrow-Wing Supersonic Transport Concept,” NASA CR 145280, 1978.

AST-100 type (74/70.84/60 sweep) configuration. Plotted and tabulated force data.

Horizontal tail. Forebody strakes. Two inboard leading edge flaps and trailing edge flaps.

One outboard leading edge flap and trailing edge flap/aileron. Rounded leading edge (0.68%c leading edge radius). Tested at the Langley 30- by 60-Foot Full Scale Tunnel (α =

-10o to 25o, Re = 5.88 x 106). Results for longitudinal and lateral/directional characteristics

include:

Leading edge flap effectiveness Trailing edge flap effectiveness.

Horizontal tail effectiveness.

Fore-body strake effectiveness.

Yip, Long P. and Lysle P. Parlett. “Low-Speed Wind-Tunnel Tests of a 1/10-Scale Model of an Arrow-Wing Supersonic Cruise Configuration Designed for Cruise at Mach 2.2,” NASA TM 80152, 1979.

McDonnell Douglas supersonic transport configuration (71o/57o sweep) 0.10 scale model.

Plotted and tabulated force data. Plotted pressure data. Tuft flow visualization. Horizontal tail. Segmented leading and trailing edge flaps (6 leading edge flap segments). Rounded leading edge. Tested in the Langley 30- by 60-Foot Full Scale Tunnel (a = -6o to 23o, M = 0.09, Re = 4.0x106).

Results for longitudinal and lateral/directional data include:

Flow visualization studies.

Evaluation of pressure distributions.

Effect of segmented leading edge flap.

Effect of trailing edge flaps.

Horizontal tail effectiveness.

Sideslip effects.

Lateral/directional control characteristics.

–  –  –

Bradley, R.G., W.O. Wray, and C.W. Smith. “An Experimental Investigation of Leading-Edge Vortex Augmentation by Blowing,” NASA CR-132415, 1974.

Testing of six 30o and 45o sweep diamond, arrow and delta wing models. Blowing on the upper surface was used to investigate the effects on vortex breakdown. Plotted and tabulated data. Oil flow visualization. Tests were conducted in the General Dynamics 8- by 12-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel (α = -2o to 34o, M = 0.2, Re = 7.0x106). The following

investigations were made:

Nozzle position. Variation of momentum coefficient.

Grafton, Sue B. “Low-Speed Wind-Tunnel Study of the High-Angle-of-Attack Stability and Control Characteristics of a Cranked-Arrow-Wing Fighter Configuration,” NASA TM 85776, 1984.

Modified 0.15 scale F16A model to represent F-16XL configuration (70o/50o sweep).



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