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«Coniacian and Santonian inoceramid bivalves from the Gosau-Group (Cretaceous, Austria) and their biostratigraphic and palaeobiogeographic ...»

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D e s c r i p t i o n : Both valves of the bivalved specimen were slightly displaced in the umbonal region. The right one is more complete. Parts of the auricle, of the anterior and ventral margin are missing. (Hg = 330 mm, Lg = 268 mm, Sg = 49 mm, Vo = 165.5 mm, Gw = 110°; Gw is possibly reduced due to crushing. In addition the left valve lacks the umbonal area. Probably the specimen was equivalve originally. Except for DU, measurements pertain to the right valve only. Both valves are flattened. Radial cracks are visible. The beak is turned slightly towards the anterior margin. It is not distinctly separated from the auricle and does not project over it. Anterior margin is slightly convex and heavily compressed. It is partially inclined towards the commissure. Due to compression, undulations are acute in the umbonal area, in non compressed areas rounded. They become flatter towards the ventral margin.

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Tab. 6. Average of Na/Ha-, Vo/Ha- and S/Ha-ratios at different distances from the top of the umbo. The indices lie within the variation range of Platyceramus cycloides ahsenensis (SEITZ).

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Tab. 7. Average undulation intervals of the Grabenbach individual in relation to the measurements of SEITZ (1962:

67). The course of the undulations is subquadrate, particularly in the umbonal area.

174 Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien 96 A

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Stratigraphie distribution: According to SEITZ (1961: 68) Platyceramus cycloides ahsenensis appears in the undulatoplicatus-Zone (Lower Santonian) and occurs throughout the Santonian up to the lowermost Campanian (very rare).

G e o g r a p h i c d i s t r i b u t i o n : Platyceramus cycloides ahsenensis is recorded abundantly from Spain (LOPEZ, MARTINEZ & LAMOLDA 1992: 254), from the Pacific coast (Japan, California, Mexico and the Caribbean; I.e.: 256). It also occurs in Western, Middle and Southern Europe.

Genus Cladoceramus 1932 HEINZ, Cladoceramus undulatoplicatus (ROEMER, 1852) subsp. indet.

(PI. 3, fig. 2) 1852 Inoceramus undulato-plicatus n.sp. ROEMER: 59, pl.7, fig. 1.

1961 Inoceramus (Cladoceramus) undulatoplicatus ROEMER subsp. indet. - SEITZ: 106-108, pi. 5, fig. 5; pi. 10, figs. l,2;textfigs. 22, 24, 25.

R e m a r k s : The species was mentioned briefly by ROEMER 1849. The complete description with figure by ROEMER followed 1852. Holotype by monotypy is the original of ROEMER 1852: 59, pi. 7, fig. 1 (SEITZ 1961: 97).

TRÖGER & SUMMESBERGER: Coniacian and Santonian inoceramid bivalves 175 M a t e r i a l : Internal moulds of two left and two right valves with shell remains. Three individuals (SK/B/RA/1982/1, 2; SK/B/RA/1983/3) are from the Randobach (Rußbach, Salzburg; stop 26 of KOLLMANN & SUMMESBERGER 1982: 72), the type area of "Hemitissotia" randoi GERTH. SK/B/EB/1985/1 is from the Edlbachgraben (Gosau, Upper Austria) where it is also associated with "Hemitissotia " randoi.

D e s c r i p t i o n : On the strongly flattened specimens from the Gosau, only the umbonal areas extending to the onset of the diverging ribs are preserved. This deformation influences Na/Ha-ratio (100 %).

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Tab. 8 Average values for the Na/Ha-, Vo/Ha- and S/Ha-ratios in 10-30 mm distance from the umbonal pole.

Gw values for the umbonal sections vary from 115 to 130°. The angles of the growth axes (WA) at Ha = 20 are between 55 and 75°. All measurements indicate a cycloid initial stage.

About 5 to 6 divaricating ribs arise at different distances from the umbonal pole (15-20 mm). Ribs of SK/B/RA/1982/2, B/RA/1983/3 bifurcate. Thickness of the shell is from 0.1 to 0.2 mm.

R e m a r k s : The described specimens differ in their cycloid initial stage from Cl. u. undulatoplicatus (ROEMER) and Cl. undulatoplicatus michaeli (HEINZ). SEITZ (1962: 106) also mentions a cycloid undulation course in /. (Cladoceramus) undulatoplicatus ROEMER subsp.

indet. SK/B/RA/1982/2 could belong to Cl. u. undulatoplicatus (ROEMER). However, definite subspecific assignment of this specimen is impossible due to its incomplete umbonal region.

S t r a t i g r a p h i e a n d g e o g r a p h i c d i s t r i b u t i o n : Cladoceramus undulatoplicatus ROEMER is a distinct marker fossil of the Lower Santonian, predominantly of the undulatoplicatus-assemblage zone. It is of world-wide occurrence (N-America, N-Africa, Madagascar, Europe, Western Asia, Eastern Asia). It is recorded from the Gosau-group of Brandenberg (Tyrol), where it co-occurs with Platyceramus cycloides (WEGNER), Sphenoceramus sp. and Texanites quinquenodosus (REDTENBACHER) at the distinct horizon e (KAUFFMAN in HERM, KAUFFMAN & WIEDMANN 1979: 39, fig. 6). Magadiceramus subquadratus (SCHLÜTER) additionally mentioned by KAUFFMAN (I.e.) is quoted here with some doubt.

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D e s c r i p t i o n : Bivalved specimen. The valves were found displaced about 10 cm from each other. They are strongly flattened and incomplete. Radial cracks (pi. 3, fig. 4) indicate post mortem crushing. The right valve lacks the umbo, parts of the auricle, parts of the anterior and the whole ventral margin. The left valve (pi. 3, fig. 4a) consists of the umbonal region only. Right valve (pi. 3, fig. 4): Gw: 140°, Flw: 40°; Hg (incomplete): 226 mm, Lg (incomplete): 208 mm, Sg (incomplete): 62.5 mm, Vo.: 120 mm. The prominent beak of the left valve is slightly bent to the anterior margin and distinctly separated from the auricle.





The Cordiceramus-stage with the corners Kl, K2 and K3 (left valve; pi. 3, fig. 4b) passes into a Platyceramus-stage at H 92.5 mm. The latter is relatively flat with slight undulations only.

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Tab. 10. Average undulation interval (DU) in distances from the umbonal pole.

S t r a t i g r a p h i e d i s t r i b u t i o n : The species occurs in the upper part of the middle Santonian Cordiformis-Zone (SEITZ 1961: 150) of Western Europe.

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(PI. 3, fig. 5) * 1928 Inoceramus germanicus - HEINZ: 82, footnote 1.

1934 Germanoceramus germanicus HEINZ - HEINZ: 250, pi. 21, fig. 2 (only).

1961 Inoceramus (Cordiceramus) miilleri germanicus HEINZ - SEITZ: 131-135, pi. 7,fig.6.; pi. 8, figs. 1, 6, 7; pi. 15,fig.1; text-figs. 29, 30.

M a t e r i a l : Internal moulds of a right (NHMW/1990/29/201) and a left valve (NHMW/1990/29/195: cf.-determination) from Finstergrabenwandl, Zwieselberg forest road, Gosau, Upper Austria; Sandkalkbank member of the Hochmoos Formation.

D e s c r i p t i o n : The incomplete internal mould of the right valve is flattened considerably. Umbonal top, parts of the auricle and the ventral margin are missing. The beak is slightly turned towards the anterior margin. The course of the undulations is elongated oval in the initial stage, pentagonally rounded in the gerontic stage. On the auricle, undulations are turned towards the beak. Undulations cross the growth lines (pi. 3, fig. 5). This is only poorly indicated on the left valve. Gw values lie between 105° for the incomplete left valve and 110° for the right one.

TRÖGER & SUMMESBERGER: Coniacian and Santonian inoceramid bivalves 177

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(PI. 3, fig. 3, 3a, 3b) * 1835 Inoceramus cardissoides GOLDFUSS: 112, pi. 110, fig. 2.

1965 Inoceramus (Sphenoceramus) cardissoides GOLDF. - SEITZ: 34—44.

M a t e r i a l : 1 bivalved fragment of the umbonal area (collected by the authors in 1993, NHMW/1994/240). Stöcklwaldgraben/Rußbach, Streiteck Formation.

D e s c r i p t i o n : The uncrushed valves are slightly displaced. The preserved part of the umbonal area is distinctly wedgelike. The anterior margin is inclined steeply towards the commissure, as is characteristic for the genus (pi. 3, fig. 3a). The acute umbo is turned slightly towards the anterior margin and ends at the auricle. Gw = 73°. The left valve shows growth lines up to Ha 12.5 mm, then undulations in intervals of 1.8 to 2.2 mm. WA is slightly inclined (48^4-2°). Corners K l, K2, K3 and radial depression are well developed. The Na/Ha-ratio varies between 62 and 73% (Ha-interval 6-16.5 mm), the Vo/Ha-ratio between 60 and 86% and the S/Ha-ratio between 40 and 60% (left valve). Averages of the right valve are 5-10% lower.

R e m a r k s : According to SEITZ (1965: 52) the decisive criterion for identification is the Vo/Ha-ratio. The above determined ratios lie within the transition range between Sphenoceramus pachti (ARKHANGUELSKY) and Sphenoceramus cardissoides (GOLDFUSS).

Subspecific assignation is impossible due to the fragmentary preservation of the specimen studied.

178 Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien 96 A Stratigraphie d i s t r i b u t i o n : Sphenoceramus cardissoides (GOLDFUSS) occurs frequently in the Lower to Middle Santonian and very rare in the Upper Santonian strata.

Geographic d i s t r i b u t i o n : Western, Middle and Eastern Europe.

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Tab. 13. Inoceramids of the Coniacian/Santonian of the Gosau-group (Eastern Alps) after DHONDT (1987), SEITZ (1961, 1965, 1967) and investigations of the authors. 1. Bad Ischi (tunnel section), 2. Strobl/Weißenbachtal, 30 m E of the Schmolnauer Alpe. 3. Randobach (Rußbach). 4. Randobach, stop 26 of KOLLMANN & SUMMESBERGER 1982. 5. Stöcklwaldgraben (Rußbach). 6. Grabenbach (Gosau). 7. Schattau (Lower Campanian; Gosau).

8. Zwieselberg forest road "Finstergrabenwandl" (Gosau). 9. Edelbachgraben (Gosau).

Biostratigraphic correlation between the Coniacian and Santonian of the Eastern Alps and the NW German - Polish basin.

The authors follow KENNEDY'S (1984 a) definition of the Coniacian and Santonian stages based on the ammonite sequence of France. Correlation with the Coniacian ammonite zones was already introduced by TRÖGER (1989: text-fig. 3). As the index fossil for the definition of the base of the Coniacian -Forresteria petrocoriensis (COQUAND)- is absent in the Gosaugroup, the authors follow SEIBERTZ (1979) and TRÖGER (1981) who defined the boundary of the Coniacian by the appearance of Cremnoceramus rotundatus FIEGE. This allows rather

precise correlation with the Didymotis event II in Westphalia (KAPLAN & KENNEDY 1994:

text-fig. 2).

The Lower and Middle Coniacian seem to be relatively complete in the sections N of Bad Ischi and at the Schmolnauer Alpe near Strobl/Weißenbach. The assemblage-zones 21, 22 of TRÖGER (1989: 917, text-fig. 3) are represented here. No data are available for assemblage zone 20 in the area investigated. Inoceramids of this level could be expected above the Didymotis-event ("Ofenwand", Weißenbach valley near Strobl; SUMMESBERGER 1985, SUMMESBERGER & KENNEDY, in prep.).

TRÖGER & SUMMESBERGER: Coniacian and Santonian inoceramid bivalves 179 Assemblage zone 20 is represented by Cremnoceramus? rotundatus (FIEGE), Inoceramus sp.

aff. /. ernsti HEINZ and Mytiloides? sp. aff. M? stantoni (SOKOLOW) at the marker bed h above the rudist reef in the Atzlgraben section of Brandenberg (Tyrol; KAUFFMAN in HERM, KAUFFMAN & WIEDMANN 1979: 78).

There is no evidence for the occurrence of Magadiceramus species (Upper Coniacian assemblage-zones 23 and 24) in the sections investigated. The level could be present in the Stöcklwaldgraben (Rußbach) between the occurrence of Volviceramus involutus (SOWERBY) and the appearing of Sphenoceramus cardissoides (GOLDFUSS) (pi. 3, fig. 3). To date, however, there is no record of inoceramids from this part of the section.

On the other hand, Magadiceramus is mentioned by SEITZ (1970: 36, 37) from the Eiberg near Kufstein (Tyrol) and by KAUFFMAN (in: HERM, KAUFFMAN & WIEDMANN 1979: 39) from the level e of the section Brandenberger Ache-Mösl-Mühlbach at Brandenberg (Tyrol). Co-occurrence with Lower Santonian ammonites at both localities (BRINKMANN 1935: 2; KATSCHTHALER 1935: 175, 178; IMMEL, KLINGER & WIEDMANN 1982) and inoceramids of the Lower Santonian assemblage zone 26 at the latter one {Cladoceramus undulatoplicatus (ROEMER), Platyceramus cycloides (WEGNER) and Sphenoceramus sp.; after KAUFFMAN, I.e.) make the Tyrolean occurrences of Magadiceramus doubtful in our opinion.

Inoceramids recorded from the Santonian of the Gosau-group and the corresponding parts of the formations allow correlations with the biostratigraphical scheme of the NW GermanPolish basin.

The authors follow KENNEDY'S suggestion (1984 a: 156) to use the entry of the genus Texanites for definition of the base of the Santonian. This is also the base of inoceramid assemblage zone 25. The subdivision of the Santonian follows TRÖGER (1989: text-fig. 4).

There is no safe evidence in the sections of Rußbach/Gosau for the assemblage-zone 25.

Sphenoceramus cardissoides (GOLDFUSS) occurring just above Texanites quinquenodosus (REDTENBACHER) seems to be the first inoceramid representative of basal Santonian, immediately followed by Cladoceramus undulatoplicatus (ROEMER).

A contrast to the Coniacian is the absence of a large number of Santonian taxa frequent or important for biostratigraphic subdivision in northwestern and eastern Europe (e.g. Cordiceramus cordiformis-group, Sphenoceramus pachti (ARCH.), Sphenoceramus pinniformisgroup, Sphenoceramus patootensiformis-group). The absence of these otherwise world-wide occurring taxa might still be due to collection failure and should not be used for premature palaeobiogeographic conclusions.

Palaeobiogeographical conclusions

There is a strong similarity between the NW German-Polish Cretaceous basin, which is generally regarded as being a part of the Northern Temperate Realm, and the Austroalpine Gosau-group of the Tethyan Realm. Occurrence of inoceramid taxa in both areas indicate the exisence of extensive migration routes following the transgression which began in the Upper Turonian (SUMMESBERGER & KENNEDY, in prep.) and continued through Lower and Middle Coniacian. The Upper Coniacian was not investigated sufficiently to be taken into consideration in the present paper.



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