FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Abstract, dissertation, book

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 190 | 191 ||

«Hosted by the: National Institute of Physical Education of Catalonia (INEFC) ISBN 978-84-695-7786-8 European College of Sport Science: Book of ...»

-- [ Page 192 ] --

Leipzig University Introduction Among Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), physical activity (PA) is the strongest predictor for mortality (Waschki et al., 2011). Consequently, the maintenance of PA on a long-term basis does play an essential role in COPD-disease management. However, there is a lack of instruments to assess illness-specific self-efficacy. Together with a validation of a German version of Wigal’s et al. (1991) “COPD-Self-Efficacy Scale”, the purpose of the present study is to investigate the correlation between the illness-specific self-efficacy and the patient’s level of activity as well as their psychological health. Methods For the present cross sectional study data giving evidence about the physical activity level (FFkA) of in- and out- patients with COPD (N=160; male: 68,6%; Age: M=67.3, SD=10.3) have been generated. Next to socio-demographic data, we also collected the illness-specific self-efficacy with the help of the first German version of the “COPD-Self-Efficacy Scale” (Müller et al., 2013; α =.984) as well as the level of depression using the HADS-D.

Results The results indicate a total time of physical activity of 9.8 hours per week (SD= 8.8), however 30.6% of the patients show too little physical activity. Physically active participants reach higher values regarding the illness-specific self-efficacy (F(2,153)=8.21, p.001). There is a low correlation between the total physical activity and the level of depression (r=-0.261, p.01). Additionally, calculations indicate a middle correlation between levels of depression and illness-specific self-efficacy (r=-0.453; p.001). For further interpretations, multivariate analysis will follow. Discussion Depending on the factors illness-specific self-efficacy and symptoms of depression, COPD- patients show different levels of physical activity. Interventions aiming on changing these factors can increase the level of physical activity and therefore essentially contribute to a successful disease management on a long-term basis. References Müller, K, Brammer, N, Wagner, W, Kotschy-Lang, N. (2013). Erfassung der Selbstwirksamkeitserwartungen bei pneumologischen Berufskrankheiten mit der deutschen

–  –  –

Version der „COPD Self-Efficacy Scale“ – Zusammenhänge zur körperlichen Aktivität und Depressivität. Kongressbeitrag DGAUM.

Waschki, B, Kirsten, A, Holz, O, Müller, KC, Meyer, T, Watz, H, Magnussen, H. (2011). Physical activity is the strongest predictor of all-cause mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a prospective cohort Study. Chest, 140 (2), 331-342. Wigal, JK, Creer, TL, Kotses, H. (1991). The COPD Self-Efficacy Scale. Chest, 99, 1193-1196.


Simeao, A.

Universidade de Évora Introduction Physical Exercise (PE) seems positively influence the functional autonomy. The aim of this study was to investigate the benefits of a program to improve the EF functional autonomy in elderly patients with cardiovascular diseases. Methodology A total of 39 seniors, including 28 women and 11 men, mean age 77 years, were subjected to a 90-day EF program. The program consisted of sessions fine and gross motor control, individual counseling, gait training and sensory stimulation. These sessions were held for 5 days a week with a duration of 55 minutes each. This study consisted of two phases: the first, before running the program, and the other end after application. At such times, various measures were taken kinanthropometric (resting HR, maximal HR, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, BMI, weight, test March 6 minutes Rikli & Jones) and performed a functional assessment of activities of daily living (IADL’s) with scale application Lawton (1969). The comparison between the behavior of variables kinanthropometric autonomy and total ’score’ in IADL assessed’S (Scale Lawton, 1969) at the beginning and at the end was done by t test for related samples. Results When comparing the ’score’ of Autonomy at the beginning and end found a statistically significant increase of the values of autonomy, having seen an average increase of 7 (95% CI: 5.4 to 7.7). We also found statistically significant differences between the measures kinanthropometric the initial and final moments, when there was an average decrease in the following variables: 4.8 bpm in resting HR (95% CI: 1.2 - 8.3) and 1.1 HMG in systolic BP (95% CI: 1.5 - 2). It was also observed an average increase of 81.5 m in Test 6 Mins Walking (95% CI: 61.9 to 101.1).

Discussion of Results The results of the study suggest that the comparison of the initial and final time kinanthropometric measures, an average decrease of 4.8 bpm (95% CI: 1.2 - 8.3) and resting HR in systolic BP of 1.1 HMG ( 95% CI: 1.5 - 2). Second, Michel (1) (2001) the EF has a positive impact on hypertension. It was also observed an average increase of 81.5 m in Test 6 Mins Walking (95% CI: 61.9 to 101.1).

In the study by Sousa (2) et al. (2010) sought to compare the level of functional ability and practice of EF in adults and the elderly with chronic diseases were statistically significant differences in the re-test Test March 6 min, where there was an increase in the number of meters traveled. The results obtained in the ’Score’ of autonomy through the Lawton Scale (1969), we observed a statistically significant increase in the values of autonomy, having been an average increase of 7 (95% CI: 5.4 to 7.7). In the study by Correia (3) et al. (2010) found statistically significant improvement in functional capacity in elderly patients with diabetic disease practitioners EF. In this context, it appears that this program EF was effective for the improvement of autonomy in IADL’S in locomotor capacity and cardiovascular endurance.


Mikkelsen, A.L.1, Petersen, A.K.1,2, Laustsen, S.1,2, Nielsen, O.B.1, Overgaard, K.O.1 1: AU (Aarhus, DK), 2: AUH (Aarhus, DK) Introduction Based on a pilot study showing that the increase in exercise capacity with training in cardio patients often is larger than what can be explained by increased VO2max, our aim was to analyse the relative contributions of the VO2max, work efficiency and anaerobic energy turnover to the training-induced increase in exercise capacity. Methods In 93 patients, VO2 and power output was measured during an incremental ramp-test (8-12 min) performed on a bicycle ergometer to exhaustion before (1) and after (2) an 8-w exercise rehabilitation program. Maximal power output (MPO) was taking as an estimate of exercise capacity, and VO2peak as VO2max. Work efficiency (WE) in W/mL O2 was determined as the slope between power output and VO2 in the interval between 25 % of MPO and power output at RER 1 using regression analysis. The anaerobic energy turnover (AET) was calculated as MPO – (WE x VO2peak). The contribution of increased VO2peak to the increased MPO after the 8-w exercise program was calculated as [VO2peak(2) - VO2peak(1)] x WE(1), contribution from work efficiency as [WE(2)-WE(1)] x VO2peak(1), and contribution from anaerobic energy turnover as AET(2)-AET(1). Results Preliminary results from 14 subjects showed that before the rehabilitation program, MPO and VO2peak were 123 ± 22 W and 1520 ± 340 mL O2/min, and increased by 12 ± 7 and 13 ± 10 % (P 0.0003), respectively, when tested after the rehabilitation program. Determinations of VO2peak, WE and AET indicate that both improved VO2peak and improved WE contributed to the increase in MPO (P 0.01 and P 0.06, respectively). There were, however, large inter-subject variations in their relative contributions. Thus, the increased VO2peak and increased WE accounted for 44 ± 53 and 56 ± 102 %, respectively, of the increase in MPO. The rehabilitation program had no effect on AET.

Discussion The results suggest that increased VO2max and increased WE are equally important for the improved MPO after training in cardio patients. Other studies show that a significant part of the increase in WE with endurance training is related to mechanisms that are independent on the specific exercise task, including decreased motor discharge rate in submaximal contractions (Vila-Châ et al., 2009) and more economical fibre Ca2+ handling (Majerczak et al. 2008). Since this indicate that increased WE transfers to exercise tasks outside the test laboratory, our study point to MPO as a better predictor for improvements of physical function after cardiac rehabilitation than VO2max. References Majerczak J., Karasinski J., Zoladz J.A. (2008). J. Physiol. Pharmacol., 59, 589-602 Vila-Châ C., Falla D., Farina D. (2010) J. Appl. Physiol. 109, 1455-1466


Sveen, O.1, Hanssen, K.E.1, Skaug, A.1, Johansen, E.2, Jensen, J.2 1Østfold College, Faculty of Education 2Norwegian School of Sport Sciences Abstract ECSS, Barcelona 2013 The effect of endurance training in a group of cardiac patients also performing strength training. Introduction In cardiac rehabilitation the main focus has been on endurance training. Combination of strength training has recently been suggested. So far, the effect of training with combined endurance and strength training on maximal oxygen uptake has not been studied extensively in overweight cordiac patients. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate whether intensified training consisting of two strength training session with heavy loads and two high intensity interval spinning weekly increased maximal oxygen uptake more than a moderate training consisting of two endurance training sessions with moderate intensity and one circuit training session weekly. Methods Thirty coronary patients (aged: 50-72 years; 23 males and 6 females) were recruited from Fredrikstad Cardio-Club (Club for cardiac

–  –  –

patients after hospital treatment) and stratified and randomly assigned to intensified training or continuation of normal training. During 10 weeks of intervention, the control group (CON) exercised 45 minutes aerobic training two days a week and one day of strength circle training. The endurance training sessions had three high intensity periods where heart rats should reach 95 % of maximal heart rate. The group performing intensified training (INT) exercised four days a week: two aerobic exercises (spinning) of 60 minutes and two days of strength training. Endurance training was performed as interval of 2-3-4-5-4-3-2- min with 2 min rest between intervals (Pyramid training) with intention to obtain heart rates higher than 90 of maximal heart rate. Strength training was performed twice a week with 8 RM to 12 RM. Results The group continuing with 3 weekly training sessions (CON) increased maximal oxygen uptake from 29.7 ± 1.3 and 30.9 ±

1.2 ml/kg/min (p0.05) during the 10 week intervention. The group preforming intensified training increased maximal oxygen uptake from 30.9 ± 1.0 to 32.4 ± 1.2 ml/kg/min(p0.05). There was no difference in the increase in maximal oxygen uptake between groups. The increase in peak watt during maximal oxygen uptake similar in both groups. Discussion: Intensified training improved maximal oxygen uptake significantly similarly to the group performing moderate intensity endurance training. However, the group with intensified training performed two strength trainings sessions weekly and showed a large increase in strength. Importantly, cardiac patients are able perform high intensity strength and endurance training with improvement in both parameters. Conclusion: Inclusion of strength training to a group of cardiac patients does not impair the improvement in maximal oxygen uptake when two sessions of high intensity interval training sessions are performed weekly for 10 weeks.


Hanssen, K.

Norwegian School of Sciences, Østfold College, Faculty of Education Introduction In cardiac rehabilitation the main focus has been on endurance training. However, combination of strength training has recently been suggested to be superior to endurance training alone to improve health in middle-aged subjects. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate whether intensified training consisting of two strength training session with heavy loads and two high intensity interval spinning weekly increased strength more than a moderate training consisting of two endurance training sessions with moderate intensity and one circuit training session weekly. Methods Thirty coronary patients (aged: 50-72 years; 23males and 6 females) were recruited from Fredrikstad Cardio-Club (Club for cardiac patients after hospital treatment) and stratified and randomly assigned to intensified training or continuation of normal training. During 10 weeks of intervention, the control group (CON) exercised 45 minutes aerobic training twice a week and one day of circuit training. The intensified training group (INT) exercised four days a week: two sessions with high intensity spinning and two sessions with strength training. Strength training was performed as three sets of eight exercises (leg press, leg curl, leg extension, chest press, pull down, curl, crunches, back; performed in machines). Load was in the first 2 weeks 12 RM;

10 RM in week 3-6, and 8 RM in week 7-10. Results Maximal strength in chest press increased from 23.3 ± 3.0 kg to 27.9 ± 3.4 kg (19.7 %;

p0.05) in CON and from 26.7 ± 2.0 kg to 32.9 ± 2.2 kg (23.2 %; p0.05) in INT. Maximal strength in leg press increased from 110.8 ± 8.9 kg to 125.4 ± 9.5 kg (13.2 %; p0.05) in CON and from 107.9 ± 8.1 kg to 162.0 ± 8.4 kg (50.1 %; p0.05) in INT. Intensified training increased muscles strength more than CON (p0.05). Maximal oxygen uptake increased similarly and significantly in both groups (~ 4 %).

Discussion/Conclusion Discussion: Strength training in machines improved strength in both arms and legs. Circuit training also increased muscles strength in arm and legs, but was less effective than training in machines to improve strength in leg muscles. The fact that strength in leg muscles increased by more than 50 % highlights the importance of heavy strength training to induce muscle hypertrophy.

It is also noteworthy that the large increase in strength was possible although two weekly spinning sessions were performed to maintain endurance capacity. Conclusion: Strength training with weights increased leg strength much more than circuit training whereas the increase in arm strength was similar. Importantly, it is possible to increase muscle strength in leg muscles even though two sessions of high intensity endurance training is performed.


Saito, K.1,2, Takagi, Y.1, Saito, T.1, Yuguchi, S.2, Matsuo, T.2, Aritaka, S.2, Komuro, K.2, Yoshitaka, H.2, Sakaguchi, T.2, Hiraoka, A.2, Kita, T.2, Morisawa, T.3, Onodera, S.4 1: Graduate school, Kawasaki University of Medical Welfare, 2: The Sakakibara Heart Institute of Okayama, 3: Hyogo University of Health Sciences, 4: Kawasaki University of Medical Welfare Background Water exercise would be one of the most effective techniques for adopted persons. However the influence of water immersion on cardiac function has been controversial. The purpose of this study was to clarify the physiological effect of patients with cardiac disease in water. Methods Six male patients (age : 72.2 ± 2.9 years, BMI : 22.5 ± 1.5 kg/m2) with stable cardiac disease were involved in this study (3 patients with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, 2 patients with history of previous coronary artery bypass grafting, 1 patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy, mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) : 48.5±11.6%)). Beta-blockers and diuretics were used in all patients. Evaluation out of water was during a stable ambient temperature of thirty degree Celsius. Evaluation in water immersion to the level of axilla was during water temperature of thirty-one degree Celsius. In both conditions, patients were evaluated while sitting the chair after five minutes of rest. Blood pressure, heart rate and thermal sensation were monitored. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed to evaluate E and A wave velocity, left ventricular stroke volume (LVSV). Results In five patients, water immersion significantly increased E wave velocity (from 0.69 ± 0.35 m/sec to 0.85 ± 0.30 m/sec, p = 0.021), and LVSV (from 37.4 ± 29.2 ml to 42.2 ± 32.3 ml, p = 0.043), except one patient with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (LVEF=38%) who showed decrease in those values. There were no significant changes in blood pressure, heart rate or thermal sensation. Discussion Water immersion has beneficial hemodynamic effects in patients with stable cardiac disease in terms of enhanced diastolic filling leading to an increase in LVSV. However, patients with severe heart failure could show negative hemodynamic responses and those hemodynamic variations might be masked in patients using antihypertensive medication. Conclusions Although careful consideration is required for patients with severe heart failure, water exercise is a useful therapy in patients with stable cardiac disease.

–  –  –



Jørgensen, A.N.1, Nielsen, J.L.1, Frandsen, U.1, Aagaard, P.1, Diederichsen, L.2 Odense University Hospital, University of Southern Denmark Introduction Sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM) is an idiopathic inflammatory myopathy, which is a systemic disease that result in substantial muscle weakness and skeletal muscle inflammation. sIBM is mostly observed in patients of +50 years of age, and it is characterized by a progressive loss in skeletal muscle mass and a resulting reduction in muscle strength of 5-15% per year in both distal and proximal muscles, particularly affecting hands and thighs (1–3). In comparison, healthy adults typically experience a loss of muscle strength of 0.5-1.5% per year from the age of 60-65 years (5). Currently no effective treatment of sIBM is known. The purpose of this study was to investigate how a patient with sIBM would tolerate and respond to low-load resistance exercise with concurrent partial restricted blood supply to the working muscles (BFRE). Methods Twelve weeks of BFRE training (2 sessions per week). Training consisted of unilateral- leg press, knee extension and seated calf rise, with a load equalling 25RM. The patient was tested before (Pre), at 6 wks (Mid), and after 12 wks of training (Post). Testing consisted of a series of functional tests and maximal unilateral knee extension power (Nottingham Power rig). Results Calf raise training loads increased by 75% and total training volume increased by 146%/163% (left/right leg). Leg press training loads increased 33% and 40% with gains in total training volume of 47%/70% (right/left leg). No pre-to-post changes in selfchosen 10m walking speed and Timed Up & Go (3m) were observed. In contrast, 10m maximal walking speed increased by 19% (7.9s to

6.4s). At Pre, leg extension power was 40% lower in the left compared to right leg (0.49W/kg vs. 0.82W/kg). Post training, knee extension power for the right leg remained unaltered, but increased in the left leg by 47% (0.72W/kg) and was only 12% lower than the right leg.

Conclusion BFRE was well tolerated by the present sIBM patient, and led to substantial improvements in mechanical muscle function and maximal gait speed. Further, a reduced limb-asymmetry in maximal muscle power was observed, which is known to reduce the risk for falls (4). References 1. Cox F & Reijnierse M. Rheumatology : 1153–1161, 2011. 2. Dalakas MC et al. Brain 132: 1536–44, 2009. 3. Rose MR et al. Neurology 57: 548–50, 2001. 4. Skelton D et al. Age and Ageing 31: 119–25, 2002. 5. Young A & Skelton D. International Journal of Sports Medicine 15: 1993–1995, 1994.


Fonda, B., Savic, M., Sarabon, N.

S2P, Ltd.

Introduction Whole-body cryotherapy involves exposing minimally dressed participants to very cold air (injecting liquid nitrogen with temperature -195 °C), either in a specially designed chamber (cryo-chamber) or cabin (cryo-cabin), for a short period of time. It has been widely used in sport to improve athletes’ recovery (Banfi et al., 2010). The aim of this study was to examine the actual temperature of the air in the cryo-cabin at different locations throughout the cabin next to the subject`s body. Additionally, we monitored skin temperature before and for 60 minutes after the cryo-cabin session. Methods Twelve subjects completed one 3-minute cryo-cabin session. Air temperature measured next to the skin was assessed during the session. Temperature sensors were placed on the middle of the tibia, middle of the thigh, lateral to the belly button and over the sternum. Skin temperature was monitored before, 3 min after and every 10 min for 60 minutes after the session with thermal imaging of the whole body from front and back. Results There was a statistically significant interaction (time x position) for temperature among the different body parts during the WBC (p = 0.000), and for skin temperature among different body parts after the cryo-cabin session (p = 0.000). Statistically significant time effects during and following cryo-cabin session were present for all body parts. Discussion We showed that atmospheric temperature in the cryo-cabin is substantially different from the one reported by the manufacturer. Manufacturers should pay attention on temperature sensors placement for displaying the temperature inside the cabin. This would be particularly important for clinical use when adjusting the temperature for specific therapeutic purposes such as recovery after strenuous exercise. Thermal response after cryo-cabin session is similar to the response observed after the cryo-chamber session reported in previously published studies (Westerlund et al., 2003). This could be of practical value as cryo-cabins are less expensive and easier to use compared to cryo-chambers. References Banfi, G., Lombardi, G., Colombini, A. & Melegati, G., 2010.

Sports Medicine, 40, 509-517. Westerlund, T., Oksa, J., Smolander, J. & Mikkelsson, M., 2003. Journal of Thermal Biology, 28, 601-608.


Nebel, R.

medicos.Osnabrueck Purpose: Interval training has a century long history in sports training, in the last decade High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) as a special form of polarized training has come into the focus of scientific research. The effects on cardiovascular, respiratory and peripheral (muscle) systems have led physicians to consider its application in patients in cardiac rehabilitation (CR). A number of different protocols is currently used by different study-groups. The objective of this review is to report the effects and safety of HIIT in patients with cardiovascular diseases as coronary artery disease (CAD), metabolic syndrome (MBS), Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2), chronic heart failure (CHF) and with chronic obstructive lung diseases (COLD). Methods: We performed a non-systematic PubMed review using the keywords ’high-intensity interval training’, ’exercise’, ’interval training’, ’coronary artery disease’, ’coronary heart disease’, ’metabolic syndrome’, ’diabetes mellitus type 2’, ’chronic heart failure’, ’chronic obstructive pulmonary disease’ and ’chronic obstructive lung disease’. Randomized and nonrandomized interventional clinical trials, articles concerning basic science research, physiological research published in English were included. Results: HIIT protocols in general appear safe and often better tolerated by patients in CR than low- to moderate-intensity highvolume training (HVT) protocols. A large amount of recent studies gives detailed knowledge about the underlying specific physiological central and peripheral responses and adaptations to HIIT. Avoiding ’all-out’ protocols like the Wingate-Test, in stable and selected patients it is a time-efficient (and therefore most motivating) strategy inducing substantial clinical improvements - often superior to those achieved by HVT - including beneficial effects on important prognostic factors like exercise capacity, peak oxygen uptake, left ventricular function, skeletal muscle and endothelial function, as well as improving quality of life. Conclusions: HIIT as a form of polarized exercise appears to be a safe and effective alternative for the rehabilitation of patients with CAD, DM2, MBS, CHF and also COLD. Due to its timeefficiency and variety of feasible protocols adjusted to a patient’s individual fitness (in or after CR) it may also assist in improving adherence and maintenance to regular physical exercise. Still, randomized and larger interventional studies including clinical end-points are necessary to improve safety, indications and contraindications for this therapy in different populations.

–  –  –



Crege, D., Ferreira, R.C.M., Quaggio, M.C.

Universitary Center Padre Anchieta Introduction McArdle disease (MAD) is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic myopathy that leads to myophosphorylase deficiency.

Normally, the disease symptoms appear in the second or third decades of life. Subjects with this syndrome presents myoglobinuria, muscle pain, early fatigue, leg cramps and exercise intolerance that directly reflects on quality of life (Moustafa, et al., 2013). The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of an aerobic exercise program on quality of life and creatine kinase (CK) serum concentrations in a patient with MAD. Methods A 21 years old man with MAD diagnostic participated of an aerobic exercise program. The exercises were performed in treadmill, 2 times a week, for 40 minutes per session, during 8 weeks. The initial exercise intensity was determinated calculating 60% of heart rate reserve. VO2 was evaluated by indirect measurement, before and after the 8 weeks of the program. Every exercise session, 2 blood samples, before and after exercise, were collected to analyze CK. This procedure was performed before starting the program and every 15 days. To evaluate quality of life, Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Shot Form Health Survey (SF-36) was applied 2 times. Results Initial VO2 - mL x kg (-1) x min (-1) - was 12.6 and after the eight weeks increased to 16.0. Before initiating the exercise program, the CK serum concentrations was 846 U/L. As described before, in four days, blood samples were collected before (BS) and after every exercise session (AS). 15 days (after initiating exercise): BS – 714; AS – 785 U/L; 30 days: BS – 654; AS – 706 U/L; 45 days: BS – 586;

AS – 598 U/L; 60 days: BS – 863; AS – 868 U/L. The SF-36 results showed increases in 5 of the 8 domains analyzed, demostrating that quality of life was improved at the end of the program. Discussion Our results showed that moderated aerobic exercise can improve VO2 values in patients with MAD, after 8 weeks, as occurs with individuals that practice regular exercise activity. CK is useful as an indirect marker of muscle damage. During the eight weeks, the CK serum concentrations, before initiating exercise sessions, reduced compared to first analysis performed, except for the last analysis. We believe that the reason for this increase, is due before the last exercise session, according to patient report, he did not sleep during the night and went straight to the gym. These results corroborates with literature, that showed reduction in CK in patients with MAD that performed different exercises programs, suggesting reduction in muscle damages, which collaborates to the management of other symptoms of MAD, resulting in better quality of life for the patient. References Moustafa S., Patton DJ., Connelly MS. (2013). Heart Lung Circ, 18.

14:00 - 15:00 Mini-Orals PP-PM59 Sports Medicine [SM] 3


Clijsen, R.1,2,3, Spieser, L.1, Rucker, A.M.L.1, Cabri, J.1, Clarys, P.2

1. University College Physiotherapy „Thim van der Laan“, Switzerland 2. Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium 3. SUPSI Landquart, Switserland Objective To establish the anthropometrical characteristics and the hand grip strength of the Swiss junior and elite judo national team.

Methods 24 members, 19 males (23.01 ± 4.91 years) and five females (19.95 ± 2.02 years), were measured. The following anthropometric measurements were carried out: body size, body weight, skinfolds (subscapular, biceps, triceps, supraspinal, abdominal, calf) bicondylar humerus and femur breadths, upper arm and calf circumferences, body fat % (tanita scale). Based on these measurements BMI and determination of somatotypes were calculated. In addition, the handgrip strength was measured. The anthropometric measurements were carried out in accordance with ISAK guidelines. Results There were anthropometric differences between the Swiss male juniors and elite male judokas in muscular components and between the Swiss athletes and the athletes of the reference studies. The mean somatotype of the male judokas was 2.2 ± 0.8 for the endomorphy, 6.0 ± 0.9 for the mesomorphy and 2.0 ± 0.7 for the ectomorphy. The mean somatotype was balanced mesomorph. The mean handgrip strength of male judokas was 47.4 ± 6.7kg. The mean somatotype of female judoka was 3.7 ± 1.2 for the endomorphy, 4.9 ± 0.7 for the mesomorphy and 1.5 ± 0.3 for the ectomorphy. The mean somatotype was mesomorphic endomorph. The mean hand grip strength of the female judoka was 27.0 ± 3.1kg. Conclusion Somatotyping and handgrip strength values indicate the importance of muscularity in judo performance. All results are in agreement with the literature.

References Degotte F, Jouanel P, Bègue RJ, Colombier M, Lac G, Peguinot J M, Filaire E. Food Restriction, Performance, Biochemical, Psychological, and Endocrine Changes in Judo Athletes. Int J Sports Med 27; 2006: 9–18 Clarys P, Ramon K, Hagman F, Deriemaeker P,

Zinzen E. Influence of weight reduction on physical performance capacity in judokas. Journal of Combat Sports and Martial Arts 2010; 1:

71–76 not insert authors here


Asker, M.1, Skillgate, E.1,2

1. Scandinavian College of Naprapathic Manual Medicine 2. Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden INTRODUCTION: Handball includes repetitive overhead motions in the shoulder girdle (1). Sports related adaptations in the shoulder girdle in adolescent elite tennis and baseball players are associated with shoulder injuries (2-3). Knowledge is missing regarding prevalence of such adaptations and about possible treatment strategies in adolescent elite handball players. The aim of this study was to 1. Investigate whether adolescent elite handball player have a shorter pectoralis minor muscle (PM) and decreased internal rotation (IR) in the glenohumeral joint on their dominant side compared with the non-dominant side, and 2. To evaluate the effect of soft tissue manipulation (STM) combined with self-stretching (SS) on such adaptations. METHODS: Two-hundred and fifty-one adolescent Swedish elite handball players, 160 boys, aged 15.5 (± 0.9) and 92 girls aged 15.3 (± 0.9), were screened for PM length, shoulder posture and gleno-humeral joint rotation mobility using a digital caliper and a goniometer. Sixty five shoulders from 33 adolescent elite handball players, 16 boys aged 15.4 (± 0.9) and 17 girls aged 15.4 (± 0.9), were randomized to either STM and SS of the PM or placebo treatment in form of SS of the

–  –  –

upper part of the pectoralis major muscle. PM length and SP was measured right before and after treatment. Perceived mobility in the shoulders was measured direct after treatment and after 14 days. RESULTS: The players showed a significantly shorter PM (0,9 cm 95% CI 0,5-1,1), a gleno-humeral internal rotation deficit (11,2 degree 95% CI 9,0 - 13,0) and a more rounded SP on the dominant side (0,8 cm 95% CI 0,7-1,1). The index group showed a significantly greater increase in PM length than the control group (0,5 cm 95% CI 0,2 to 0,7) after treatment, but there were no significant differences in SP. DISCUSSION: Adolescent elite handball players have shoulder adaptations in form of shorter PM and poorer internal rotation in their dominant side compared with the non-dominant. SMT and SS may increase the length of PM, especially on the dominant side. To evaluate long lasting effects and the clinically relevance, further studies is needed. 1.

Gorostiaga, EM, Granados, C et al Effects of an entire season on physical fitness changes in elite male handball players. Med Sci Sports Exerc 38: 357–366, 2006. 2. Kibler WB, Sciascia A et al. Glenohumeral internal rotation deficit: pathogenesis and response to acute throwing. Sports Med Arthrosc. 2012 Mar; 20(1): 34-8. 3. Cools AM, Johansson FR et al.. Descriptive profile of scapulothoracic position, strength and flexibility variables in adolescent elite tennis players. Br J Sports Med. 2010; 44(9): 678-84.


Mónaco, M.1,2, Til, L.1,3, Avendaño, E.1, Verdugo, F.4,5, Montoro, B.1,6, Drobnic, F.1,3 (1) Medical Services FCBarcelona. (2) XARXA Sanitària i Social Santa Tecla, ABS El Vendrell (Tarragona, Spain). (3) GIRSANE CAR– CST (Barcelona, Spain) (4) School of Medicine, University of Chile. (5) INTRODUCTION:The consensus regarding the medical exam prior to sports participation recommends performing examination of the genitals. The literature references about this topic are scarce. In sports there is no awareness about the importance of genital exploration at Pre-Participation Physical Examination (PPE). It may be due to abnormal findings at genital examination do not affect sport performance, and they are not usually life threatening diseases for athletes. The incidence of genitourinary abnormalities is low. The genital examination in young patients is a simple, fast, and routine procedure. It is important for diagnosis of testicular diseases likes varicocele, testicular hydrocele, cryptorchidism, etc. Therefore, early detection and treatment are important for prognosis and fertility in adulthood.

Varicocele and cryptorchidism are the most common disorders in this age group. The subclinical varicocele in young athletes seems to progress faster, compared to non-athletes, which may lead to changes in the quality of semen and therefore problems with fertility.

These findings highlight the importance of performing a genital examination, at least until the patient has completed puberty. OBJECTIVE:To describe the incidence of genital abnormalities in adolescent athletes METHODS: During PPE protocol we examined 280 elite football players between the 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 seasons, boys ages 7-17. Evaluated by the same physician, who palp and measured: both testicles and spermatic cord before and after the Valsalva maneuver. RESULTS: No athlete refused to be examined. Of 280 players evaluated, ages 7 to 17 years old, fifteen genital anomalies were detected, representing 5.36 cases /100 subjects (confidence interval 95% (2,70-8,01), and nine of them (3.2%) had clinical varicocele (VC) representing 3.21 cases / 100 subjects (confidence interval 95% (1,14-5,29). Only two (13%) of the 15 athletes affected had prior knowledge of their pathology, and 13 (87%) were unaware of their abnormality. All patients were referred to their pediatricians to confirm the diagnosis and one of them required early surgery. CONCLUSION: The preventive health exam at pediatric age is the time to detect abnormalities to prevent adulthood consequences. In Spain, there is no regular medical control during late puberal or post-puberal time, and it’s unusual the genital examination at PPE. Although this study shows a low incidence of genital abnormality in our population, only 13% were aware of it prior to our assessment, 87% were unaware of their abnormality.These findings demonstrate that the genital examination of the pediatric population is practical, simple and effective to identify genital abnormalities undetected by pediatric health checks or to appear afterwards. Further research is required to determine whether sport predisposes to genital abnormalities and emphasize the genital examination at PPE as comprehensive health strategy


Hoffmann, S.1, Brendel, C.2, Simon, P.2 1: University of Bayreuth; 2: Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz Introduction Recent data indicate that prevalence of childhood overweight especially increases around the age of school entry (Hoffmann et al., 2012). Parallel to an increase in childhood obesity, motor abilities (MAs) have deteriorated by an average of 10% (Bös, 2003). Little is known about the relationship between anthropometric measurements and MA at pre-school age (De Toia et al., 2009), and published data were only related to BMI. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to analyse whether waist circumference (WC) predicts significantly to MA in kindergartners. Methods Data of 764 subjects aged 3-6 years were obtained from a cross-sectional health study conducted in Mainz, Germany. BMI and WC-SDS were calculated relative to international proposed values (Cole et al., 1992). MA was collected with multiple test items to determine the MAs of coordination, speed strength, muscular endurance, and speed (Bös et al., 2004; De Toia et al., 2009). Adjusted for covariates (SES, parental BMI, media time), correlation analysis and logistic regression were conducted to estimate the effect of WC on MA. Results Below-average motor abilities (BAMA) were found in 46.0%. No relationship to BMI has been observed (p=0.247). Children with BAMA had significantly higher WC compared to the reference group (OR: 1.56, 95% CI: 1.16-2.11;

p=0.004). The risk decreases with age (0.54, 0.42-0.71; p0.001) and higher physical activity levels (0.58, 0.42-0.78; p0.001). Discussion Overall, WC is a more specific predictor to determine abdominal obesity in children than BMI (Savva et al., 2000). Furthermore, our findings suggest that altered WC appeared to be linked to measurements of MA already in kindergartners. We therefore propose that WC is a better predictor of MA than BMI. References Bös K. Motorische Leistungsfähigkeit von Kindern und Jugendlichen. In: Schmidt W, Hartmann-Tews I, Brettschneider WD (eds): Erster Deutscher Kinder- und Jugendsportbericht. Schorndorf, Hofmann, 2003,85-107. Bös K et al.

Karlsruher Motorik-Screening für Kindergartenkinder (KMS 3-6). Sportunterricht 2004;53:79-87. Cole TJ, Green PJ. Smoothing reference centile curves: the LMS method and penalized likelihood. Stat Med 1992;11:1305–1319. De Toia D et al. Relationship between anthropometry and motor abilities at pre-school age. Obes Facts 2009;2:221-225. Hoffman S, Ulrich R, Simon P. Refined analysis of the critical age ranges of childhood overweight: Implications for primary prevention. Obesity 2012;20:2151-2154. Savva SC et al. Waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio are better predictors of cardiovascular disease risk factors in children than body mass index. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2000;24:1453-1458.

–  –  –


Antic, T., Dikic, N., Andjelkovic, M., Vukasinovic-Vesic, M., Baralic, I.

Sports Medicine Association of Serbia Introduction Growth and development are influenced by a variety of genetic and external factors. Only favorable environmental conditions will lead to the full expression of genetic potential without jeopardizing maturation. Considering the obvious impact of physical activity on children`s health status the objective of this study was to assess the influence of basketball training on growth and development of young girls in the period of 18 months. Methods Girls were divided into two groups: research group (RG) consisted of 25 girls who played basketball 5-8 hours per week at beginner level (age 13,86±0,89) and control group (CG) of 25 girls who were not involved in any sports (age 13,90±0,74). Anthropometric and body composition measurements, together with functional and motor tests were performed.

Somatic growth was assessed by height, weight, body mass index, arm span and body fat percentage (FAT%). Functional capacity tests included the evaluation of aerobic endurance (AE)-VO₂ max obtained by maximal test on a treadmill and anaerobic endurance (ANE)yards test. Following motor skills were tested: static power (SP)-dynamometry, repetitive power (RP)-push-ups, sit-ups, explosive power (EP)-vertical jump, flexibility (F) and agility (A)-T test. The questionnaire regarding the menstrual status was filled out by both groups.

All measurements were performed at the beginning of the study and after 18 months. Student T test was used for statistical analysis.

Results Initial measurements: There was no statistically significant difference between two groups in terms of anthropometry (APM), FAT%, SP, EP and F (p0.05). On the other hand, statistically significant difference was found regarding AE and ANE, as well as RP and A (p˂0.01). Menarche was reported at average age of 12.04±1.06 for RG, and 12.3±1.26 for CG. The average period between two menstrual cycles was 29.0±2.9 days for RG and 30.9±5.26 days for CG. Measurements after 18 months period: No statistically significant difference between RG and CG was obtained regarding APM, FAT% and F (p0.05). Statistically significant difference between two groups existed in terms of AE and ANE, SP, RP, EP and A (p˂0.01). No changes in menstrual status were observed. Within RG there was significant increase in AE, SP and EP compared to the initial tests (p˂0.01). All measurements in the CG showed an insignificant increase after 18 months (p˃0.05). Conclusion Moderate level of basketball training has no negative effects on somatic growth and menstrual status of young girls.

Moreover, this type of physical activity has beneficial influence on growth and development in general, as it is associated with cardiovascular benefits and favorable changes and improvements in motor skills which are important for adequate maturation of young girls.


Mekhdieva, K., Domanov, S.A., Blyakhman, F.A.


Introduction The HUBER® MOTION LAB (LPG Systems, France) is a multifunctional device for musculoskeletal system functional state evaluation and neuromotor rehabilitation, and it has “real-life situation” advantages for sports training application (Couillandre A. et al., 2008). The aim of this study was to determine possible correlation between functional state of specified muscle groups obtained with the HUBER use and the game effectiveness of young basketball players. Methods Eleven basketball players of the URFU Student Basketball team (MSBL) underwent the examination of musculoskeletal functional state with the HUBER use during training period before the MSBL game. All players signed the consent for study participation. The following parameters of musculoskeletal system functional state were determined: maximum pushing and pulling force right (MFRpush and MFRpull) and left (MFLpush and MFLpull), coordination, pushing and pulling muscle endurance (Epush and Epull), reaction rate. Furthermore, the indices of cardiorespiratory system during stress test with treadmill (Schiller AG, Switzerland) use were determined as well. Evaluation of effectiveness was based on game statistic indices monitoring. As a result, the number of effective actions (EFF) and points per game (PPG) were calculated. The statistic software package IBM SPSS was used for statistical analysis. Results On average, the players had 21.8±0.6 years, 198.5±7.4 cm height and 93.4±11.3 kg body weight.

We found close correlations between EFF and MFRpull (r=0.61, n=11, p0.05); EFF and MFLpull (r=0.63, p0.05); EFF and Epush (r=0.62, p0.05); PPG and MFRpull (r=0,61, p0.05); PPG and MFLpull (r=0.62, p0.05); PPG and Epush (r=0.66, p0.05). No significant correlations between EFF or PPG and any parameter of cardiorespiratory system function were found. Discussion The research has mainly an assessed value because of limited number of sportsmen examination. Perhaps, the lack of correlation between the cardiorespiratory system parameters and game effectiveness ones is the reason of little number of observations. Meanwhile, we found out that the player effectiveness depended on the indices, characterizing pulling, e.g. involving mainly posterior surface muscles, flexors of upper limbs, hips and shins. On the contrary, the pushing force indices didn’t impact significantly on EFF and/or PPG. At the same time, the increase of Epush resulted in the increase of EFF and/or PPG. We concluded that the pushing muscle endurance is the most important determinant of young basketball player effectiveness than the pushing muscle maximum force. References Couillandre A., Duque Ribeiro M.-J., Thoumie P., Portero P. (2008), Annales de readaption et de medicine physique 51, 67-73.


Cavedon, V.1, Milanese, C.1, Piscitelli, F.1, Zancanaro, C.1 1: School of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Verona Introduction Physical activity involving weight bearing or jumping is beneficial per se to bone mineral accrual in children. However, there is large evidence that sports involving high

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------impact loading (i.e., generated ground reaction forces greater than or equal to 3 times body weight) tend to produce a better overall osteogenic response than sports without impact loading (i.e., generated ground reaction forces = 0 times bodyweight). The aim of this study was to compare the effect of different impact loading sports on bone quality and body composition of pre-menarcheal athletes. Methods Thirty premenarcheal girls (aged 11.1±1.33[SD]y) participating in volleyball (VOLLEY, n=10) and artistic gymnastics at high (HGYM, n=10) and low (LGYM, n=10) intensity training underwent total body DXA analysis. Body composition (bone mineral content [BMC], fat-free soft tissue mass [FFST], fat mass [FM], and %FM) was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the total body and regional (arms, legs, trunk) level as well as specific axial skeleton sites (thoracic and lumbar spine, pelvis). Normality of data was assessed with the Kologorov-Smirnov test. Comparison of the three groups of pre-menarcheal athletes was performed with univariate ANOVA taking “group” as the within-subjects factor. Post-hoc analysis used Bonferroni’s correction for multiple comparisons. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS v.16. Differences were considered significant when P≤0.05. Results After adjusting for body size, total body composition measurements were all significantly (p0.01) different in the three groups of pre-menarcheal athletes. VOLLEY had lower BMC and FFST, and greater FM and %FM vs. both HGYM and LGYM. The main difference between LGYM and HGYM was greater %FM in the former.

–  –  –

Similar results were found at the regional level (but for similar BMC in the legs) and at lumbar spine and pelvis. Linear regression analysis showed that a model using FFST mass the as independent variable is able to explain more than 90% of variance in total body less head BMC in the whole group of impact loading athletes, whereas introducing %FM in the model did not improve its predictive power. Discussion The findings of this study provide evidence that greater bone mineral accrual takes place in pre-menarcheal impact loading athletes participating in artistic gymnastics vs. volleyball and the dose of impact loading activity mainly affect %FM; moreover, results suggest that BMC in the weight-bearing skeleton is strongly.


Rylova, N.1,2, Khafizova, G.1 Volga Region State Academy of Physical Culture, Sport and Tourism (Kazan, Russia Introduction Body composition is the result of long-term adaptation to the effects of specific training loads, and it reflects different priorities of energy mechanisms (aerobic, mixed, anaerobic). Accordingly, the level of labile body components, and their ratio may be considered as markers of different types of training. In the case of individual analysis it allows to evaluate indirectly the level of general physical fitness, adequate balance between physical work and recovery, and to focus on the priority of physical effects (Portal et al. 2010). The aim of the study was to evaluate the level of body fat and muscle mass in young male hockey players. Methods We examined nine young hockey players (1 group, main). Various anthropometric measurements were evaluated (weight, height, circumferences and skinfold thicknesses). The following anthropometric indices were derived from the obtained data: fat mass (FM, kg), relative FM (%), muscle mass (MM, kg), relative MM (%). For this we used modified by Lutovina et al. (1970) anthropometric equations of Mateika. The results were then compared with the literature data (young male hockey players, 2 comparison group; Abramova 2010). Groups of young athletes were matched by the following parameters: body weight (31.37 ± 4.5 kg and 28.4 ± 4.5 kg, respectively), height (134.3 ± 5.75 cm and 131.4 ±

5.7 cm) and duration of sports experience (3.25 ± 1.16 years and 2.7 ± 1.5 years, respectively), age (all of young athletes were 8 years old).

Results The two groups of young athletes showed similar measurements of the following anthropometric characteristics: relative FM (17.13±7,17% vs. 13.8 ± 8.6%, P0.05), MM (12.07±3.96 kg vs. 12.7±2.1 kg, P0.05). Moreover, first group of athletes had higher fat mass (5.53 ± 2.79 kg and 3.5 ± 1.9 kg, P0.03), and lower percentage of muscle mass (38.35 ± 11.48% vs. 44.8 ± 1.8%, P0.02) in comparison with the second group. Discussion Low levels of muscle mass and medium level of fat mass corresponded to the age of young hockey players, and pointed to the low exercise tolerance of children, especially to high intensity work. So, planning of training process should be in accordance with the age and the level of physical fitness of children. References Portal S. Body fat measurement in elite adolescent volleyball players: correlation between skinfold thickness, bioelectrical impedance analysis, air-displacement plethysmography, and body mass index percentiles / S. Portal, J. Rabinowitz, D. Adler-Portal et. al. / J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. - 2010. - 23 (4). - pp.395-400.

Abramova T.F. Morphological criteria: metod. recommendation. – Moscow, 2010. – p.81


Gil, S.M.1, Badiola, A.1, Bidaurrazaga-Letona, I.1, Zabala-Lili, J.1, Santos-Concejero, J.1, Gravina, L.2, Lekue, J.A.3, Granados, C.1 University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU) 1Department of Physical Education and Sport, University of the Basque Country, UPV/EHU. 2Department of Nursing, UPV/EHU. 3Athletic Club de Bilbao Acknowledgements This study was partially supported by a grant from the Basque Government (UE09+/07) Introduction The presence of the Relative Age Effect (RAE) has been widely reported; however, its underlying causes have not yet been clearly determined. The aim of this study was to analyze if anthropometry, maturity and performance were different amongst older and younger soccer players born in the same year. Methods Eighty-eight young soccer players, all born in 2001, participated in the study (age

9.75±0.30, range: 9.16-10.37). Anthropometric measurements, performance tests (30m sprint, 30m agility, Yo-yo IT test, CMJ, hand dynamometry) and the estimation of the maturity status were carried out (Mirwald et al., 2002). Also, to estimate an overall performance, a SCORE was calculated summing up the results (z-scores) of the performance tests. The 75th, 50th and 25th percentiles (Pc) of the chronological age were calculated. According to these Pc, four groups (quartiles) of players were obtained: Q1= players whose age was above Pc 75th (they were the eldest), Q2 (Pc50-75), Q3 (Pc25-50) and Q4= age below Pc 25th (the youngest). Measurements were compared amongst the groups of players of the four age-quartiles. Mean ± standard deviations are shown and the differences were assessed using a Student t-test or a U-Mann-Whitney test and also Cohen’s d. Results Most players (65.9%) had been born in the first half of the year. Older players were taller (Q1: 140.85±5.58 vs. Q4: 137.13±4.51 cm, p0.05), had longer legs (Q1: 66.10±2.81 vs. Q4: 64.11±2.99 cm, p0.01) and a larger fat-free mass (Q1: 29.54±3.32 vs. Q4: 27.37±2.78 kg, p0.05). Maturity offset was closer in the older boys (Q1: ±0.36 vs. Q4:

-3.93±0.23 kg, p0.05); however age at peak height velocity was similar. Older boys performed better (p0.05) in

velocity (Q1: 5.07±0.27 vs. Q4: 5.37±0.42 s) and agility (Q1: 5.89±0.38 vs. Q4: 6.24±0.42) and particularly in the overall SCORE of performance (Q1: 2.03±3.55 vs. Q4:

-1.66±3.41, p0.01). Older players also performed better in the Yo-yo IR1 (Q1: 626.66±285.49 vs. Q4:

470.47±216.85 m) and the CMJ (Q1: 29.56±3.13 vs. Q4: 27.10±3.25 cm) but the differences were not statistically significant; however, the effect size was medium to large (d= 0.616 and 0.771, respectively). Conclusion Older players were taller and displayed a better performance which may underlie the RAE through a selection of soccer players towards the outstanding players. References Mirwald RL, Baxter-Jones AD, Bailey DA, Beunen GP. An assessment of maturity from anthropometric measurements. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002, 34, 689-94


Vukasinovic Vesic, M.1, Dikic, N.1,2, Andjelkovic, M.1, Antic, T.1, Turner, R.2, Stokes, R.2, Gunter, H.2 Sports Medicine Association of Serbia1, FIBA Europe2 Introduction FIBA Europe, as active International Federation in fields of sports medicine, supplementation and anti-doping, has decided to monitor hydration of bas¬ketball players on the one major European competition. The aim of this study was to determine sweat rate and fluid intake of young elite basketball players. Sweat rates depend principally on factors such as the environmental conditions, choice of clothing or exercise intensity and they also vary greatly between individuals. Exercise can elicit high sweat rates and substantial water and electrolyte losses during sustained exercise, particularly in warm-hot weather. Method Ninety-six basketball players of eight national teams were assessed during the official FIBA Europe U20 Championship Division B. In order to determine sweat rate and fluid intake we measured body mass of all players before and after one game, the quantity of consumed fluid and urine output during the game, as well

–  –  –

as temperature and humidity in the sports hall. Results Players age was 19±0,79 years. After the game body mass loss was 0,9±0,7 kg, percentage of dehydration 0,99±0,7%, total fluid intake 1868±816 ml (range 435 – 3987) and sweat rate 2,7±0,9 L/h (range 5,54 - 1.16).

Urine output during the game was 55±61 ml. Ambient temperature was 30±2°C and humidity 55±4% on average. We found statistically significant correlation between sweat rate and: Usg (p0,05), Uosmol (p0,01), body mass loss (p 0,01), FI (p 0,01), BSA (p0,01) and percentage of dehydration (p0,01). Discussion Most of the athletes failed to match sweat losses during the game and they were significantly dehydrated. Recommendations for fluid and electrolyte replacement must be carefully considered and monitored in basketball players to promote safe hydration. Players, as well as coaches and team doctors, should receive encouragement and educational information about suitable hydration strategies.


Roschel, H., Prado, D.M.L., Benatti, F.B., De Sá-Pinto, A.L., Hayashi, A.P., Gualano, B., Pereira, R.M.R., Sallum, A.M.E., Bonfá, E., Silva, C.A.

University of Sao Paulo Introduction Exercise training has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy to counteract physical dysfunction in adult systemic lupus erythematosus. However, no longitudinal studies have evaluated the effects of an exercise training program in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (C-SLE) patients. Objective To evaluate the safety and the efficacy of a supervised aerobic training program in improving the cardiorespiratory capacity in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (C-SLE) patients. Methods Nineteen physically inactive C-SLE patients were randomly assigned into two groups: trained (TR, n=10, supervised moderate-intensity aerobic exercise program) and non-trained (NT, n=9). Gender-, BMI- and age-matched healthy children were recruited as controls (C, n=10) for baseline (PRE) measurements only. C-SLE patients were assessed at PRE and after 12 weeks of training (POST). Main measurements included exercise tolerance and cardiorespiratory measurements in response to a maximal exercise (i.e.: peak VO2, chronotropic reserve [CR], and the heart rate recovery [delta HRR] (i.e. the difference between HR at peak exercise and at both the first [delta HRR1] and second [deltaHRR2] minutes of recovery after exercise). Results The C-SLE NT patients did not present changes in any of the cardiorespiratory parameters at POST (p0.05). In contrast, the exercise training program was effective in promoting significant increases in time-to-exhaustion (p=0.01;

ES=1.07), peak speed (p=0.01; ES=1.08), peak VO2 (p=0.04; ES=0.86), CR (p=0.06; ES=0.83), and in delta HRR1 and delta HRR2 (p=0.003;

ES=1.29 and p=0.0008; ES=1.36, respectively) in the C-SLE TR when compared with the NT group. Moreover, cardiorespiratory parameters were comparable between C-SLE TR patients and C subjects after the exercise training intervention, as evidenced by the ANOVA analysis (p0.05, TR vs. C). SLEDAI-2K scores remained stable throughout the study. Conclusion In conclusion, this study demonstrated for the first time that a three-month supervised moderate-intensity aerobic exercise training program can be safe and effective in ameliorating the cardiorespiratory capacity and the autonomic function in C-SLE patients. These findings stress the potential role of exercise training in the management of C-SLE, strengthening previous evidence of the beneficial effects of exercise in other pediatric rheumatic diseases.


Otsuki, R., Fukubayashi, T.

Waseda University Introduction Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are frequently seen in basketball players, especially in girls during maturation. Biomechanical factors such as knee valgus motion have been associated with ACL injuries. Understanding when young female athletes increase biomechanical ACL injury risk factors may help identify the optimal timing to implement injury prevention program. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate ACL injury risk in female basketball players during puberty. Methods Ninety-two female basketball players between 9 and 17 years old participated in the study. They were classified based on maturation stages: early pubertal, middle pubertal, late pubertal, and post pubertal. ACL injury risk was evaluated using a newly developed ACL injury risk prediction algorithm (Myer et al., 2010), which consists of measurements of tibia length, weight, quadriceps/hamstring ratio, two-dimensional knee valgus motion and knee flexion range of motion during a drop vertical jump. ACL injury risk (probability of high knee abduction moment), knee valgus motion and knee flexion range of motion were compered among four subject groups. Results Early pubertal stage demonstrated smaller knee valgus motion than middle and post pubertal stages (p0.05). Similarly, knee flexion range of motion was greater in early pubertal stage when compared with late and post pubertal stages (p0.01). ACL injury risk was significantly lower in early pubertal stage compared with other stages (p0.01). Discussion In this study, height and weight were significantly increased between early and middle pubertal stages. Following this rapid growth, knee valgus motion was significantly increased. This finding supported previous studies that reported increased knee valgus angle in late and post pubertal females (Hewett et al. 2004). This study also found that knee flexion angle was decreased following the growth spurt. Decreased knee flexion angle during landing is commonly observed during actual ACL injuries (Koga et al., 2010) and might be a risk factor of ACL injury. These biomechanical factors, as well as a rapid increase in height and weight, contributed to increased ACL injury risk. The results of this study suggested that early pubertal stage might be the important time period. Implementation of injury prevention program during this period might be needed. References Myer G, Ford K, Khoury J, Succop P, Hewett T. (2010). Clinic Biomech, 25, 693-699. Hewett T, Myer G, Ford K. (2004). J Bone Joint Surg Am 86-A (8), 1601-1608. Koga H, Nakamae A, Shima Y, Iwasa J, Myklebust G, Engebretsen L, Bahr R, Krosshaug T. (2010). Am J Sports Med 38 (11), 2218-2225.


Lin, W.S.1, Su, C.T.2, Yang, A.L.1 1:Taipei Physical Education College; 2:Fu Jen Catholic University Introduction As one of the most prevalent pediatric disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity. Recently, the concerns of problems of physical performance in children with ADHD have been raising. However, studies that explored the physical performance, such as physical fitness, and the effects of exercise intervention in this population (Hopkins et al., 2009; Verret et al., 2012) remained insufficient. Thus, the purposes of this study were to (1) compare the physical fitness between typically developing children and children with ADHD; (2) evaluate the influences of the long-term rope jumping intervention on physical fitness in children with ADHD. Methods We recruited 30 children, including 20 children with ADHD and 10 matched typically developing children (normal group), to participate in this study. The recruited children with ADHD were randomly assigned into control (ADHD-CON) and exercise (ADHD-EX) groups. Participants in the ADHD-EX group performed an eight-weeks exercise intervention, i.e. rope jumping, for 30 minutes per day, 3 days per week. Physical fitness assessment included height, weight, body

–  –  –

mass index, waist-hip ratio, body fat, sit and reach test (flexibility), sit-up test for 1 minute (muscle endurance), standing long jump (instantaneous power), and 3-min step test (cardiorespiratory endurance). The assessment was conducted for 3 groups at the baseline and for 2 ADHD groups at the end of the intervention. Results Our results indicated poorer physical fitness in the ADHD groups compared with the normal group, including sit and reach test, sit-up test for 1 minute, and standing long jump. After eight weeks of exercise intervention, height and weight were increased and waist-hip ratio was reduced in the ADHD-EX group in comparison with the ADHD-CON group.

Also, body fat increased significantly in the ADHD-CON group, but remained the same for the ADHD-EX group. The performance for tests of sit and reach, standing long jump, and sit-up for 1 minute in the ADHD-EX group were significantly greater than the ADHD-CON group.

Discussion This study confirmed the problems of physical fitness for children with ADHD. Our findings suggested that eight-weeks rope jumping could improve parts of physical fitness for children with ADHD, including height, weight, waist-hip ratio, body fat, flexibility, muscle endurance, and instantaneous power. References Verret C, Guay MC, Berthiaume C, Gardiner P, Béliveau L. (2012). J Atten Disord, 16(1), 71-80. Hopkins M, Sharma M, Evans G, Bucci D. (2009). Behav Neurosci, 123(3), 599–606.

14:00 - 15:00 Mini-Orals PP-PM65 Sports Medicine [SM] 9


Natsui, H., Masuyama, S., Kamikomaki, N.

Japan Women's College of Physical Education Introduction Diploma in Mountain Medicine (DiMM) program in Japan started in May/2010. This diploma is based on Union Internationale Des Associations D’alpinisme Medical Commission (UIAA-MedCom), International Commission for Alpine Rescue (ICAR), and International Society of Mountain Medicine (ISMM). This program is operated by Japanese Society of Mountain Medicine (JSMM), in cooperation with Japan Mountaineering Association and National Mountaineering Training Center Japan. Methods This program includes 6 clusters, 1 ; Utsunomiya cluster (various medical problems in Japanese mountains), 2 ; Tateyama cluster (mountaineering techniques in summer), 3 ; Matsumoto cluster (pre-hospital evaluation and care), 4 ; Tokyo cluster (basic theory), 5 ; Yatsugadake cluster (mountaineering techniques in winter), and 6 ; Sapporo cluster (rescue technic in mountain and snow activity in Japan). In order to complete the courses, it needs 3 steps; pre-examination paper before each cluster, participation in each cluster, and terminal examination after each cluster. All clusters must be completed within 5 years. Results In May 2010, opening of DiMM program in Japan started 35 registered doctors, and it grew up to 102 doctors (23 female, 79 male) at the end of 2012. Doctors come from various specialties, such as sports medicine, cardiology, neurology, psychology, orthopedics, brain surgery, gynecology, plastic surgery, anesthesiology, emergency medicine, and dentist. Only 9 doctors have been authorized as International Diploma in Mountain Medicine on November 2012. Discussion This DiMM program started in Europe (Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, and UK) from 1998, 3500 doctors registered this program.

On the other hand, JSMM joined DiMM program from 2010, 102 doctors registered and only 9 doctors were authorized. It is expected to create more DiMM doctor in Japan.


Schoen, C., DiCredico, L., Murphy, J.

Salem State University Context: Despite the requirement that accredited university AT clinical curriculum in the United States includes psychosocial strategies and referral techniques, many AT programs do not schedule sport psychology courses in their curriculum. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate a demand for a course designed specifically to offer coursework covering currently accepted theory-based practices from sport psychology in the area of injury rehabilitation. Design: A three day workshop for 30 athletes training students (ATS) currently placed in clinical internships at area high school and university sites was developed to cover sport psychology principles, psychology of the injured athlete and counseling techniques. The workshop was conducted by the university’s sport psychology professor and a licensed social work counselor. At the start of the workshop we asked with open-ended questions what ATS’ current perception of sport psychology was and how it can be used in rehabilitation situations. Additionally, we obtained baseline data measuring how often they had used sport psychology techniques in the past, and how often they had ever worked with a sport psychology consultant (SPC) or referred an athlete to one before. This data will be used at a later time to demonstrate competency and proficiency of psychosocial intervention and referral techniques. Results: Using content analysis of the open-ended responses concerning importance of using sport psychology techniques during rehabilitation, our results confirmed what has been reported in similar studies. ATS mostly admitted that they did not know enough sport psychology to use them adequately in rehabilitation while at the same time overwhelmingly reporting that sport psychology techniques are important or very important for the success of rehabilitation. Conclusions: Our findings support studies published in athletic training journals calling for instituting curriculum covering sport psychology principles. Specific content areas that need to be included in these curricula include motivation techniques, establishment of social supports systems and most importantly training ATS to treat athletes holistically with emotional awareness and regulation strategies.


Mc Fie, S.1, Abrahams, S.1, Patricios, J.2, Posthumus, M.1, September, A.V.1

1. University of Cape Town, 2. Morningside Sports Medicine and Sports Concussion, Johannesburg Introduction Concussion is a common sports injury with approximately 1.6-3.8 million sport-related concussions reported in the US annually. Identifying risk factors may assist in preventing these injuries. This systematic review aims to identify such risk factors. Methods Three electronic databases; ScienceDirect, PubMed and SpringerLink, were searched using the keywords “RISK FACTORS” or “PREDISPOSITION” in conjunction with “SPORT” and “CONCUSSION” (including truncated forms). The database search was limited to articles published be

–  –  –

tween 1980 and 2012. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were independently evaluated by two of the authors. Reference lists of relevant studies were screened for additional articles using the same selection method. Only articles with a level of evidence of I, II and III were included (Obremskey et al., 2005). The level of certainty, as previously defined (Sawaya et al., 2007), for each risk factor was determined.

Briefly, a high level of certainty was given if the research provided a good risk estimate and produced consistent findings. Moderate certainty was assigned when available evidence was sufficient to determine that there is risk, but confidence estimate was constrained by study quality. Low certainty was given when there was insufficient evidence of risk. Results Sixty nine articles were selected for appraisal. A history of concussion was the only risk factor with a high level of certainty. All 14 studies, including 8 prospective studies, showed that athletes sustaining more than 1 previous concussion had an increased risk of a subsequent concussion. Risk factors with a moderate level of certainty included playing position, sex and match play. Defensive players and forwards were high risk playing positions in American football and ice hockey, respectively. Generally a higher concussion risk was observed for males, across ages and sports, except for soccer in which females often had a higher risk. Concussion proportion was greater in games compared to training in 6 of the 7 studies. The use of protective equipment, age, genetics and playing environment had a low level of certainty. Conclusion Although several risk factors were identified in the appraised studies, poor study methodology limited estimation of concussion risk. Prospective cohort design and consistent measures of risk should be employed in future research.


Otomo, M.1, Torii, S.2, Otuka, S.1, Iwanuma, S.2, Saho, Y.2, Fukubayashi, T.1 1: Graduated School of Sport Sciences, Waseda University, 2: Faculty of Sport Sciences, Waseda University Introduction Sport-related concussion attracted attention of sports medical personnel in recent years. Therefore, Japan rugby association has recommended the measurement of baseline testing using the assessment tool of concussion at the start of the season. Purpose of this study was to research the effect of 1-year rugby training and participation in matches on the scores of the concussion assessment tools (SCA). Methods Subjects are adult male rugby players in Japan. To examine differences in SCAs at baseline testing between 2011 and 2012 season, concussion assessment used included the Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC), Balance Error Scoring System (BESS), Trail Making Test form A and B (TMT) and Symbol Digit Modalities test (SDM) (Tamerah and Michael, 2009; P McCrory et al., 2009). In addition, we counted the number of matches, playing time, the number of impact and tackle in each player of 2011 season matches, investigating the relationship of SCAs and these match data. Results There was no significant difference between SCAs in 2011 and 2012, except for TMT improved. Also, there were no significant correlations between SCAs and each parameter of match data.

Discussion Improvement of TMT scores was considered to be learning effect. However, it is considered that it is more effective to use objective neuropsychological tests (eg: SAC, BESS) than using pencil and paper tests (eg: TMT) for concussed athletes (Tamerah and Michael, 2009). In addition, no significant difference was found on comparison between 2011 and 2012 season on the scores of SCAs.

One of the reasons was that the player who injured concussion was only one. Another reason was that players of this team engaged to the prevention training of concussion by wrestling. Moreover, it means that training and matches of rugby has no effect on SCAs in 1 season. But there is a style of play in each team. Therefore this result may be special result of this team. As the playing style is different between teams, these results may limited to this team. Conclusion During 2011 season, only one player had concussion. Very low incidence of concussion and practice of prevention training for concussion recommended would decrease the effects of rugby participation on SCAs. References Tamerah N, Michael S. (2009). Journal of Athletic Training, 44(4), 405-409. P McCrory, W Meeuwisse, K Johnston, J Dvorak, M Audry, M Molloy, R Cantu. (2009). British Journal of Sports Medicine, 43(suppl 1), i76-i84.


Bloch, A., Hinrichs, T., Platen, P., Moschny, A.

University of Bochum Purpose Although the benefits of regular physical activity (PA) are widely known, many older adults are insufficiently physically active. In order to design appropriate PA programs for older people, it is important to better understand their PA behaviour. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyse the diurnal profiles of PA in a sample of adults aged 70 years and over. Methods 213 older (70+), chronically ill and mobility restricted primary health care patients were recruited via their general practitioner. Participants wore a pedometer (Omron Walking Style Pro HJ-720IT-E2) on six consecutive days and documented whether or not they had worn the device for the whole day. Only participants who wore the pedometer on at least 2 workdays (Monday-Saturday) and on a Sunday with a minimum of 300 steps per day were included in the analysis. Mean steps per day (d) and per hour (hr) were analysed descriptively for all participants as well as stratified by gender and age group (80/80+ years). Results A total of 149 primary health care patients (74.5% women) with a median age of 80 (range 70-94) years were included in the analysis.

The overall PA averaged 3267±1901 steps/d (men: 3037±1688 steps/d, women:

3346±1969 steps/d; 80 years: 3721±2017 steps/d, 80+ years: 2819±1675 steps/d). Participants walked 3340±1879 steps on workdays and 2890±2687 steps on Sundays. Analyses by gender and age group showed the same trend. Looking at diurnal profiles, there were two peaks at 10-11 am (373±318 steps) and at 15-16 pm (316±336 steps) interrupted by a period of lower PA with a low point at 13-14 pm (230±241 steps). The same profile was observed in male (10-11 am: 385±297 steps; 13-14 pm: 254±257; 15-16 pm: 281±365 steps) and in female participants (10-11 am: 368±326; 13-14 pm: 161±170; 15-16 pm: 328±326 steps) as well as in younger adults (10-11 am: 425±364 steps; 13-14 pm: 246±218; 15-16 pm: 382±378 steps). For adults aged 80+ years peaks were less prominent and the PA level was more evenly distributed throughout the day. Conclusion This study is the first to analyse diurnal profiles of pedometer-determined PA in older adults. The overall PA level was rather low, with distinct gender- and age group-related differences. Considering diurnal profiles, PA was highest late in the morning, followed by a second peak in the afternoon. A better understanding of PA in the course of the day helps to adjust offers of PA/exercise programmes to preferred PA phases of older adults in order to more successfully increase their PA.


Beck, W., Scariot, P.P.M., Dos Reis, I.G.M., Gobatto, C.A.

University of Campinas Introduction Forced swimming for rats has been extensively used in sport sciences investigations, however, the chronobiological control is usually neglected. Since the circadian rhythm is mainly controlled by light/dark cycle, the environmental luminosity and time of day

–  –  –

should be investigated in order to avoid additional stress. So, we aimed to analyze inflammatory parameters in animals submitted to a time to exhaustion swimming trial (TE) at lactate minimum intensity under two environmental luminosities during sleep and wakefulness period. Methods At 45 days-old, 84 rats were housed under 12/12 h light-dark cycle in standard (SI) or experimental (EI) illumination. The daylight was equal for both (560-595nm; 60lux), however, from 18:00h to 06:00h SI was maintained in total darkness while EI under constant red light (600nm; 15lux). These groups were further subdivided according time of day, being assessed at 12:00h or 20:00h.

After two weeks of water and swimming adaptation, the animals were submitted to lactate minimum test (90 days-old) and to TE 48h after. Were collected blood samples immediately after TE in order to determine the C-reative protein (CRP), lymphocytes (Lymp), neutrophils (Neutr) and monocytes (Mono). Analysis of variance were used with p0.05 to luminosity, time of day and exercise effects. Results At 12:00 h, Lymp (7550.14/mm³), Mono (861.86/mm³) and Neutr (2872.61/mm³) were higher (p0.01) in relation to 20:00 h (5347.67/mm³, 498.81/mm³ and 1992.62/mm³, respectively), remained only CRP unaltered by time of day (3.11µg/mL for 12:00 h and 3.21µg/mL for 20:00 h; p = 0.23). EI increases Lymp (SI = 5984.63/mm³; EI = 6913.19/mm³; p = 0.01), Mono (SI = 523.40/mm³; EI = 837.29/mm³; p 0.01) and decreases Neutr (SI = 2678.70/mm³; EI = 2186.53/mm³; p 0.01), while CRP do not suffer alteration in function of this main effect (3.21µg/mL for SI and 3.11µg/mL for EI; p = 0.22). Solely the exercise increases CRP concentration (3.05µg/mL for control and

3.26µg/mL for exercise; p = 0.01), also leading to high count on Lymp (5269.47/mm³ and 7628.34/mm³; p 0.01), Neutr (2084.25/mm³ and 2780.97/mm³; p 0.01) and Mono (621.27/mm³ for control and 739.41/mm³ for exercise, respectively; p = 0.04). Discussion While SI and 20:00 h groups had normal Lymp, Mono and Neutr counts, EI and 12:00 h groups showed increased counts, expressing worse experimental conditions. Our results confirm the acute characteristic of CRP, being modulated only by exercise effect. We postulate that luminosity and time of day should be controlled for all animal models investigations to avoid mistaken interpretations on experimental results, once the studied white blood cells counts could be associated to modulations on physiological parameters. Supported by FAPESP–Procs. 2011/13226-1



Sakamoto, M., Horiuchi, T., Hiraguchi, T., Tadano, C., Takahira, N.

School of Allied Health Sciences, Kitasato University Effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound exposure on skeletal muscle regeneration after cardiotoxin-induced damage in the mouse model. Sakamoto, M.1, Horiuchi, T. 1, Hiraguchi, T.1, Tadano, C.2 Takahira, N.1. 1: Kitasato University (Sagamihara, Japan), 2: Toho University School of Medicine(Tokyo, Japan) Introduction Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) has non-thermal effects and it has been shown to induce biological activities related to tissue repair. Although there are several studies on the effect of therapeutic ultrasound on bone, tendon and ligament injuries (Khanna A, et al), information on the therapeutic application of LIPUS for muscle injuries is insufficient( Rantanen J, et al, Shu B,et al). The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of LIPUS exposure on the regenerative process of injured muscle using immunohistochemistry in a mouse model. Methods Female ICR mice were used in this study. These mice were divided into the control group (N=5), muscle injury (injury) group (N=25) and LIPUS exposure after muscle injury (LIPUS) group (N=25). To induce muscle injury, cardiotoxin was injected into the left tibialis anteriol (TA) muscle. LIPUS was initiated 3 hours after injury to the left TA muscle and it was applied once daily in the day that followed until sacrifice. LIPUS was performed under the following conditions: 10 min/day, frequency of 3 MHz, intensity of 0.5W/cm², 20 % duty cycle. TA muscles were excised after 2, 3, 5, 7 and 10 days after injury.

Frozen cross sections were reacted with anti-desmin antibody (a marker of myogenic cell). Nuclei were stained with DAPI. Sections were observed to identify the expression of desmin-positive mononuclear cells. And, fiber cross sectional area (FCSA) was measured in injured part at 10 days after injury. The results were analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance. If statistical significance was achieved (p0.05), multiple comparisons were performed using Tukey’s method. Results Desmin-positive mononuclear cells were detected at 3 days after injury in both the injury group and the LIPUS group. The mean FCSA was no significant difference between the injured group and the LIPUS group. Regarding the size distribution of FCSA, it tended to differ between injured group and LIPUS group. In LIPUS group, the number of myofibers with FCSA 2800 µm² was larger compared with the injured group. Discussion In this experiment, mean FCSA was similar in both the injured group and the LIPUS group at 10 days after muscle injury. However, the number of larger myofibers tended to increase in the LIPUS group compared with the injury group. Thus, it seems likely that exposure with LIPUS had a beneficial effect on the injured muscle. Reference Khanna A, et al.(2008) Br Med Bull. 89: 169-182 Rantanen J, et al (1999) Am J Sports Med. 27: 54-59. Shu B,et al.(2012) Cell Biochem Biophys. 62: 329-336.



Kirimoto, H., Tamaki, H., Onishi, H., Suzuki, M., Matsumoto, T., Yotani, K.

Niigata University of Health and Welfare Introduction When an individual performs a submaximal statistic contraction, there are two different load types either to produce a constant force by pulling against a noncompliant restraint (force task) or to maintain a constant limb angle while supporting an equivalent isoinertial load (position task). Despite each subject exerting a similar net muscle torque during the two tasks, referring to the Newtonian mechanics (the force outputs are the same and the joints are still), previous work has reported that time to failure, which occurs when the participant is no longer able to match the task criterions, is briefer for the position task than for the force task. The aim of this study was to determine whether sensorimotor modulations on the load compliance during maintaining constant finger force or position are different Methods Ten healthy subjects contracted the right first dorsal interosseus muscle by abducting their index finger 90 seconds either to produce a constant force against a rigid restraint by 10 degree (force task) or to maintain a constant position against a constant load of 20% of maximum contraction (position task). Visual feedback was provided during both tasks. Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were recorded from the C3’ (2 cm posterior to C3) by stimulating either right ulnar or median nerve at the wrist while subjects kept contraction. In addition, the motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and the silent period (cSP) to the transcranial magnetic stimulation were recorded. Results The amplitudes of P45 reduced significantly during isometric contraction of both force and position tasks. The reduction of amplitude of P45 was significantly larger during position task than force task only when ulnar nerve but not median nerve was stimulated. The duration of the cSP in force task was significantly longer than position task. However, the amplitude of MEPs did not differ between tasks. Discussion These results suggest that the position task causes more inhibitory effect on somatosensory cortex compared with the force task. Larger gating effect in the position task could imply that the task to maintain the position of the index finger while supporting a constant load requires more proprioceptive information from the group Ia afferents with which the enhanced gating of

–  –  –

centripetal mechanism occurs. Shorter duration of the cSP in position may be attributable to lower levels of presynaptic inhibition of Ia afferents. These results suggest that there is a more rapid recruitment of the motor unit pool and a briefer time to task failure when supporting a compliant load. References Enoka RM, Baudry S, Rudroff T, Farina D, Klass M, Duchateau J. Unraveling the neurophysiology of muscle fatigue. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2011;21:208-19.


Steib, S.1, Zech, A.2, Pfeifer, K.1 1: University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Erlangen, Germany), 2: University of Hamburg (Hamburg, Germany) Introduction Approximately every third person suffering an ankle sprain develops long term functional impairments (Hiller et al., 2011).

Studying those who successfully return to preinjury levels of sports activity while having no injury recurrences or feelings of instability (ankle sprain copers) may help to gain a better understanding of underlying mechanisms (Hertel and Kaminsky, 2005). The aim of this

study was a) to compare static and dynamic postural control abilities between copers and noninjured controls and b) to evaluate correlations between measures of static and dynamic postural control. Methods 32 athletes with a long-term history of ankle sprain (coper, age:

23.8 ± 3.2 years; time since injury: 21.3 ± 13.2 months) but no residual symptoms or subjective instability were compared with 30 athletes without a history of lower extremity injury (control group; age: 24.4 ± 3.3 years). They completed two measures of postural control: (static) centre of pressure sway velocity (vCOP) in single-leg-stance and (dynamic) the ‘star excursion balance test’ (SEBT) in four reach directions (anterior, medial, lateral, posterior). Differences between groups were determined with independent t-tests. Effect sizes were calculated as Hedge’s g. The relationship between both dependent variables was measured by using the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient. Results Sway velocity in single-leg-stance did not differ significantly between groups (control group=2.39 ± 0.60 cm/s;

coper=2.65 ± 0.65 cm/s; p=.128). Significant group differences existed for mean SEBT in anterior (ES=-0.64; p=.016) and lateral (ES=-0.52;

p=.046) direction. No significant correlation was found between vCOP and mean SEBT (r=-.005; p=.966) among all participants. Discussion Although seemingly recovered, postural control deficits appear to exist in ankle sprain copers. The lack of correlation between static and dynamic measures indicates that they rely on different aspects of sensorimotor control. Dynamic measures of postural control seem to be more sensitive in detecting long term deficits. References Hertel J, Kaminsky TW. (2005) J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, 35(5), A2-6. Hiller CE, Nightingale EJ, Lin C-C, Coughlan GF, Caulfield B, Delahunt E (2011). Br J Sports Med, 45(8), 660-672.



Nomura, Y., Kuramochi, R., Fukubayashi, T.

Waseda University Effects of Nordic Hamstring Exercise on the Hamstring Muscle Atrophy and Weakness after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Nomura, Y. 1, Kuramochi, R. 2, Fukubayashi, T. 3 1: Graduate School of Sport Sciences, Waseda University, 2: Chukyo University School of Health and Sport Science, 3: Faculty of Sport Sciences, Waseda University Introduction Atrophy of the semitendinosus (ST) muscle after harvesting the ST tendon for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) has been reported (Makihara et al.2006). This morphological change could be reasonably a factor causing torque deficits in deep knee-flexion. However, the way to prevent this problem remains controversial. Moreover, previous study showed that the ST peculiarly responded to knee-eccentric flexion tasks among hamstring muscles (Kubota et al., 2007). This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Nordic Hamstring exercise (NH), a partner exercise focusing the eccentric phase - on atrophy of the ST and strength deficit after ACLR. Methods Twelve athletes (7 males and 5 females, age: 19.1±1.4yr) who underwent unilateral ACLR (19.0±15.8 months postoperation) were divided into either a control group or an NH group. The exercises were conducted 22 sessions during a period of eight weeks. Two sessions were conducted each week for the first two weeks, then three sessions per week for the remaining six weeks. Before and after the training period, hamstring muscle strength was measured as isometric maximal torque on a Biodex dynamometer. And hamstring muscle volume was evaluated using MRI for biceps femoris long head, biceps femoris short head, ST, semimembranosus, gracilis. Then we compared pre and post measurements in each two groups.

Results Before the training period, deep knee-flexion torque and the ST muscle volume of the ACLR limb were smaller compared with these of the normal limb in both groups. In the post NH group, isometric knee-flexion torque and muscle volume of the ST, biceps femoris short head and gracilis were observed to have increased significantly. In the control group, there was no statistical difference between pre and post measurements. Discussion The results suggest that Nordic Hamstring exercise is an effective method to improve muscle atrophy and weakness induced by ACLR in the knee-flexor muscles, especially the fusiform muscle. Moreover, it is obvious that ST muscle can function and be enhanced even after harvesting its tendon. Nevertheless, since the control subjects were not demanded any training program, we do not know the difference between eccentric exercise and concentric exercise such as hamstring curl. References Makihara Y, Nishino A, Fukubayashi T, Kanamori A. (2006). Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Aethrosc, 14, 310-317. Mjølsnes R, Arnason A, Østhagen T, Raastad T, Bahr R. (2004). Scand J Med Sci Sports 14, 311-317. Kubota J, Ono T, Araki M, Torii S, Okuwaki T, Fukubayashi T.

(2007). Eur J Appl Physiol, 101, 713-720.


Schwingshackl, L.1, Strasser, B.2, Hoffmann, G.1 1: University of Vienna; 2: University of Health Sciences and Technology UMIT Introduction: Physical exercise is an integral part of obesity management. However, it still remains a matter of debate which kind of training programme (aerobic (AET), resistance (RT) or combined training (CT)) is the most efficacious. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of AET, RT and CT on anthropometric as well as blood lipid outcome parameters. Methods: Electronic searches for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of controlled trials with no restrictions to language and calendar date. Inclusion criteria were: Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2, supervised exercise training and a minimum intervention period of 8 weeks. Outcomes of interest included: weight, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, fat mass and blood lipids.

Pooled effects were calculated using an inverse-variance random effect meta-analysis, following the guidelines of the Cochrane Collaboration (1). Begg’s and Egger regression tests were performed to detect publication bias (2,3). Results: Overall, 27 studies enrolling 1381 participants met the inclusion criteria and were considered for meta-analysis.

As compared with RT, AET resulted in a significantly more pronounced reduction of body weight [weighted mean differences (WMD):

-0.99 kg (95% CI -1.85 to -0.13), p=0.02], and waist circumfer

–  –  –

ence [WMD:

-0.82 cm (95% CI -1.51 to -0.13), p=0.02], respectively. Moreover, HDL-cholesterol increase turned out to be more prominent following AET [WMD: 1.71 mg/dl (95% CI 0.34 to 3.07), p=0.01]. When comparing CT with RT, WMD in change of body weight [-1.67 kg (95% CI -2.32 to -1.01), p0.00001], waist circumference [-1.51 cm (95% CI -2.31 to -0.71), p=0.0002], and fat mass [-1.59 mg/dl (95% CI -2.51 to p=0.0007] was in favour of combined training, respectively. Results of Begg’s and Egger test indicated no hint for publication bias.

Discussion: The present systematic review and meta-analysis indicate that some of the anthropometrical as well as blood lipid data seem to be more affected by AET and CT as compared to RT. However, further studies are necessary to estimate the effectuality of the different training programs in the setting of obesity management. References 1. Higgins JPT, Green S (2008). General methods for Cochrane Reviews, Wiley. 2. Begg CB, Mazumdar M (1994). Biometrics 50. 3. Egger M, Davey Smith G, Schneider M, Minder C (1997). BMJ 315.


Conde, L., Guillamó, E., Blasi, J., Juncadella, M., Gaitán-Peñas, H., Corral, L., Javierre, C., Ventura, J.L., Viscor, G.

Barcelona University Introduction: severe traumatic brain injured (TBI) patients may have long term physical and psychological sequelae. A previous study showed an increase of circulating progenitor cells (CPC) after Intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IHH) and electrical muscle stimulation.

Increase of CPC may contribute to neurogenesis and TBI patients recovery. The objective of this study is to improve physical or psychical sequelae of patients who suffered a TBI with a program of IHH sessions and electrical muscle stimulation and measure CPC in peripheral blood. Methods: a program of IHH and electrical muscle stimulation 3 days (3 hours/day) per week during 12 weeks were carried out in the intervention group (IG), n=6, and a day of cognitive activities 1 day (1 hour/day) per week during 12 weeks were done in the control group (CG), n=5. Physical stress test, neuropsychological tests and circulating progenitor cells (CPC) were measured before and after the program. IHH were applied in the hypobaric chamber of Barcelona University simulating an altitude of 4.500m during 2 hours and at the same time two sessions of 20 minutes of electrical muscle stimulation were applied with the Compex Vitality® vascular capilarization program, in quadriceps and abdominal muscles. CPC were measured nine times before, during and after the program. Results: in the IG there was an increase in workload of the physical stress tests, but there were no changes in psychological tests and CPC. There were no changes in physical stress tests, psychological tests and CPC in CG. Discussion: the IHH and electrical muscle stimulation, under the conditions of the current study, did not increase CPC in peripheral blood in TBI patients, nor any changes in psychological tests. Only the workload increased in physical stress tests compared to CG. This may be because it was an insufficient intensity stimulus or perhaps a different inter-individual answer in CPC liberation. References: Viscor et al. J Transl Med 2009;9,91. Elder et al. Mt Sinai J Med 2006;73:931-940 14:00 - 15:00 Mini-Orals PP-PM18 Health and Fitness [HF] 12


Szablics, P.1, Szabó, S.1, Dvorák, M.1, Orbán, K.1, Balogh, L.1, Molnár, A.H.1, Béres, S.3, Pintér, Z.2, Pósa, A.2, Kupai, K.2, László, F.1,2, Varga, Cs.2 University of Szeged Introduction: It is known that the quality and dynamical marks of movement deteriorate due to obesity and overweight. The movement dynamics is also improved by recreational training (Katzmarzyk and Lear, 2012). We investigated the recreational training-induced changes in body composition and dynamical marks of centre of gravity (CG) in case of simple movements like crouch and jump. Methods: 50 participants (age: 20-70 years) took part in our study. They did 60 minute long recreation trainings two times a week for 3 months on 60 percent of maximal heart rate. The movement analysis (APAS 3D system) was performed in the beginning and at the end of training program. Participants crouched and jumped in front of a camera. We analysed the position, velocity and acceleration of CG. Changes of body weight, fat and muscle mass were determined by InBody230. Participants were divided into normal (N), overweight (OW) and obese (O) groups based on their initial BMI, BF % and WHR (Gallagher et al., 2000). Statistical analysis: simple ’t’ test. Results: We detected significant decrease of body weight in the OW and the O groups at the BMI and WHR categories. This change was significant in all groups at the BF% categories. The decrease of fat mass was significant in the N and the OW groups at every three categories. We observed significant increase in lifting of CG in case of jump in every three groups at the WHR categories, in the OW and the O groups at the BMI categories, and in the N and the OW groups at the BF% categories. The increase of CG velocity was significant in the N body type group at the BMI categories, in the OW group at the BF% and WHR categories In case of crouch the sinking of the CG was significantly enhanced in the OW group at the BF% and WHR categories, and the sinking velocity of the CG was increased in the O group at the BMI, BF% and WHR categories. Discussion: Our results suggest that low intensity recreational training optimizes the body composition and the dynamics of movement. The most effective among was detected in the OW people based on the different categories. Comparing the BMI, BF% and WHR categories, the detected changes were similar at the body composition, but the detected changes at the dynamic of the

movement were different, because the BF% and WHR categories distinguish between the fat mass and the muscle mass. References:

Katzmarzyk PT and Lear SA. (2012). Obesity Reviews, 13(2), 95–105. Gallagher et al. (2000). Am J Clin Nut; 72:694-701. Support: SROP 4.2.2-08/1-2008-0006; SROP 4.2.1./B-09-1/KNOV-210-0005

–  –  –



Rockey, S.1, Moynes, R.1, Skinner, J.2, Conviser, J.3, Smith, D.1 (1) University of Wyoming (2) Indiana University (3) JMC Associates Introduction The age-related decline in skeletal muscle mass and strength, collectively known as sarcpenia, are well-documented (Doherty, 2001; Roubenoff, 2001). Sarcopenia is associated with a higher likelihood of less than optimal bone mineral density and osteoporosis (Verschueren et al. 2013). bioDenisty is a novel resistance training (RT) approach that employs a one session per week highintensity (maximal-voluntary contraction) routine using four limited-range static exercises to achieve a near total body RT program - Chest Press (CP), Leg Press (LP), Core Pull (Core), and Vertical Lift (VL). Methods Healthy and osteopenic/porotic adults (N=116; 21-80 years) were recruited and assigned to complete 36-weeks of bioDensity RT. At baseline, 12-, 24-, and 36-weeks the following assessments will be made: 1) bone mineral density, lean body mass, fat mass (DEXA); 2) change in bioDensity-quantified force production; 3) upper (push-up) and lower (vertical jump) body bilateral ground reaction forces (dual force plates); and 4) 5-component fitness assessment. Changes between baseline and follow-up assessments were determined (RMANOVA) for the entire sample and across tertiles of age and bone health (normal, osteopenic, and osteoporotic). Results Presently, 116 participants are actively training and 12-week follow-up testing has been completed in 2 participants (due to the start date of the intervention November 2012). Ninety-eight participants will have completed 24-week follow-up testing by June 10, 2013. Body composition, ground reaction force, and 5 component fitness assessment data are not yet avaiable. However, for bioDensity force production at 8-weeks in 73% of the sample: CP increased 6.3%; LP increased 7.1%; Core was stable (0.5% change); and VL 6.8%. Discussion With exception of the Core exercise, these increases in maximal-voluntary force prodcution resulting from 8-weeks of bioDensity RT are encouraging and may be associated with improvements in functional upper and lower body power and health promoting adaptations to bone mineral density and lean muscle mass. 12- and 24-week findings will elucidate whether the time-sparing and low-volume approach of bioDensity RT elicits significant and meaningful body composition and functional changes important to the prevention or attenuation of osteoporosis and sacrcopenia (Sundell, 2011). References Doherty TJ. The influence of aging and sex on skeletal muscle mass and strength. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 4: 503-508, 2001. Roubenoff R. Origins and clinical relevance of sarcopenia. Can J Appl Physiol 26: 78-89, 2001. Verschueren S, Gielen E, O’Neill TW, Pye SR, Adams JE, Ward KA, Wu FC, Szulc P, Laurent M, Claessens F, Vanderschueren D, Boonen S. Sarcopenia and its relationship with bone mineral density in middle-aged and elderly European men. Osteoporos Int. 24(1):87-98, 2013. Sundell J. Resistance Training Is an Effective Tool against Metabolic and Frailty Syndromes. Adv Prev Med. 2011:984683. doi: 10.4061/2011/984683, 2011.


Martin-Garcia, M.1, Bryant, E.2, Plaza-Carmona, M.1, Fernandez-Rodriguez, M.3, Gonzalez-Vergaz, A.3, Garcia-Cuartero, B.3, Ara, I.1


1GENUD Toledo Research Group, Univ. of Castilla-La Mancha, Spain; 2Division of Psychology, Univ. of Bradford, UK; 3Department of Pediatrics, Hospital Severo Ochoa, Spain. Introduction The Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) is associated with weight loss and less successful weight maintenance following weight loss intervention in adults (Bryant et al., 2012): the relationship in children is unclear.

Previous evidence has shown that, despite having a lower % body fat, those children who perform more vigorous physical activity (VPA) have a higher energy intake (Gutin, 2008). Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the effects of a short-term VPA intervention on eating behavior and whether those effects are related to the body composition changes. Methods Twenty three obese adolescents (Tanner 3-4) participated in this study. Thirteen were ascribed to the active group (13.6±0.3 yr, 30.1±0.8 kg/m2) and 10 to the control group (13.2±0.4 yr, 30.4±0.6 kg/m2). Body composition was assessed in all participants pre and post the VPA intervention / control condition, using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Adolescents’ eating behavior was determined with a shortened 21-item version of the TFEQ (TFEQ-R21) that includes 3 main factors: uncontrolled eating (UE), cognitive restraint (CR) and emotional eating (EE) (Cappelleri et al., 2009). The intervention included 3 hours of VPA per week of recreational games for 3 months. Results Although no significant changes were found, TFEQ-UE and TFEQ-EE scores decreased 8% and 6% respectively in the active group, while no changes in the control group were found. In the active group, whole body fat mass decreased by 6% (36.1±1.3 kg vs. 34.1±1.6 kg, pre and post respectively, p0.05), and total lean mass increased by 3% (41.6±2.2 kg vs. 42.7±2.2 kg, p0.05). No significant correlations between the 3 factors of TFEQ-R21 and changes in body composition were found. Discussion Despite the changes in body composition (decrease in fat mass and increase in lean mass) found in the active group after a short-term VPA intervention, TFEQ scores were similar after the intervention and no correlation between eating behavior and body composition changes were found. Eating behaviors and body composition changes after a longer VPA intervention need further investigation. References Bryant EJ, Caudwell P, Hopkins ME, King NA, Blundell JE. (2012). Appetite, 58, 234-241.

Gutin B. (2008). Obesity, 16, 2193–2196. Cappelleri JC, Bushmakin AG, Gerber RA, Leidy NK, Sexton CC, Lowe MR, Karlsson J. (2009).

International Journal of Obesity, 33, 611-620.


Rey López, J.P., Berdejo del Fresno, D., Santin Medeiros, F., Moraes, A.C., Barbosa de Carvalho, H.

University of Sao Paulo Introduction Tennis is an anaerobic predominant activity requiring high levels of aerobic conditioning to avoid fatigue and aid in recovery between points. Body composition is often measured in young tennis players but it is unclear if it is a useful predictor of a better cardiorespiratory fitness. The aim of this study is to examine the association between: I) Anthropometric measures and maximal oxygen intake (VO2max); II) Dual x- ray absorptiometry (DXA) and VO2max. Methods 7 children (3 boys and 4 girls, age = 10.83 ± 0.39) from the highperformance tennis center from the Aragon Tennis Federation (Spain) were measured twice during a whole season (baseline-10 months later) (Berdejo del Fresno et al. 2010). Body composition (whole lean, bone and fat mass) by DXA (Explorer, Hologic Corp.) and by anthropometry (height, weight, waist circumference). VO2max was estimated by Leger et al. (1984) using the 20 meter shuttle run test. A linear regression analysis was performed (adjusting by age) between baseline body composition and VO2max at the end of the season. A significance level was considered when p values were 0.05. Statistical analyses were performed using STATA 12.1. Results No significant mean differences in VO2max (ml/kg/min) were found during the season (baseline: 54±3, 10months: 55±3). In the regression model,

–  –  –

body composition at baseline by DXA was not statistically associated with VO2max values at the end of the season: Standardized β (95% CI): 0.56 (-0.28-1.19); -0.55 (-1.02-0.24); 0.46 (-1.60-9.24) for lean mass, fat mass and bone mass respectively. Similarly, anthropometric measurements were no associated with VO2max values.

β (95% CI):

-0.27 (-0.67-0.28); -0.34 (-63,4-25,7); -0.05 (-0.60-0.57) for weight, height and waist circumference respectively. Discussion Our results show that in children who regularly train for competitive reasons (our sample around 12 hours per week) body composition is not a predictor of VO2max changes during a whole season. Therefore, we suggest that in pubescent tennis players changes in VO2max are more likely due to hematological variables (Hemoglobin, Hematocrit changes) as has been found in soccer players (Hansen et al. 2004). In summary, in competitive tennis children players’ body composition analyses are not justified as a way to predict aerobic performance. Nonetheless, the study of body composition in athletes by DXA should be promoted to monitor changes in bone mass during growing years. References Berdejo del Fresno D, Vicente-Rodríguez G, GonzálezRavé JM, Moreno LA, Rey-López JP. (2010). J Hum Sport Exerc, 5, 250-264. Leger L, Lambert J, Goulet A, Rowan C, Dinelle Y. (1984) Can J Appl Sport Sci, 9, 64-69. Hansen L, Klausen K. (2004) J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 44:219-223.



Cruces, C., Fernández-Elías, V.E., Ortega, J.F., Hamouti, N., Mora-Rodriguez, R.

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha Introduction and purpose: Sedentary lifestyle in obese individuals can develop into many health conditions, particularly cardiovascular diseases. Four months of a 3-week intense pedaling program (70% VO2max; 40 min) lowers trunk fat and tends to reduce leg fat in obese, type II diabetic patients [1]. The purpose of our study is to determine if high-intensity aerobic interval training could also reduce trunk fat in a larger sample of obese subjects with metabolic syndrome. Subjects: Forty-eight obese men and women aged between 31 and 68 years volunteered to participate in this study. Participants were defined as having MetS according to the criteria of the International Diabetes Federation [2]. Methods: Nude body weight was obtained using a ± 0.05 kg sensitive scale (WildCat; Mettler, Toledo, USA).

Waist circumference was measured to the nearest 0.1 cm using a plastic tape (Figure Finder Tape Measurement, LaCrosse, WI, USA) 2 cm below the lower rib while subjects rested their arms along their bodies. Whole body percent body fat, trunk and leg fat and fat-free mass was determined using DEXA scanning, using a total body scan mode; Lunar iDXA (GE Medical Systems Lunar, Madison, WI 53718 USA).

The analyses were performed using encore TM 2008 software version 12.30.008. Results: Body weight decreased by 1.2±0.4 kg after 4 months of training (P=0.003). Waist circumference was also reduced by 4.1±0.45 cm (3.9% reduction; P=0.000). Fat-free mass was maintained during the exercise program (51.5±1.4 vs. 51.2±1.4 kg, P=0.12). Fat mass decreased by 0.9±0.3 kg after 4 months of training (P=0.006). However, due to the concomitant loss of body weight, percent body fat was reduced only by 0.5% (38.7±0.01 to 38.2±0.01; P= 0.033). Most of the 0.9 kg of fat loss, belonged to trunk fat that declined from 18.5 to 17.7 (i.e., 0.77±0.25; P=0.03). Leg fat mass was reduced by only 89±0.05 gr which was not significant (P=0.06). Conclusions: An intense aerobic exercise program with a frequency of 3 sessions per week during 4 months, results in measurable losses of waist circumference and body weight. Approximately, 75% of the reduction in body weight could be accounted by losses of body fat. Most of the fat loss in this exercise program belonged to abdominal fat (86%). Thus, high-intensity aerobic interval training meets the objective of reducing abdominal fat which is associated with a risk reduction of developing cardiovascular diseases. References: 1. Shaw, C.S., et al., Prolonged exercise training increases intramuscular lipid content and perilipin 2 expression in type I muscle fibers of patients with type 2 diabetes. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 2012.

303(9): p. E1158-65. 2. Alberti, K.G., P. Zimmet, and J. Shaw, Metabolic syndrome--a new world-wide definition. A Consensus Statement from the International Diabetes Federation. Diabet Med, 2006. 23(5): p. 469-80.


Theodoropoulou, E., Karteroliotis, K.

National and Kapodistrian University of Athens Introduction Large scale studies frequently used self-reported weight and height to assess Body Mass Index (BMI). However, self-reported anthropometric values were subject to measurement errors (Spencer et al., 2002; Stommel & Schoenborn, 2009). Specifically, men and women underreported their weight, overestimated their height and consequently, underestimated their BMI. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to examine the differences between self-reported and measured anthropometric values in a sample of Greek physically active adults. Methods The participants were 684 volunteers, 206 men and 478 women, ranging in age from 18 to 65 years (39.2±13.5 yrs), who regularly participated in various exercise programs in the Sport Facilities of the Municipality of Athens. First, the participants completed questions about their body weight and height. Second, the anthropometric measurements were carried out by trained personnel in accordance with Heyward and Stolarczyk recommendations (1996). Weight was measured to the nearest 100 gr by a calibrated scale and height in bare feet to the nearest cm by a stadiometer. BMI was calculated as weight (kg) divided by height (m) squared. A series of paired t tests were conducted to explore the differences between self-reported and measured anthropometric values. Results The results showed that according to self-reported BMI, 69.3% of the participants were normal weight, 23.6% were overweight and 4.6% were obese. Based on measured BMI, 58.6% of the participants were normal weight, 31.6% were overweight and 8.3% were obese. Men underestimated their weight (t(203)=-11.2, p0.01) and overestimated their height (t(202)=18.5, p0.01). Women underreported their weight (t(476)=-18.6, p0.01) and BMI (t(475)=-7.8, p0.01) and overestimated their height (t(475)=30.2, p0.01). Additionally, the overweight subgroup underestimated weight (t(212)=-11.7, p0.01) and BMI (t(213)=-12.7, p0.01) and overestimated height (t(212)=20.0, p0.01). Similarly, the obese subgroup underreported weight (t(50)=-6.5, p0.01) and BMI (t(50)=-10.9, p0.01) and overestimated height (t(50)=10.2, p0.01). Discussion The results of this study demonstrated significant differences between self-reported and measured anthropometric values, showing that self-reported data were subject to measurement errors. Large scale studies should use more valid procedures for overweight and obesity assessment. References Heyward VH, Stolarczyk LM. (1996). Applied body composition assessment. Human Kinetics, USA. Spencer et al. (2002). Public Health Nutr, 5(4), 561-565. Stommel M, Schoenborn CA. (2009). BMC Public Health, 9, 421.

–  –  –


Tachiki, T.1, Kitagawa, J.1, Takahira, N.1, Iki, M.2, Tamaki, J.2, Kajita, E.3, Sato, Y.4, Kagamimori, S.5, Kagawa, Y.6, Yoneshima, H.7 1: Kitasato Univ. Graduate School of Medical Science, 2: Kinki Univ., 3: Nagoya Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, 4:Jin-ai Univ., 5:Univ.

of Toyama, 6:Kagawa Nutrition Univ., 7:Shuwa General Hospital Introduction Osteoporosis reduces quality of life in the elderly because of bone fracture (Copland, 1999). Femoral neck fracture is critical in elderly women, as they will require primary nursing care or, at worst, become bedridden. Therefore, it is very important to study the factors associated with femoral neck bone mineral density (FNBMD). Optimum body mass, good muscle strength, and physical activity have beneficial effects on FNBMD. Because body mass can be divided into fat mass and lean tissue mass, the factors associated with FNBMD need to be determined by analyzing fat mass and muscle mass separately. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated the associations among grip strength (GS) as an indicator of whole-body strength, FNBMD, and body composition in postmenopausal Japanese women. Methods This research was part of the Japan Population-based Osteoporosis (JPOS) study. The subjects were 304 women aged 54 to 91 years (mean 70.8 ± 7.7 years). All subjects had undergone natural menopause more than 10 years previously, and none had abnormalities in bone metabolism. FNBMD, fat mass, and appendicular lean soft tissue mass were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Total-body skeletal muscle mass (TBSM: Kim, 2002) and fat mass index (FMI: fat/height2) were then calculated. GS was measured with a digital hand dynamometer. Results FNBMD was significantly correlated with age (r = –0.34, P 001), TBSM (r = 0.42, P 0.01), FMI (r = 0.31, P 0.01), and GS (r = 0.34, P 0.01). GS was not significantly correlated with FMI (r = 0.06, P = 0.30), but it was significantly correlated with TBSM (r = 0.55, P 0.01). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that FNBMD was significantly associated with age (β = –0.27, P = 0.01), TBSM (β = 0.16, P = 0.01), FMI (β = 0.22, P = 0.01), and GS (β = 0.12, P = 0.04). Discussion This research suggests that FMI and TBSM have the same degree of influence on FNBMD. The association of FMI with FMBMD could be affected by the presence of aromatase in fat (Riancho, 2007). Because GS as well as TBSM were associated with FNBMD, both muscle strength and muscle mass must be maintained and improved. We intend next to perform a longitudinal study of the effects of GS and TBSM on FNBMD. References Copland CA et al. (1999) Int J Epidemiol, 28, 241-246. Kim K et al. (2002) Am J Clin Nutr, 76(2), 378-383. Riancho JA et al. (2007) J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 92(2), 660-665.


Spiga, F., Di Michele, R., Merni, F., Ceciliani, A., Semprini, G., Brasili, P., Toselli, S.

University of Bologna Introduction The prevalence of weight status disorders and body dissatisfaction is continually increasing in adolescents from European countries (Sanchez Cruz et al, 2013) (Eisenberg, Neumark-Sztainer, & Paxton, 2006). Physical capacities are related to body size. In particular, the weight status affects some motor and strength performances (Graf et al, 2004). Little is known, however, on how one’s physical fitness affects the perception of his/her own body image. The objective of the present study was to determine the interrelationships among body mass index, body image perception and motor performance in Italian second grade school students. Methods The sample included 61 adolescents (35 boys and 26 girls) from Bologna, Emilia-Romagna, Italy, aged 16-17 years. Height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated. Body image perception was assessed using Body Silhouette Charts (Collins, 1991). Physical assessments included a standing broad jump, hand grip dynamometer test, sit and reach flexibility test, gross motor skill test, and shuttle run endurance test. Results The BMI was similar in girls (21.4 kg/m2, SD: 2.0) and boys (22.4, kg/m2; SD: 2.9). However, girls overestimated their actual figure, and showed a higher body dissatisfaction, as revealed by a larger difference between their desired and perceived body image. Boys performed better than girls in the standing broad jump, dynamometer, and shuttle run tests, while girls had a higher flexibility. When controlling for gender, BMI was negatively related to performance in the standing broad jump and gross motor skill tests. When controlling for both gender and BMI, performing better in the standing broad jump and shuttle run involved a thinner body perception.

Discussion Self-perception of body image is affected, apart from the actual body size, even by one’s aerobic and explosive strength capacity. Therefore, improving physical fitness may contribute to reduce body dissatisfaction in adolescents, by means of both loss of weight and change of perceived body image. References Sanchez Cruz et al. (2013). Rev Esp Cardiol. Doi: 10.1016/j.recesp.2012.10.016.

Eisenberg, M. E., Neumark-Sztainer, D., & Paxton, S. J. (2006). J Psychosomatic Res, 61, 521–527. Graf et al. (2004). Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord, 28, 22-6. Collins M.E. (1991). International Journal of Eating Disorders, 10, 199-208.


Godina, E., Bobarykin, N.

Russian State University of Physical Education, Sports, Youth and Tourism Introduction Studies of secular changes in different populations remain one of the most important research topics in human biology.

Manifestations of a secular trend include changes in morphological characteristics for children and adults. While a lot of data is known for general populations, not many studies deal with the same subject for professional sportsmen. In our previous publications secular changes in the free wrestlers have been studied (Godina and Kolomeichuk, 2012). The aim of the present paper is to follow secular changes in speed skaters for the last 40 years. Methods In 2011/12, 74 athletes specializing in speed skating were investigated in Moscow according to the standard anthropometric protocol. All were of high sports qualification (Master of Sports or Master Candidate), 18years old. The results were compared with archive data on speed skaters from the previous generation (Gladysheva et al., 1979).

Anthropometric program included about 30 measurements; body mass index (BMI) and body mass components were calculated. Statistical analysis was performed with STATISTICA 6.0, 8.0 packages. Results There are noticeable changes in main body dimensions in modern speed skaters as compared with their counterparts from the previous years. While stature remained practically the same, as well as biacromial and pelvic diameters, body weight and BMI significantly decreased (weight: 73.5 kg in 1979 vs 70.5 in 2012; BMI: 23.8 vs

22.9 correspondingly), leg length increased, chest and some other body circumferences decreased. There is a significant increase in bone component, measured as elbow and knee breadth (e.g., knee breadth: 91 mm in 1979 vs 100 mm in 2012). The hand grip strength in 2012 athletes showed significant decrease. Discussion In our previous study it was shown that secular changes in free style wrestlers could be connected with their typical morphological structure and adaptation to specific sports activity (Godina, Kolomeichuk, 2012). The comparison of body dimensions in high qualification speed skaters examined in 1979 and in 2012, revealed that modern athletes express the tendency towards leg length increase, elbow and ankle breadth, as well as decrease in all circumferences of the body. The increase in leg length is part of the general secular trend (Bogin and Varela-Silva). The changes in bone mass shown in this study could

–  –  –

be associated with the cardinal change of skates’ model in the middle of the 1990’s and with the techniques of run. The decrease in BMI, some body circumferences and hand grip might demonstrate the trend to asthenic body build, which was found in some modern populations (Godina, 2011). References Bogin B., Varela-Silva I. (2010). Int. J. Res. Publ. Health, 7 (3), 1047-1054 Gladysheva A, Podar G, Pushkin A, Danilov V. (1979). Skating Sports, 1, 45-46. In Russian Godina E. (2011). Anthropol. Anzeiger, 68 (4), 367-377 Godina E., Kolomeichuk A.

(2012). ICSEMIS 2012, Abstracts, 434-435



Jenssen, O., Dillern, T.

The Norwegian Police University College INTRODUCTION Police officers tend to increase their body mass during their occupational career. (Boyce, Jones, Schendt, Lloyd, & Boone, 2009; Sörensen, Smolander, Louhevaara, Korhonen, & Oja, 2000). This can cause health issues but it can also affect police officers ability to perform occupational tasks such physical confrontation and arresting struggling suspects. Our aim with this study is therefor to investigate if body mass index (BMI) affects results in arrest amongst Norwegian Police Students. METHODS 19 males and 10 females participated in the study. BMI was calculated as kg/m2. The Worlds Health Organizations (WHO) categories are used to categorize BMI. Arrest technique (AT) results are gathered as physically performed tests, evaluated and given points from experienced instructors. The test performed was seizing technique, teamwork 2 against 1, release techniques and self defence techniques. Descriptive statistics as mean, SD is used. T-test is used to compare gender and BMI classifications. Significance level was set to P0.05. RESULTS Mean BMI for the subjects was 24.1(±1.9) Males: BMI 25.0 (±1.5). Females: BMI 22.4 (±1.2), results presented as means (±SD). 57.9% of the males was classified normal weight and 42.1% classified overweight. All females classified as normal weight. The normal weight group perform better in all AT test, and also the final AT score summarized from all tests. A significant better performance was found for the self-defense technique (P042). P-levels for the seizing technique (P0.066) and the total AT score (P0.067) DISCUSSION The tendencies that higher BMI levels has a negative effect on performance in arrest technique raise a concern regarding the police officers capability to safely perform occupational tasks as arresting suspects and self-defense. Especially if these students development in BMI follow the trend with increasing BMI during the occupational career. REFERENCES Boyce, R. W., Jones, G. R., Schendt, K. E., Lloyd, C. L., & Boone, E. L. (2009).

Longitudinal changes in strength of police officers with gender comparisons. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 23(8), 2411Sörensen, L., Smolander, J., Louhevaara, V., Korhonen, O., & Oja, P. (2000). Physical activity, fitness and body composition of Finnish police officers: A 15-year follow-up study. Occupational Medicine, 50(1), 3-10.


Elvira, L., Drehmer, E., Blasco, E., Moratal, C., Vera, F., Salvador, T.

Facultad de CC. de la Actividad Física y del Deporte Universidad Católica de Valencia INTRODUCTION Triathlon practice has increased during the last decade. According to the CSD, since 2000 the number of associated triathletes has quadrupled in Spain. As a consequence of this development, the number of scientific studies has increased in this field.

There are studies which analyze body composition in triathletes (Martínez, Cejuela, Urdampilleta, Gallar, & Soriano, 2011); some show a relationship between the percentage (%) of body fat mass and the total performance time (Knechtle, Knechtle, & Rosemann, 2011;

Knechtle, Wirth, Rüst, & Rosemann, 2011). Moreover, other studies analyze the relationships between the volume of training and performance (Knechtle, Wirth, Baumann, Knechtle, Rosemann, & Oliver, 2010). The main goal of this study was to analyze the relationship between practice, different body composition variables and final performance in male undergraduate triathletes. METHODS 41 male triathletes participating in the University Championship of Spain in 2012 were analyzed by 4 composition variables (BMI, %fat, %bone, %muscle mass), 2 practice variables (years of practice, practice index) and 1 performance variable (final line time).The instruments used for anthropometric data collection were a Skinfold caliper, a paquimeter and a height meter Holtain, and a Tanita BC-418 balance. To obtain practical data, subjects completed a Health Behavior Inventory designed by our research group and ChampionChip system was used to record the time. Data processing was conducted by descriptive analysis, normality was analyzed by Shapiro-Wilk test, and a correlative analysis was performed. RESULTS Significant correlation was observed between the final line time and (%) body fat (p=.003), BMI (p=,030), index of practice (p=.019) and years of practice (p=,045), these last were negative DISCUSSION The results show that the best times in finish line are related to highest index of practice, replicating the data obtained with women in the Knechtle et al., (2010) study, and with more years practicing triathlon. The best final line times also were related to %fat and BMI lower than the others, coinciding with results obtained by Knechtle, Knechtle, et al. (2011) and Knechtle, Wirth, et al. (2011). REFERENCES Knechtle, B., Wirth, A., Baumann, B., Knechtle, P., Rosemann, T., & Oliver, S. (2010). Journal of strength and conditioning research/National Strength & Conditioning Association, 24(10), 2785-2793. Knechtle, B., Knechtle, P., & Rosemann, T. (2011) International journal of sports medicine, 32(1), 20–27. Knechtle, B., Wirth, A., Rüst, C. A., & Rosemann, T. (2011) Asian Journal of Sports Medicine, 2(1), 23–30. Martínez, J. M., Cejuela, R., Urdampilleta, A., Gallar, M., & Soriano, J. M. (2011) I World Conference of Science in Triathlon (pp. 133-139) Universidad de Alicante


Wyss, T., Jimmy, G., Mäder, U.

Swiss Federal Institute of Sport Magglingen SFISM Several studies have demonstrated decreases in aerobic fitness levels in young Scandinavian and Swiss men between 1980 and 2000 [1The aim of the present study is to describe the development of physical fitness in young Swiss men in the new millennium. Therefore, data of the compulsory Swiss Army recruitment were analysed. In 2006 a new physical fitness test was implemented at the recruitment and physical performances of 218’939 male conscripts (19.9 ±1.0 y) have been measured in the past seven years. The fitness test battery contained a progressive endurance run (PER) to measure aerobic endurance capacity, a trunk muscle strength test (TMS) to assess trunk muscle fitness, a standing long jump (SLJ) and a seated shot put (SSP) to determine the muscle power of the lower and upper extremities, respectively, and a one-leg standing test (OLS) to quantify balance [4]. In addition, body height and mass were measured and a selfreport physical activity questionnaire (adapted ipaq short) was administered. ANOVA with Bonferroni post-hoc tests was applied to compare results between calendar years. Only SLJ decreased constantly from 2.33m in 2006 to 2.30m in 2012 (p.001). Results for all other performance tests did not change over time (mean values and SD between years: 6.47 ± 0.01m in SSP, 123.34 ± 1.37s in TMS, 45.81

–  –  –

± 0.64s in OLS and 14.10 ± 0.07km/h in PER). Body mass index increased about 1.5% from 23.07 in 2006 to 23.41 in 2012 (p.001). The physical activity questionnaire showed, that the ratio of conscripts classified as trained increased constantly from 41.5% in 2006 to 47.0% in 2012. The trend of decreasing aerobic fitness, investigated in young European men between 1980 and 2000 was not confirmed between 2006 and 2012 in young Swiss men. No relevant changes in physical fitness were seen in that time period. The decreasing SLJ performances are most likely explained by an increase in body mass of about 1kg in seven years. 1. Dyrstad SM, Aandstad A, Hallen J.

Aerobic fitness in young Norwegian men: a comparison between 1980 and 2002. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2005;15:298-303. 2. Santtila M, Kyrolainen H, Vasankari T, Tiainen S, Palvalin K, Hakkinen A, et al. Physical fitness profiles in young Finnish men during the years 1975Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006;38:1990-4. 3. Wyss T, Beuchat C, Zehr S, Mäder U. Physical performance in young men at Swiss Army recruitment 1982 to 2005. Swiss J Sportmed Sporttraumat. 2009;57:75-7. 4. Wyss T, Marti B, Rossi S, Kohler U, Mäder U. Assembling and verification of a fitness test battery for the recruitment of the Swiss Army and nation-wide use. Swiss J Sportmed Sporttraumat.


14:00 - 15:00 Mini-Orals PP-PM09 Health and Fitness [HF] 3


Leprêtre, P.M., Bréchat, P.H., Lebreton, C., Bellanger, M., Rivière, D., Regnard, J., Lonsdorfer, J., Vogel, T.

UFR-STAPS, Université de Picardie Jules Verne Introduction Controversial results on exercise training on senior health status may be explained by fitness, gender, exercise modalities (Mian et al. 2007). It has been also shown that environmental variables could also explain a part of difference in physical and mental health between rural and urban senior (Philipps et al. 2012). Objective To examine the links between geographical aeras, social classification of occupations (SPC), aerobic and health related quality of life (HRQol) responses to exercise training in middle-aged and aged population, 148 on 232 mixed subjects (ranged from 50 to 85 years) engaged in 9 weeks of twice-a-week interval training (IWEP). HRQoL was assessed with a French version of SF-36 questionnaire. The independent variables were gender, age, socio-economic status and size of town. Ordinal regression models were fitted to assess the association of physical training benefits (i.e aerobic capacity) with sociodemographic factors. Results A significant training-induced difference was observed in aerobic capacity (+ 43.6 ± 29.9 %) and all components of HRQol in whole population: physical, functioning and role, bodily pain, general and mental health, vitality, emotional role and social functioning dimensions. Lower was endurance before training, greater was the increase in aerobic capacity with training. Our results also showed significant relationship between changes in aerobic capacity with exercise training, SPC and disease status. Only living in an urban area of Northeast of France was related with aerobic changes due to physical activity; there were no difference among genders. Conclusion Based on the present data, IWEP may have potential to promote aerobic capacity and the all HRQol dimensions in middle-aged and aged subjects whatever their geoagraphical aeras and social classication of occupation. Reference Phillips SM, Wójcicki TR, McAuley E. (2007). Sport Med, 29, 233-247. Mian OS, Baltzopoulos V, Minetti AE, Narici MV. (2012). Qual Life Res, 37, 683-70.

WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE AND GRIP STRENGTH ARE MORE STABLE AT 6, 8 AND 10 YEARS OF OBSERVATION Matsudo, S.M.M., Araujo, T., Raso, V.2,3 1Physical Fitness Research Center, CELAFISCS, Brazil., 2 Bandeirante University of Sao Paulo, UNIBAN, 3 Western University, UNOESTE, Brazil PURPOSE: To examine the stability of body composition and functional capacity in physically active older women at 6, 8 and 10 years of observation. METHODS: We measured body composition (body mass index, total body adiposity and waist circumference), physical function (body balance, flexibility, grip strength, and usual walking) in 157 physically active older women at thre

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 190 | 191 ||

Similar works:

«ABSTRACT The possibility of biobleaching and biosoftening of coir yarn in order to reduce the requirement of softening and bleaching chemicals in wet processing of coir was studied in laboratory scale experiments. Treatment of coir yarn for 72 hrs using Trametes versicolor (NCIM 993) and Coirret, a bacterial consortium was carried out. The biotreatment could impart an appreciable degree of softness to the yarn and the which was confirmed by the Flexural Rigidity Test. An improvement in softness...»

«A Complete Bibliography of Publications in Isis, 1960–1969 Nelson H. F. Beebe University of Utah Department of Mathematics, 110 LCB 155 S 1400 E RM 233 Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0090 USA Tel: +1 801 581 5254 FAX: +1 801 581 4148 E-mail: beebe@math.utah.edu, beebe@acm.org, beebe@computer.org (Internet) WWW URL: http://www.math.utah.edu/~beebe/ 21 October 2015 Version 0.03 Title word cross-reference +2000 [570]. −2500 [570]. 1 [722, 880, 711]. 1165 [1340]. 1305 [702]. 1519 [368]. 1540 [138]....»

«COfJIACOBAHO ITPl1H5ITO rrpoTOKonoM N:l OT «28 » asrycrn 20 I Jr. r.o.r. Eyti rre.uaronrqecKHM COBCTOM IIIKOflhl hl o6onesa 01iPA30BATEJibHA51 IIPOrPAMMA MyH1111;11rraJihHoro 6IO,D)KeTHoro o6pa30BaTeJihHOf0 yT.Jpe)l{.D,eHII51 )J,OllOJIHHTeJibHOro o6pa3oBaHH51.D,eTeH,Il,eTcKa51 MY3hIKaJihHa51 lllKOJia ropo.D,cKoro oKpyra ropo.D, Eyii KocTpOMCKOH o6nacTII Ha 2013 2016 rr. 20 l 3 r. Муниципальное бюджетное образовательное учреждение...»

«70 BOROUGH COUNCIL OF KING’S LYNN AND WEST NORFOLK DEVELOPMENT CONTROL BOARD Minutes of a Meeting of the Development Control Board held on Monday 21 June 2004 at 5.30 pm in the Committee Suite, King’s Court, Chapel Street, King’s Lynn PRESENT: Councillor Mrs C P Sharp (Chair) Councillors Mrs J M Brown, A F Burch, Mrs B A Burch, J L Collop, I Gourlay (sub), D M Johnson, T C Manley, M J Peake, C J Smith, Mrs V M Spikings, M S Storey, H C Symington, A M White and Mrs M V Wood Apologies for...»

«Individualisierung, zweite Moderne und Soziale Arbeit Zur Rezeption Ulrich Becks in der Theorie Sozialer Arbeit Diplomarbeit Am Fachbereich 12 der Universität Dortmund vorgelegt von Matthias Euteneuer Dortmund im März 2005 Erstgutachter: Prof. Dr. Michael Galuske Zweitgutachter: Prof. Dr. Ronald Hitzler „Der Kerl hat keinen Wert für die Gemeinschaft, er ist einfach nur ein Individuum“ (L.-F. CÉLINE, zit. nach SARTRE 1963, 5) „Der Individualismus ist als neoliberales Projekt in weiten...»

«The Pressure-Cooker ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Steve Barlow & Steve Skidmore The Pressure-Cooker This play was the first piece of work that Steve Barlow and Steve Skidmore had published together. It was written in 1988, when the 2 Steves were both working at a school in Nottingham, UK. The Pressure-Cooker was published as part of a collection of short plays by Oxford University Press, called NEW PLAYS 1. The volume was edited by playwright, Peter Terson and the series of three books contained work by...»

«BOOK WORM (WA) INC.NEWSLETTER OF THE SOCIETY OF EDITORS August 2003 From the Chair Congratulations to the Society of Editors (Queensland) for pulling off a hugely successful National Editors Conference in Brisbane! Sitting at the airport waiting for my return flight to Perth, and still on a high, I thought I’d jot down my first reflections on the weekend’s events. The conference was brilliant —really. I’ve had the opportunity to meet editors from all around Australia, to be inspired by...»

«Avoid Being Abstract When Making Policies on the Welfare of Animals Temple Grandin Department of Animal Science Colorado State University In Species Matters; Edited by Marianne DeKoven and Michael Lundblad. Columbia University Press, New York, pp 195-217 2010 In this chapter, I am going to discuss two main issues from the viewpoint of a person who has worked for thirty-five years finding practical ways to improve the treatment of cattle and pigs. I have worked to design better equipment and to...»

«Detecting and Statistically Correcting Sample Selection Bias Gary Cuddeback Elizabeth Wilson John G. Orme Terri Combs-Orme ABSTRACT. Researchers seldom realize 100% participation for any research study. If participants and non-participants are systematically different, substantive results may be biased in unknown ways, and external or internal validity may be compromised. Typically social work reGary Cuddeback, MSW, MPH, is Research Associate, Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research,...»

«Agnieszka Romanowska “Something to act out on a stage”: Theatrum Mundi in John Donne’s Poetry In his seminal edition of Donne’s poetry Herbert Grierson wrote about “dramatic intensity” of the Elegies (1912, xlii) and, in his later comments on the love poems, observed their wide dramatic range and complexity of moods (1948, 145). J.B. Leishman appreciated Donne’s “unusual liking and capacity for what children call ‘dressing up’” and his “dramatisation of actual or...»

«South Carolina Loyalists in the American Revolution South Carolina in 1776 (adapted by R. S. Lambert from James Cook, 1773) Note: Broken lines, combined with natural features (e.g. rivers) delineate boundaries of judicial districts. Robert Stansbury Lambert  Second Edition  Works produced at Clemson University by the Center for Electronic and Digital Publishing, including The South Carolina Review and its themed series “Virginia Woolf International,” “Ireland in the Arts and...»

«Unit Support Notes — Travel and Tourism: Employability (National 5) This document may be reproduced in whole or in part for educational purposes provided that no profit is derived from reproduction and that, if reproduced in part, the source is acknowledged. Additional copies of these Unit Support Notes can be downloaded from SQA’s website: www.sqa.org.uk. Please refer to the note of changes at the end of this document for details of changes from previous version (where applicable). ©...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.abstract.xlibx.info - Free e-library - Abstract, dissertation, book

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.