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«by: Alexander M. Benoliel Thesis submitted to the faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University in partial fulfillment of the ...»

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Discussion of the impact of high-lift aerodynamics on:

Noise constraints.

Take-off/landing requirements.

Discussion of past methods and research areas. Discussion of current and future technology, research areas, and future requirements.

Barber, Hal T., Jr. and E.E. Swanson. “Advanced Supersonic Technology Concept AST-100 Characteristics Developed in a Baseline-Update Study,” NASA TM XComplete design study of the AST-100 configuration developed from the baseline concepts from 1973. Full report includes wind-tunnel data from NASA Langley Full Scale Tunnel and Ames 12-Foot Pressure Tunnel. Advancements from baseline include reduction of wing thickness, nacelle resizing, improvement in lift-to-drag ratios, and resized rudder developed from lateral-directional study not previously available.

Barber, Hal T. “Characteristics of the Advanced Supersonic Technology AST-105-1 Configured for Transpacific Range with Pratt and Whitney Aircraft Variable Stream Control Engines,” NASA TM 78818, 1979.

Configuration description of the AST-105-1 developed from tests on the AST-100.

Analysis and design of the configuration is based on theoretical predictions and an aerodynamic database.

Includes tabulated and plotted low speed lift and drag and high speed drag polars.

Tabulated and plotted control effectiveness. Figures of configuration. Report includes

description of:

Low and high-speed aerodynamics.

Stability and control.

Stability augmentation.

Dynamic stability developed from flight simulator "flights."

Propulsion including engine description, nacelle design, and performance.

Mass properties.

Environmental factors including noise and sonic boom.

Mission analysis including requirements, propulsion constraints and off-design operation.


Page 70 Barber, Hal T., Jr. “Characteristics of an Advanced Supersonic Technology Transport (AST-106-1) Configured with Variable-Cycle Engines for Transpacific Range,” NASA TM 81879, 1982.

Theoretical design of AST-106-1 configuration. Report is mainly concerned with applying more recent analysis methods to the AST-105-1 design while incorporating new technologies. Estimates for aerodynamic performance incorporate analysis methods along

with wind tunnel data. The report includes:

Low-speed and high-speed aerodynamic assessment.

Presentation of stability and control criteria and control surface configuration.

Presentation of variable-cycle engine and performance.

Mass characteristics.

Discussion of environmental factors including noise and sonic boom.

Presentation of mission analysis requirements and sizing constraints Economic market analysis.

Douglas Aircraft Company. “Study of High-Speed Civil Transports,” NASA CR 4236, 1990.

HSCT Systems study including:

Market analysis.

Vehicle concepts assessment (from Mach 2.0 to 25) including engine selection.

Mission analysis including economics and performance.

Environmental aspects (noise and sonic boom).

Airport compatibility and requirements.

Future recommendations.

Douglas Aircraft Company. “1989 High-Speed Civil Transport Studies,” NASA CR 4375, 1991.

Follow-up from CR 4236. Includes more information on sonic boom minimization, noise reduction, studies on engine emissions and laminar flow control. Includes future recommendations and a brief configuration description.

Kehrer, W.T. “Design Evolution of the Boeing 2707-300 Supersonic Transport, Part II Design Impact of Handling Qualities Criteria, Flight Control Systems Concepts, and Aeroelastic Effects on Stability and Control,” AGARD CP-147, Oct. 1973.

Report includes:

Impact of stability and control issues on configuration design includes stability augmentation system and horizontal tail sizing.

Aeroelasticity issues relative to configuration design and design cycle.

Report includes only summary plots of previous tests.

Page 71 Robins, A. Warner, Samuel M. Dollyhigh, Fred L. Beissner, Jr., Karl Geiselhart, Glenn L. Martin, E.W. Shields, E.E. Swanson, Peter G. Coen, and Shelby J. Morris, Jr.

“Concept Development of a Mach 3.0 High-Speed Civil Transport,” NASA TM 4058, 1988.

Concept description of the AST3I Mach 3.0 configuration. Configuration layout, mass properties, aerodynamics, propulsion, performance, and sizing. Predictions of zero-lift drag, induced drag, maximum lift-drag ratio and stability predictions are included.

Also includes water tunnel test flow visualization photographs showing the vortex system present with pylon vortex generators/leading edge-notch flap.

Swan, W.C. “Design Evolution of the Boeing 2707-300 Supersonic Transport, Part I Configuration Development, Aerodynamics, Propulsion, and Structures,” AGARD CP-147, Oct. 1973.

Report includes:

History of SST program.

Presentation of configuration aerodynamics.

Propulsion systems including engine placement and propulsion integration aerodynamics.

Structural concepts including material selection, dynamic analysis and flutter.

Preliminary design issues.

Report includes only summary plots of previous tests.

Walkley, Kenneth B. and Glenn L. Martin. “Aerodynamic Design and Analysis of the AST-200 Supersonic Transport Configuration Concept,” NASA CR 159051, 1979.

AST-200 configuration. Design of the configuration from the baseline AST-102.

Description of numerical model used is presented for AST-102 and AST-200. Design

considerations include:

Nacelle design.

Wing thickness development.

Wing twist and camber design.

Wing-body integration and wave drag optimization.

Numerical aerodynamic analysis includes:

Comparison of forces and moments between AST-102 and AST-200.

Walkley, K.B., G.J. Espil, W.A. Lovell, G.L. Martin, and E.E. Swanson. “Concept Development of a Mach 2.7 Advanced Technology Transport Employing WingFuselage Blending,” NASA CR 165739, 1981.

Theoretical design and analysis of the AST-205 configuration. Results include:

Description of full configuration development from mission requirements.

Propulsion system description including nacelle design, engine size, and installed performance.

–  –  –

A.5 Reference Reports Hoffman, Sherwood. “Bibliography of Supersonic Cruise Research (SCR) Program from 1972 to Mid-1977,” NASA RP 1003, 1977.

Hoffman, Sherwood. “Bibliography of Supersonic Cruise Research (SCR) Program from 1977 to Mid-19”80,” NASA RP 1063, 1980.

Hoffman, Sherwood. “Bibliography of Supersonic Cruise Research (SCR) Program from 1980 to 1983,” NASA RP 1117, 1984.

Gives a history of the SCAR program and a compilation of abstracts. Does not list reports on research applicable to HSCT configurations that were not specifically part of the SCAR program.

Kulfan, R.M. “Wing Geometry Effects on Leading Edge Vortices,” AIAA-79-1872.

Aircraft Systems and Technology Meeting, 1979.

Theoretical and Experimental study of wing geometry effects on vortex flow and resulting forces. Plotted force and pressure data along with highly descriptive figures of flowfield,

forces and vortex characteristics. Discussions and results include:

Formation and characteristics of vortex flow on sharp, slender wings.

Previous prediction methods for vortex flow and a description of the suction analogy used for theoretical predictions.

Airfoil shape effects (pointed and round-nose leading edges).

Warped wings.

Drag predictions.

Purely theoretical wing planform effects study (supported by previous experimental data) including sweep, notch ratio, taper ratio, twist, camber, nose radius, and flap effects.

Lamar, John E. “High Angle of Attack - Aerodynamics. AGARD Special Course on Engineering Methods in Aerodynamic Analysis and Design of Aircraft,” AGARD Report 783, 1992.

A comprehensive summary of theoretical prediction methods of high angle of attack aerodynamics of aircraft. The report includes methods from a variety of researchers in the

following topics:

–  –  –

Poisson-Quinton, P. “Slender Wings for Civil and Military Aircraft.” Eighth Theodore von Karman Memorial Lecture, Israel Journal of Technology, Vol. 16, No. 3, pp 97A comprehensive summary of the aerodynamic characteristics of slender wings. Includes

many descriptive figures on each topic. Discussions include:

Vortex lift including theoretical predictions, flow visualization, vortex burst, and pitchup.

Vortex control, vortex flaps, effect of leading edge contour and blowing on vortex lift, and strake effects.

Variable geometry wings including variable sweep canards.

Design for supersonic cruise.

Design for hypersonic cruise and reentry flight.

Spearman, Leroy M. “The Evolution of the High-Speed Civil Transport,” NASA TM 109089, 1994..

The history of the various programs involving supersonic transport is presented.

Description of the major research and configurations studied during each program and reasons for the demise of each program.

Spreeman, Kenneth P. “Design Guide for Pitch-Up Evaluation and Investigation at High Subsonic Speeds of Possible Limitations Due to Wing-Aspect-Ratio Variations,” NASA TM X-26, 1959.

A design guide is given for wing-body and wing-body-tail combinations for design of configurations so as not to experience pitch-up. The study does not predict where pitch-up will occur, rather, it only predicts if pitch-up will occur. Discussion of the limitations of the method when applied to aircraft design. Tests are limited to delta planforms only. Analysis and experimental tests of varying aspect ratio wing-bodies was performed and is presented.

Limited test data is presented. Plotted force data for varying Mach number. A extensive list of references on tests relevant to this subject is presented.

Page 74 A.6 Control Issues Campbell, George S. and Joseph Weil. “The Interpretation of Nonlinear Pitching Moments in Relation to the Pitch-Up Problem,” NASA TN D-193, 1959.

Methods to calculate the longitudinal response of aircraft to control inputs with the use on non-linear data is presented. A study of the factors affecting and correcting pitch-up during flight is also presented. Plotted time histories of forces and aircraft motion is included.

James, Harry A. and Lynn W. Hunton. “Estimation of Incremental Pitching Moments Due to Trailing-Edge Flaps on Swept and Triangular Wings,” NACA TN 4040, 1957.

Method of determining Cm-delta for swept wings from two-dimensional data is presented.

Method seems to work with a fair amount of accuracy for the wings tested, although 2-D data is required for the wing sections. Method was tested for low angles of attack only. An extensive reference list of sources of two-dimensional airfoils and wing/wing-body tests is presented.

McCarthy, Craig A., John B. Feather, John R. Dykman, Mark A. Page, and John Hodgkinson. “Design and Analysis Issues of Integrated Control Systems for HighSpeed Civil Transports,” NASA CR 186022, 1992.

Identification of the issues for guidance and control systems for the HSCT aircraft.

Discussion of the stability and control characteristics of HSCT aircraft, analysis of current technologies, and identification of current control systems problems and requirements.

Discussion of the following issues includes identification of the characteristics, control

requirements, and control design technology:

Pitch and directional stability and control.

Aeroelastic effects and acoustics.

Airframe propulsion interaction.

Wolowicz, Chester H. and Roxanah B. Yancey. “Summary of Stability and Control Characteristics of the XB-70 Airplane,” NASA TM X-2933, 1973.

Description of the stability and control characteristics of the XB-70-1 determined from flight data. Some explanation of the discrepancies between flight and predictions. Plotted

force and time history data. Discussions include:

Description of the control system and instrumentation..

Propulsion system.

Longitudinal char. including takeoff/landing, trim, control, and dynamic stability.

Lateral directional characteristics including landing, static stability and control, handling problems in sideslip, dutch-roll, aileron response and flight augmentation system.

–  –  –

A summary of the reports that deal with experimental studies of HSCT planforms or HSCT related tests is shown in Tables 1 and 2. Reports are listed by their report numbers.

Table B1 - Experimental studies of swept wing planforms

–  –  –

A key of the symbols used in the table is as follows:

LE: Leading-edge flap TE: Trailing-edge flap SLE(X): Segmented leading-edge flap where X = number of segments KLE: Krueger flap on outboard wing section “-”: item is not included or information was not provided

–  –  –

A key of the symbols used in the table is as follows:

LE: Leading-edge flap TE: Trailing-edge flap SLE(X): Segmented leading-edge flap where X = number of segments KLE: Krueger flap on outboard wing section “-”: item is not included or information was not provided

–  –  –

The aerodynamic pitch-up estimation method (APE) uses the vortex lattice method code named Aero2s (January 1994 version), developed by Dr. Harry Carlson, to estimate the inviscid aerodynamic characteristics along with estimates for the thrust and vortex forces. The APE method is simply an extension of this code and only requires an additional two variables to the input file. To differentiate this code from the original Aero2s, it was named Aero2s2. For instructions on the use of the code, reference 29 should be used along with these notes. The code is run in the same manner as is described in ref. 29. To

execute the code, the command is:

aero2s2 input output


input - input file name output - output file name (screen output is used if no name is specified)

–  –  –

These values may be specified anywhere in the NAMELIST input file. The output file is as

is described in ref. 29. In addition, three other output files are generated, they are:

–  –  –

The APE output is only contained in the cloutc.dat file. Finally, the only change to the original operation of the Aero2s code was the limit imposed on the vortex forces. The vortex effects were omitted for spanwise stations that were inboard of the YAPEX specifier. It should be noted that there was a large degree of sensitivity associated with the proper selection of the YAPEX value. This was true before and after the modification of “limiting” the vortex. There is no option to eliminate the vortex limiting modification, this is a permanent change to Aero2s.

–  –  –

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