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«Coniacian and Santonian inoceramid bivalves from the Gosau-Group (Cretaceous, Austria) and their biostratigraphic and palaeobiogeographic ...»

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Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien Wien, Dezember 1994

96 A 161-197

Coniacian and Santonian inoceramid bivalves

from the Gosau-Group (Cretaceous, Austria) and their

biostratigraphic and palaeobiogeographic significance.


(With 3 plates, 4 text-figures and 15 tables)

Manuscript submitted on March 17th 1994,

the revised manuscript on October 12* 1994 IGCP Project 362 "Tethyan and Boreal Cretaceous" Abstract Sixteen taxa of Inoceramidae (Bivalvia) are described from the Coniacian/Santonian of the Gosau-group of Austria, some for the first time. Inoceramid stratigraphy of the NW-German and Polish Late Cretaceous (TRÖGER

1989) is correlated with the inoceramid sequence of the Gosau-group. This sequence is based upon lithostratigraphic sections (KOLLMANN & SUMMESBERGER 1982 and unpublished data) and data from ammonoids (SUMMESBERGER 1979, 1985) and Foraminifera (WILLE-JANOSCHEK 1966; WEISS 1975). Newly collected well-horizoned Inoceramidae and the reinterpretation of previously collected material allow a more detailed biostratigraphical subdivision of the interval investigated than can be achieved by other methods. Separation of the Lower Coniacian of the Gosau-group and the determination of the stratigraphie succession of the Mid-Coniacian ammonite faunas are sucessfully achieved for the first time. Evidence of Upper Coniacian near the top of the Streiteck Formation and of immediately overlying Lower Santonian sediments provide proof that the major part of the Streiteck Formation is of Coniacian age.

Keywords: Upper Cretaceous, bivalves, Inoceramidae, stratigraphy, Eastern Alps, Middle Europe.

Zusammenfassung Sechzehn Taxa Inoceramidae (Bivalvia) werden zum Teil erstmals aus dem Coniac/Santon der Gosau-Gruppe beschrieben. Die Inoceramenstratigraphie der NW-deutschen und polnischen Oberkreide (TRÖGER 1989) wird zur Inoceramenfolge der Gosau-Gruppe in Beziehung gesetzt. Diese Folge fußt auf lithostratigraphischen Profilaufnahmen (KOLLMANN & SUMMESBERGER 1982 und unpublizierte Daten) sowie auf stratigraphischen Daten der Foraminiferen (WILLE-JANOSCHEK 1966, WEISS 1975) und Ammoniten (SUMMESBERGER 1979, 1985). Horizontierte Aufsammlungen von Inoceramen und Neuinterpretation von Sammlungsmaterial erlaubt eine feinere biostratigraphische Gliederung der untersuchten Zeitabschnitte als die bisher angewandten Methoden. Erstmals ist die Abtrennung des Unterconiacs im Sinne der Inoceramenstratigraphie und die biostratigraphische Reihung der Ammonitenfaunen des Mittelconiac gelungen. Der Nachweis von Oberconiac im Hangendbereich der StreiteckFormation ergibt zusammen mit dem unmittelbar darüber nachgewiesenen Untersanton Gewißheit, daß der größere Teil der Streiteck-Formation dem Coniac angehört.

Schlüsselwörter: Obere Kreide, Bivalven, Inoceramidae, Stratigraphie, Ostalpen, Mitteleuropa.

') Dr. Karl-Armin TRÖGER, Bergakademie Freiberg, Bernhard-v.-Cotta-Straße 2, D-09596 Freiberg/Sachsen. Deutschland.

) Dr. Herbert SUMMESBERGER, Naturhistorisches Museum, Burgring 7, A-1014 Wien. - Austria.

162 Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien 96 A

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Biostratigraphic subdivision of the NW German and Sudetic (following SCUPIN 1910: Bohemian, Saxonian and Sudetian areas) Late Cretaceous is based on ammonites, inoceramids, belemnites and echinoids. The inoceramids are powerful tools in bio stratigraphy because of their general abundance and relative facies independence. Detailed inoceramid stratigraphy of the North European Province (E.G. KAUFFMAN 1973) was established through investigations by ÄNDERT (1911, 1933, 1934), HEINE (1929), HEINZ (1928a, b; 1932), SEITZ (1961, 1965, 1967, 1970) and TRÖGER (1974, 1987). Modern biostratigraphical subdivision of the Gosau-group was carried out by micropaleontologists between 1954 and 1981 (see KOLLMANN & SUMMESBERGER 1982: 16) and refined by WAGREICH (1988, 1992). A wealth of systematic, biostratigraphic and biogeographic data resulted from the investigation of ammonites (WIEDMANN 1978; SUMMESBERGER 1979, 1980, 1985; KENNEDY, KLINGER & SUMMESBERGER 1981; KENNEDY & SUMMESBERGER 1986). SUMMESBERGER (1985: 154, tab. 2) attempted to establish the stratigraphie sequence of the Austrian Coniacian sites on the basis of the revision of the French Coniacian by KENNEDY (1984). An Upper Turonian age was suggested for the first time by SUMMESBERGER (1985, I.e.) for basal units of the Gosau-group of Brandenberg (Tyrol). The discovery of Barroisiceras haberfellneri (HAUER) also indicates the presence of top Turonian sediments in the Gosau basin (SUMMESBERGER & KENNEDY, in prep.). Ammonites made correlation possible between the "Tethyan Realm" of the Gosau occurrences and the "Northern Lower Temperate Realm". Inoceramids of the Gosau-group were described previously (e.g.: ZEKELI 1852, ZITTEL 1864, PETRASCHECK 1906, BRINKMANN 1935) but not used extensively for biostratigraphy. Few attempts were made to correlate the known inoceramids of the Gosau basin with those of well studied NW German and Polish Upper Cretaceous inoceramid assemblages.

The application herein of the NW German/Polish inoceramid stratigraphy to the alpine Gosau-group is based on fieldwork by the authors in selected Coniacian/Santonian sections, studies of the collections of the Naturhistorisches Museum Wien and the private collections of W. P. MAHERNDL (Bad Ischi) and Dr. P. SKOUMAL (Wien).

The major part of the recently collected material is stored in the Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, the minor part in the collections of the Bergakademie Freiberg (BAF). The systematic section deals with description, discussion and stratigraphie range of the described taxa. For full synonymies the reader is referred to the references given. Palaeobiogeographical conclusions are discussed below (p. 179).

Abbreviations NHMW Naturhistorisches Museum Wien SK Collection SKOUMAL, Wien MA Collection MAHERNDL, Bad Ischi BAF Bergakademie Freiberg/Sachsen (TU) GIUW Geologisches Institut Universität Wien BSP Bayerische Staatssammlung für Paläontologie und historische Geologie, München.

TRÖGER & SUMMESBERGER: Coniacian and Santonian inoceramid bivalves

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Text-fig. 1. Sketch map of the localities mentioned in the text.

1. Bad Ischi, tunnel section, 2. Nussenseebach, 3. Schmolnauer Alpe, 4. Paß Gschütt Graben, 5. Stöcklwaldgraben, 6. Randobach, 7. Edelbach, 8. Grabenbach, 9. Bibereck/Finstergrabenwandl, 10. Neualpe, 11. Schattau.

TRÖGER & SUMMESBERGER: Coniacian and Santonian inoceramid bivalves

–  –  –

Text-fig. 2. Shell terminology used in this paper, in brackets terminology in German literature.

Sg-hinge line length (Schloßrandlänge) Hg-height (Gesamthöhe) Lg-length (Gesamtlänge) Ww-beak angle (Wirbelwinkel) Gw-total angle (Gesamtwinkel) Flw-wing angle (Flügelwinkel) 1 anterodorsal angle (vorderer Dorsalwinkel) 2 posterodorsal angle (hinterer Dorsalwinkel) AM=Vo-anterior margin (Vorderrand) PM-posterior margin (Hinterrand) VM-ventral margin (Unterrand) UR=UP-umbonal region, umbonal part, umbonal pole, umbonal area (Wirbelspitze) AE-length of anterior auricle (Länge des vorderen Ohrs) U-distance between two undulations (Abstand zwischen zwei Undulationen) DU-average distance between undulations (durchschnittlicher Undulationsabstand) UD-Distance of undulations from the beak (Abstand der Undulation von der Wirbelspitze) Wa-growth axis (Wachstumsachse) WA-angle of the growth axis (Winkel der Wachstumsachse) S-equidistance of an undulation at the hinge line (Schloßrandabschnitt einer Undulation) H-height of an undulation (Höhe einer Undulation) L-length of an undulation (Länge einer Undulation) Ha-axial length of an undulation (Länge der Hauptachse einer Undulation) Na-secondary axis of an undulation (Länge der Nebenachse einer Undulation).

166 Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien 96 A Systematic palaeontology Preservation Inoceramids of the Gosau-group are generally preserved as internal moulds of separated right and left valves with adherent shell in most cases. The ligament area is usually missing.

Isolated ligament ridges can occasionally be observed. All specimens are more or less crushed and occasionally shell fragments overlap or are even superimposed. When specimens are obliquely placed in the sediment their umbo can be situated beyond the commissure or above the auricles. Especially affected are the involute forms. No muscle scars were observed. Diagenetically caused radial cracks are common (figs. 17, 20). Also, prediagenetic decay is indicated by numerous shell fragments with shell thickness up to 7 mm (e.g. middle Santonian; Grabenbach, Gosau). Especially large forms (Hg 10 cm) are usually broken up in this manner. The matrix of the studied steinkerns consists of clayey shales to marly limestones.

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Tab.2. The average Na/Ha-, Vo/Ha- and S/Ha-ratios in Inoceramus sp. aff. percostatus G. MÜLLER. UD = distance from the umbonal pole.

R e m a r k s : The Gams specimen agrees well with Inoceramus percostatus G.MÜLLER for general features of shell and beak, for the Na/Ha ratio, and for the undulation intervals. It lacks the radial depression of the type specimen of /. percostatus, and it has a somewhat lower Vo/Ha ratio (59 % versus 81 %).

Inoceramus percostatus MÜLLER mentioned from the Lower Santonian shales of Brandenberg (Tyrol) by FISCHER (1964: 131) is not discussed here. His material could not be traced in the collections of the BSP, neither was it discussed by KAUFFMAN in: HERM, KAUFFMAN & WIEDMANN (1979) nor mentioned by IMMEL, KLINGER & WIEDMANN (1982: 7).

S t r a t i g r a p h i e o c c u r r e n c e : Inoceramus percostatus G.MÜLLER occurs in the Middle Coniacian. Some not specifically identified specimens from the Subhercynian CretaTRÖGER & SUMMESBERGER: Coniacian and Santonian inoceramid bivalves 167 ceous basin, which is a southern part of the NW German-Polish basin, identical with the Gams specimen, are also of Mid Coniacian age.

Geographic d i s t r i b u t i o n : Western-, Middle- and Eastern Europe.

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(PI. 1,fig.2) * 1871 Inoceramus simplex - STOLICZKA: 408, pi. 28, fig. 3a, 4a.

v. 1891 Inoceramus simplex - LANGENHAN & GRUNDEY: 12, pi. 5, fig. 5.

M a t e r i a l : Internal mould of a right valve. NHMW/1994/256. Strobl/Weißenbachtal, 30 m E of the Schmolnauer Alpe.

D e s c r i p t i o n : Slightly flattened incomplete right valve. The beak is separated from the auricle and distinctly curved to the concave anterior margin. Gw = 95°, Flw = 30°, WA increases from 51° (Ha = 16.5 mm) to 60°(Ha = 40 mm). The average undulation interval at a distance of 10-30 mm from the umbonal pole is 3.5 mm, Na/Ha is 78.4 %, Vo/Ha is 55.2% and S/Ha is 53.5 %.

R e m a r k s : We compare the specimen from Strobl/Weißenbachtal with Inoceramus simplex described and figured by LANGENHAN & GRUNDEY (1891, pi. 5, fig. 5, 6, 7). The Na/Ha-, S/Ha-indices of the specimen figured by LANGENHAN & GRUNDEY are somewhat lower. This is also the case for the growth axis.

Stratigraphie distribution: Early to Middle Coniacian (in Silesia and the Subhercynian Cretaceous basin).

–  –  –

(PI. 1, Fig. 1,1a) v.* 1888 Inoceramus sublabiatus G.MÜLLER: 411, pi. 16, fig. 2.

M a t e r i a l : One bivalved specimen (NHMW/1989/50/5), Strobl/Weißenbachtal, 30 m E of the Schmolnauer Alpe.

D e s c r i p t i o n : Both valves are slightly detached at the ligament area and somewhat flattened; the left valve is more completely preserved, but nevertheless, the auricle and the ventral commissure are not preserved. The characteristic mytiloid shape is accompanied by a slight inclination of the beak towards the anterior margin. In both valves the beak extends only just beyond the auricle. The anterior margin is directed steeply outward. Gw = 87°, WA increases from 45° at Ha 20 mm to 48° at Ha 60 mm. The Na/Ha-ratio ranges at Ha 56 from 65-71% (left valve) and from 60-71% (right valve). The Vo/Ha-ratio increases in both valves from 47-66% (right) and from 65-71% (left). The average undulation interval at a distance of 30-50 mm from the umbonal pole is 3.8 mm (right) and 4.7 mm (left).

R e m a r k s : The Na/Ha-indices of the holotype of Mytiloides sublabiatus (G.MÜLLER) from the Subhercynian Cretaceous Basin are somewhat higher (average 10 %). Additionally, the curvature of the beak to the front margin is missing. Individuals from the Subhercynian Cretaceous Basin comparable with NHMW/1989/50/5 are thought to be within the limits of intraspecific variation.

168 Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien 96 A

–  –  –

Cremnoceramus crassus (PETRASCHECK, 1903) (PI. l.figs. 4, 5) 1835 Inoceramus cuvieri Sow. - GOLDFUSS (non J. SOWERBY): 114, pi. I l l, fig. l a - c.

v.* 1903 Inoceramus crassus nov. spec. - PETRASCHECK: 164-169, pi. 8,fig.4a-c.

1913 Inoceramus schloenbachi J. BÖHM - BÖHM: p. 569.

v. 1934 Inoceramus schloenbachi J. BÖHM - ÄNDERT: pi. 3, fig. 2, text-fig. 8.

v. 1992 Inoceramus crassus PETRASCHECK - WALASZCZYK, p. 545, text-fig. 17; pi. 34, figs. 1-4; pi. 35, figs. 1-3.

(with additional synonymy) M a t e r i a l : Tworightvalves (NHMW/1989/51/2, 7) and several unregistered specimens in the MAHERNDL collection. Tunnel section N of Bad Ischi.

D e s c r i p t i o n : The measured individuals (NHMW/1989/51/2, 7) are internal moulds of right valves. NHMW/1989/51/2 is flattened, NHMW/1989/51/7 obliquely flattened. Both specimens have distorted umbonal regions. Their ventral margins are also badly preserved.

The heavy deformation makes a strong original inflation likely. The Na/Ha-ratio ranges from 70 to 80%, the undulation interval (NHMW/1989/5/2 below Ha 50 mm: 2-3.5 mm, above Ha 50 mm: 12-20 mm) and Gw = 110° are all within the the specific variation of Cremnoceramus schloenbachi (J. BÖHM) (see TRÖGER 1967: 207, textfig. 42 under Inoceramus deformis MEEK). The Na/Ha-indices of the crushed specimen NHMW/1989/51/7 are different. Undulations are scalariform.

R e m a r k s : We agree with WALASZCZYK (1992: 54), who considered Cremnoceramus schloenbachi (J. BÖHM) to be a junior synonym of Cremnoceramus crassus (PETRASCHECK).

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