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«by: Alexander M. Benoliel Thesis submitted to the faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University in partial fulfillment of the ...»

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Refinement of the APE method should include the improvement of the high angle of attack lift and drag predictions. A method to calculate the maximum lift coefficient of a particular airfoil would also improve the operation of the method. The calculation of the maximum lift of the airfoil could be related to Carlson’s attainable thrust method. The maximum lift coefficient could be calculated from empirical data for the maximum angle of attack for attached flow on an airfoil based on the airfoil geometry, Reynolds number and Mach number. Furthermore, a routine to calculate the trimmed lift and drag

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1. Wright, B.R., F. Bruckman, and N.A. Radovich, “Arrow Wings for Supersonic Cruise Aircraft,” Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 15, No. 12, pp. 829-836, December 3, 1978.

2. Nelson, C.P. “Effects of Wing Planform On HSCT Off-Design Aerodynamics,” AIAA-92-2629-CP, 1992.

3. Spearman, Leroy M. “The Evolution of the High-Speed Civil Transport,” NASA TM 109089, 1994.

4. Antani, D.L. and J.M. Morgenstern. “HSCT High-Lift Aerodynamic Technology Requirements,” AIAA-92-4228, Aircraft Design Systems Meeting, 1992.

5. Swan, W.C. “Design Evolution of the Boeing 2707-300 Supersonic Transport, Part I Configuration Development, Aerodynamics, Propulsion, and Structures,” AGARD CP-147, Oct. 1973.

6. Coe, Paul L., Jr., H. Clyde McLemore, and James P. Shivers. "Effects of UpperSurface Blowing and Thrust Vectoring on Low-Speed Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Large-Scale Supersonic Transport Model," NASA TN D-8296, 1976.

7. Coe, Paul L., Jr., Paul M. Smith, and Lysle P. Parlett. “Low Speed Wind Tunnel Investigation of an Advanced Supersonic Cruise Arrow-Wing Configuration,” NASA TM 74043, 1977.

8. Coe, Paul L., Jr. and Robert P. Weston. “Effects of Wing Leading-Edge Deflection on Low-Speed Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Low-Aspect-Ratio Highly Swept Arrow-Wing Configuration,” NASA TP 1434, 1979.

9. Coe, Paul L., Jr. and James L. Thomas. “Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Ground-Induced Effects for a Low-Aspect-Ratio Highly Swept Arrow-Wing Configuration,” NASA TP 1508, 1979.

10. Coe, Paul L, Jr., Jarrett K. Huffman, and James W. Fenbert. “Leading-Edge Deflection Optimization for a Highly Swept Arrow-Wing Configuration,” NASA TP 1777, 1980.

11. Coe, Paul L., Scott O. Kjelgaard, and Garl L. Gentry Jr. “Low Speed Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Highly Swept, Untwisted, Uncambered Arrow Wing,” NASA TP 2176, 1983.

12. Freeman, Delma C., Jr. and Richard D'Amato. “The Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Fixed Arrow Wing Supersonic Transport Configuration (SCAT 15F-9898) Part II Stability Characteristics In the Deep Stall Angle of Attack Range,” NASA LWP-724, 1969.

–  –  –

14. McLemore, H. Clyde, Lysle P. Parlett, and William Sewall. “Low-Speed Wind-Tunnel Tests of 1/9-Scale Model of a Variable-Sweep Supersonic Cruise Aircraft,” NASA TN D-8380, 1977.

15. Radkey, R.L., H.R. Welge, and J.E. Felix. “Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Mach

2.2 Advanced Supersonic Cruise Aircraft Configuration at Mach Numbers from 0.5 to 2.4,” NASA CR 145094, 1977.

16. Re, Richard J. and Lana M. Couch. “The Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Fixed Arrow Wing Supersonic Transport Configuration (SCAT 15F-9898) Part III Reynolds Number Effects on the Stability Characteristics In the Deep Stall Angle of Attack Range,” NASA LWP-735, 1969.

17. Shivers, James P., H. Clyde McLemore, and Paul L. Coe, Jr. “Low-Speed WindTunnel Investigation of a Large-Scale Advanced Arrow-Wing Supersonic Transport Configuration with Engines Mounted Above Wing for Upper-Surface Blowing,” NASA TN D-8350, 1976.

18. Smith, Paul. “Low-Speed Aerodynamic Characteristics from Wind-Tunnel Tests of a Large-Scale Advanced Arrow-Wing Supersonic Transport Concept,” NASA CR 145280, 1978.

19. Yip, Long P. and Lysle P. Parlett. “Low-Speed Wind-Tunnel Tests of a 1/10-Scale Model of an Arrow-Wing Supersonic Cruise Configuration Designed for Cruise at Mach 2.2,” NASA TM 80152, 1979.

20. Barber, Hal T., Jr. and E.E. Swanson. “Advanced Supersonic Technology Concept AST-100 Characteristics Developed in a Baseline-Update Study,” NASA TM XBarber, Hal T. “Characteristics of the Advanced Supersonic Technology AST-105-1 Configured for Transpacific Range with Pratt and Whitney Aircraft Variable Stream Control Engines,” NASA TM 78818, 1979.

22. Barber, Hal T., Jr. “Characteristics of an Advanced Supersonic Technology Transport (AST-106-1) Configured with Variable-Cycle Engines for Transpacific Range,” NASA TM 81879, 1982.

23. Douglas Aircraft Company. “Study of High-Speed Civil Transports,” NASA CR 4236, 1990.

24. Douglas Aircraft Company. “1989 High-Speed Civil Transport Studies,” NASA CR 4375, 1991.

Page 52

25. Kehrer, W.T. “Design Evolution of the Boeing 2707-300 Supersonic Transport, Part II

- Design Impact of Handling Qualities Criteria, Flight Control Systems Concepts, and Aeroelastic Effects on Stability and Control,” AGARD CP-147, Oct. 1973.

26. Robins, A. Warner, Samuel M. Dollyhigh, Fred L. Beissner, Jr., Karl Geiselhart, Glenn L. Martin, E.W. Shields, E.E. Swanson, Peter G. Coen, and Shelby J. Morris, Jr. “Concept Development of a Mach 3.0 High-Speed Civil Transport,” NASA TM 4058, 1988.

27. Walkley, Kenneth B. and Glenn L. Martin. “Aerodynamic Design and Analysis of the AST-200 Supersonic Transport Configuration Concept,” NASA CR 159051, 1979.

28. Walkley, K.B., G.J. Espil, W.A. Lovell, G.L. Martin, and E.E. Swanson. “Concept Development of a Mach 2.7 Advanced Technology Transport Employing WingFuselage Blending,” NASA CR 165739, 1981.

29. Carlson, Harry W., Christine M. Darden, and Michael J. Mann. “Validation of a Computer Code for Analysis of Subsonic Aerodynamic Performance of Wings With Flaps in Combination With a Canard or Horizontal Tail and an Application to Optimization,” NASA TP 2961, 1990.

30. Shortal, Joseph A. and Bernard Maggin. “Effect of Sweepback and Aspect Ratio on Longitudinal Stability Characteristics of Wings at Low Speeds,” NACA TN 1093, 1946.

31. Lamar, John E. “High Angle of Attack - Aerodynamics. AGARD Special Course on Engineering Methods in Aerodynamic Analysis and Design of Aircraft,” AGARD Report 783, 1992.

32. Spreeman, Kenneth P. “Design Guide for Pitch-Up Evaluation and Investigation at High Subsonic Speeds of Possible Limitations Due to Wing-Aspect-Ratio Variations,” NASA TM X-26, 1959.

33. Kulfan, R.M. "Wing Airfoil Shape Effects on the Development of Leading-Edge Vortices," AIAA 79-1675, 1979.

34. Kulfan, R.M. “Wing Geometry Effects on Leading Edge Vortices,” AIAA-79-1872, 1979.

35. Wentz, William H., Jr. Wind Tunnel Investigations of Vortex Breakdown on Slender Sharp-Edged Wings. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Kansas, 1968 (also NASA CR 98737 with David L. Kohlman).

36. Rao, Dhanvada M. “Exploratory Investigation of a Tip Blowing Concept on a Cranked-Arrow ‘HSCT’ Planform,” AIAA-92-2637, 1992.

37. Poisson-Quinton, P. “Slender Wings for Civil and Military Aircraft,” Eighth Theodore von Karman Memorial Lecture, Israel Journal of Technology, Vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 97Page 53

38. Grafton, Sue B. “Low-Speed Wind-Tunnel Study of the High-Angle-of-Attack Stability and Control Characteristics of a Cranked-Arrow-Wing Fighter Configuration,” NASA TM 85776, 1984.

39. Lamar, John E., Roy T. Schemensky, and C. Subba Reddy. “Development of a Vortex-Lift Design Procedure and Application to a Slender Maneuver-Wing Configuration,” Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 18, No. 4, April 1981, pp. 259-266.

40. Hom, K.W., O.A. Morris, and D.E. Hahne. “Low Speed Investigation of the Maneuver Capability of Supersonic Fighter Wings.” AIAA 21st Aerospace Sciences Meeting, January 1983, Reno, Nevada. AIAA-83-0426.

41. Grafton, Sue B. and Luat T. Nguyen. “Wind Tunnel Free Flight Investigation of a Model of a Cranked-Arrow-Wing Fighter Configuration,” NASA TP 2410, 1985

42. Furlong, G. Chester and James G. McHugh. “A Summary and Analysis of the LowSpeed Longitudinal Characteristics of Swept Wings at High Reynolds Number,” NACA Report 1339, 1957.

43. McLemore, H. Clyde and Lysle P. Parlett. “Low-Speed Wind-Tunnel Tests of a 1/10Scale Model of a Blended-Arrow Supersonic Cruise Aircraft,” NASA TN D-8410, 1977.

44. Malcolm, Gerald N. and Robert C. Nelson. “Comparison of Water and Wind Tunnel Flow Visualization Results on a Generic Fighter Configuration at High Angles of Attack,” AIAA-87-2423, 1987.

45. Mason, W.H. “What We Need in Experimental Aerodynamics: One Engineering Educator’s View (Invited),” AIAA 30th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, January 1992.


46. Johnson, Joseph L., Jr., Sue B. Grafton, and Long P. Yip. “Exploratory Investigation of the Effects of Vortex Bursting on the High Angle-of-Attack Lateral-Directional Stability Characteristics of Highly-Swept Wings,” AIAA 80-0463, 1980.

47. Rao, Dhanvada M. and Thomas D. Johnson, Jr. “Subsonic Pitch-up Alleviation on a 74 Deg Delta Wing,” NASA CR 165749, 1981.

48. Shevell, R.S. “Aerodynamic Bugs: Can CFD Spray them Away?” AIAA-85-4067, 1985.

49. Bradley, R.G., W.O. Wray, and C.W. Smith. “An Experimental Investigation of Leading-Edge Vortex Augmentation by Blowing,” NASA CR-132415, 1974.

50. Wolowicz, Chester H. and Roxanah B. Yancey. “Summary of Stability and Control Characteristics of the XB-70 Airplane,” NASA TM X-2933, 1973.

51. Quinto, P. Frank and John W. Paulson. “Flap Effectiveness on Subsonic Longitudinal Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Modified Arrow Wing,” NASA TM 84582, 1983.

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53. Carlson, Harry W. and Kenneth B. Walkley. “An Aerodynamic Analysis Computer Program and Design Notes for Low Speed Wing Flap Systems,” NASA CR 3675, 1983.

54. Lamar, John E. and Blair B. Gloss. “Subsonic Aerodynamic Characteristics of Interacting Lifting Surfaces with Separated Flow Around Sharp Edges Predicted by a Vortex Lattice Method,” NASA TN D-7921, 1975.

55. Lamar, John, E. “Extension of Leading-Edge Suction Analogy to Wings with Separated Flow Around the Side Edges at Subsonic Speeds,” NASA TR-R-428, 1974.

56. Carlson, Harry W., Robert J. Mack, and Raymond L. Barger. “Estimation of Attainable Leading-Edge Thrust for Wings at Subsonic and Supersonic Speeds,” NASA TP 1500, 1979.

57. Carlson, Harry W. and Kenneth B. Walkley. “A Computer Program for Wing Subsonic Aerodynamic Performance Estimates Including Attainable Thrust and Vortex Lift Effects,” NASA CR 3515, 1982.

58. Hoerner, Sighard F. and Henry V. Borst. Fluid-Dynamic Lift, Hoerner Fluid Dynamics, Brick Town, New Jersey, 1975.

59. Abbott, Ira A. and Albert E. Von Doenhoff. Theory of Wing Sections, Dover Publications, Inc., New York, 1949.

60. Brandt, Steven A. “A Vortex Burst Model for Enhancement of the Vortex Lattice Method at High Angles of Attack,” AIAA 94-0074, 1994.

61. Kroo, Ilan. “Tail Sizing for Fuel-Efficient Transports,” AIAA-83-2476, 1983.

62. Wimpress, J.K. “Aerodynamic Technology Applied to Takeoff and Landing,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 154, Art. 2, pp. 962-981, November 22, 1968.

63. Wedekind, G. “Tail Versus Canard Configuration An Aerodynamic Comparison with Regard to the Suitability for Future Tactical Combat Aircraft,” ICAS-82-1.2.2, 1982.

64. Fellers, W.E., W.S. Bowman, and P.T. Wooler. “Tail Configurations for Highly Maneuverable Combat Aircraft,” AGARD CP-319, October 1981.

65. Spearman, M. Leroy. “Some Lessons Learned with Wind Tunnels,” AIAA 86-0777, 1986.

–  –  –

67. Landfield, J.P. and D. Rajkovic. “Canard/Tail Comparison for an Advanced VariableSweep-Wing Fighter,” Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 23, No. 6, June 1986, pp. 449-454.

68. Rech, Jean and Clive S. Leyman. A Case Study by Aerospatiale and British Aerospace on the Concorde, AIAA Professional Study Series.

69. Eberle, R.B., R.T. Stancil, and W.C. Fowler. “A Critical Review of Canard Relative To Aft Horizontal Tail Based on Low- and-High Speed Tunnel Tests of a Fighter/Attack Configuration,” AIAA-71-8, 1971.

70. Spearman, M. Leroy. “Effects of Wing and Tail Location on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of an Airplane for Mach Numbers From 0.25 to 4.63,” AIAA-80Torenbeek, Egbert. Synthesis of Subsonic Airplane Design, Delft University Press, Delft, 1982.

72. Williams, John and Alice J. Ross. “Some Airframe Aerodynamic Problems at Low Speeds,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 154, Art.2, pp. 264-305, November 22, 1968.

73. Sachs, Gottfried. “Minimum Trim Drag and Optimum c.g. Position,” Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 15, No. 8, August 1978.

74. Nicholas, W.U., G.L. Naville, J.E. Hoffschwelle, J.K. Huffman, and P.F. Covell. “An Evaluation of the Relative Merits of Wing-Canard, Wing-Tail, and Tailless Arrangements for Advanced Fighter Applications,” ICAS-84-2.7.3, 1984.

75. Hutchison, Matthew G. “Multidisciplinary Design Optimization of High-Speed Civil Transport Configurations Using Variable-Complexity Modeling,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, March 1993.

76. Hutchison, M.G., E.R. Unger, W.H. Mason, B. Grossman, and R.T. Haftka.

“Aerodynamic Optimization of an HSCT Configuration Using Variable-Complexity Modeling,” AIAA 93-0101, January 1993.

77. Hutchison, M.G., E.R. Unger, W.H. Mason, B. Grossman, and R.T. Haftka.

“Variable-Complexity Aerodynamic Optimization of a High-Speed Civil Transport Wing,” Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 31, No. 1, pp. 110-116, January-February 1994.

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