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«Hosted by the: National Institute of Physical Education of Catalonia (INEFC) ISBN 978-84-695-7786-8 European College of Sport Science: Book of ...»

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5.8±1.4mmol/l and team 5.8±1.7mmol/l), p0.05 in all cases. CWT (7.6±1.7mmol/L) showed higher La3post values than SS duets (5.8±1.4mmol/L, p0.05) and teams (5.8±1.7mmol/L, p0.01). Discussion The lowest La3post observed in STA is explained by the lack of work. CNF seems to represent the greatest hypoxic stress due to the whole body being at work and likely the full development of the diving response during the free-fall phase of the deep dive to keep O2 conservation at its maximum (Schagatay, 2011). Relatively moderate La3post in SS events despite intense exertion suggests that lactate is used as an energy source due to intermittent breathing pattern

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in accord with the “lactate shuttle” hypothesis (Brooks, 1991), but apnea-related peripheral vasoconstriction may play a role as well in limiting lactate clearance in the active muscles and subsequent lactate oxidation during recovery (Rodríguez-Zamora et al., 2012). Our results suggest that NLA is influenced by 1) the type, intensity, and duration of work, 2) the magnitude of the diving response developed, and 3) by the apneas’ duration. References Schagatay E (2011). Diving Hyperb Med 41(4), 216-228. Brooks GA (1991). Med Sci Sports Exerc 23(8), 895-906. Rodríguez-Zamora L, Iglesias X, Barrero A, Chaverri D, Erola P, Rodriguez, FA. (2012). PLoS One 7(11), e49098.

SHORT-TERM EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT HIGH-INTENSITY INTERVAL EXERCISE PROTOCOLS IN ADULTS

Wiewelhove, T., Fernandez-Fernandez, J., Kappenstein, J., Ferrauti, A.

Ruhr-University Bochum, Faculty of Sport Science Introduction Over the last years, a huge number of different high-intensity training (HIT) protocols were published with the aim of improving aerobic and anaerobic capacity. Most of them have been shown to be superior in improving athlete’s performance comparing to traditional endurance training. However, the prescription of different HIT protocols with regard to intensity, number of intervals, work-torest-ration and movement pattern has yet to be evaluated. Therefore the aim of this study was to compare the acute effects of five different HIT protocols on the physiological, neuromuscular and psychological parameters of adults. Methods Nine trained male subjects participated in five different training protocols (P1: 4x4 min; P2: 7x2 min; P3: 2x10x30 s; P4: 3x9x15 s; P5: 4x6x5 s) with similar total work output (~26 min) but different work-to-rest-ration (from 2:1 to 1:6). Measurements included blood lactate (La), blood pH, creatin kinase (CK), perceived exertion (RPE and Session-RPE), total quality recovery (TQR), delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), heart rate (HR) and counter movement jump (CMJ), which were taken pre, during and post-training. Results Significant differences (p 0.05) were found in mean La between P4 and P2 (5.37 vs. 10.01 mmol•L-1) as well as between P4 and P5 (5.37 vs. 10.19 mmol•L-1). Blood pH was significantly different (p 0.05) between P4 and P5 (7.38 vs. 7.27). Rate of perceived exertion (RPE and Session-RPE) differed significantly between P4 and P1 (2.9 and 3.1 vs. 5.7 and 6.1) and also between P4 and P2 (2.9 and 3.1 vs. 5.7 and 6.1). Significant differences for mean HR were found between P3 and P5 (168 vs. 149 beats•min-1). No differences between protocols or pre and post-training were found for CK and CMJ.

Moreover, there were no differences between protocols in TQR and DOMS. Discussion Although the present results show differences between HIT protocols, all induced relatively high physiological and perceptual demands. The magnitude of the physiological and perceptual responses in all protocols is similar to previously research conducting HIT interventions, which is associated with physical performance improvements. Overall, the results show no great differences between HIT protocols even though intensity, number of intervals, work-to-rest-ratio and movement pattern differed significantly between protocols. Furthermore, the evaluation of different HIT interventions (e.g., mid and long-term) and their effects on the physiological and performance characteristics of team sport athletes warrants future studies. References Burgomaster, K. A., Howarth, K. R., Phillips, S. M., Rakobowchuk, M., Macdonald, M. J., McGee, S. L., & Gibala, M. J. (2008). J Physiol, 586, 151-160. Gibala M. J., Little J. P., van Essen M., Wilkin G. P., Burgomaster K. A., Gosselin, L. E., Kozlowski, K. F., Devinney-Boymel, L., & Hambridge, C. (2012). J Strength Cond Res, 26, 2866-2871. Iaia, F. M., Rampinini, E., & Bangsbo, J. (2009). Int J Sports Physiol Perform, 4, 291-306.

MENSTRUAL CYCLE PHASES EFFECTS ON ANAEROBIC POWER AND REACTION TIMES

Aras, D., Sahin Ozdemir, N.

Ankara universitesi MENSTRUAL CYCLE PHASES EFFECTS ON ANAEROBIC POWER and REACTION TIMES AU-SCH P EDUC SPORT (Ankara, Turkey) Introduction Although menstruation is a universal phenomenon experienced by almost all women it has been assumed that, women’s mental performance capacity and physical work capacity is impaired prior and during menstruation (Gamberale, 1975). It is still poorly understood and has been discussing effects of menstrual cycle (MC) on athletic performance (Dawson and Reilly, 2009). The purpose of this study determine effects of menstrual cycle phase on anaerobic power and reaction time of college athlete. Methods Nine female students from the School of Physical Education have voluntarily participated in this study. Mean age 22.22 year (± 1.39), mean body height 165.20 cm (± 6.09), mean body weight 57.28 kg (± 9.41) and mean body fat 26.47 % (± 3.66) has been found for the participant. Body compositions were measured by Avis 333 plus (Korea) and parameters about anaerobic power as; Peak Power (PP), Average Power (AP), Minimum Power (MP) and Power Drop (PD), were determined by Wingate Test (WanT) with Monark Peak Bike ergometer. Visual (VRT) and auditory (ART) reaction times were determined by Newtest (Finland) for both left and right hand. Resting heart rates (RHR) were recorded after ten min rest with lying position by Polar F 11 (FINLAND). All measurements were repeated for each participant at follicular, ovulation and luteal phases of menstruation. For statistical significance alpha value set as 0.05. After the test of normality, mean differences of normally distributed parameters were compared with Repeated Measures ANOVA and abnormally distributed parameters were compared by Friedman tests. Results Results obtained from participants during three phases of MC is as follows; RHR 71.22 (± 11.53), 71.00 (± 10.86), 79.87 (± 7,01), VRT for right hand.186 (±.031),.182 (±.021),.184 (±.021);for left hand 193 (±.055),.183 (±.021),.183 (±.020); ART for right hand.161 (±.017),.169 (±.018),.166 (±.023) and for left hand.169 (±.019),.175 (±.021),.166 (± 014) msec. Anaerobic powers test results was recorded as follows; for PP i 7.78 (± 1.35), 8.32 (± 1.08), 8.23 (± 1.14); for AP 5.48 (±.57), 5.72 (±.50), 5.62 (±.69) and for MP i3.38 (±.91), 3.00 (±.95), 2.67 (± 1.31) and PD is 56.61 (± 13.02), 64.08 (± 10.22), 68.22 (± 14.44) w/kg. The only difference has recorded between on luteal and follicular phases auditory left hand reaction time results. Discussion: The results of this study indicated that menstrual cycle has no effect on anaerobic power and visual and auditory reaction time. Despite significant differences on auditory reaction time of left hand, this result can interpreted as coincidence. References Gamberale F, Strindberg L, Wahlberg I. (1975). Scand J Work Env Hea, 1(2):120-127.





Dawson E, Reilly T. (2009). Biol Rhythm Res, Vol. 40, No. 1, 99–119.

BETA-ALANINE SUPPLEMENTATION AFFECTS SUPRAMAXIMAL EXERCISE METABOLISM BUT NOT INTERVAL TRAINING

EFFECTIVENESS

Gross, M.

University of Bern Introduction: Sporting events lasting 1 to 4 minutes require intensities that exceed the limits of the aerobic capacity; fatigue is partly due to metabolite accumulation caused by substrate-level phosphorylation and insufficient aerobic energy supply. Thus, enhancing performance capacity is possible by improving the response time and maximal rate of aerobic energy production or by counteracting metabolite accumulation. Thus, we hypothesized that 1) high-intensity interval training (HIT), by enhancing aerobic energy contribution, and βalanine supplementation, by increasing acid buffering capacity via muscle carnosine, would discretely and positively affect physiological

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mechanisms important for supramaximal exercise, and 2) that HIT would have greater benefits when performed directly after supplementation. Methods: Seventeen active men performed an incremental cycling test for aerobic capacity and a 90-second supramaximal (110 % VO2max) cycling test at three time points: before and after oral supplementation with 3.2 g/d β-alanine (n=7) or placebo (n=9), and after an 11-d HIT block (9 sessions, 4 × 4 min maximal cycling), which followed supplementation directly. Aerobic energy contribution was estimated from the ratio of O2 consumption to the O2 deficit, while biopsies from m. vastus lateralis were taken before and immediately after the suprmaximal cycling test to address metabolic mechanisms. Subjects also completed stress-recovery questionnaires weekly and logged all training throughout the study. Results: Supplementation with β-alanine improved subjective state and stress-recovery balance, especially during HIT, and slightly increased aerobic energy contribution during 90 s cycling at 110% VO2max (1.4 ± 1.3 %, effect size 0.53), concurrent with reduced oxygen deficit and muscle lactate accumulation (-23 ± 30 %, e.s. 0.87), but had no effect on pH disturbance during exercise, buffering capacity or incremental cycling parameters. The HIT block improved buffering capacity (8 ± 11 %, e.s.

0.57), glycogen storage (30 ± 47%, e.s. 0.56) and peak cycling power output slightly (4 ± 4 %, e.s. 0.29), but did not affect VO2max or supramaximal exercise mechanisms. Moreover, there were no differential training effects of HIT when performed following β-alanine supplementation. Conclusions: Contrary to our hypothesis, β-alanine had only minor effects on supramaximal exercise mechanisms whereas HIT had none. However, β-alanine may benefit subjective parameters and perceived stress-recovery balance during intense training phases, while HIT blocks are probably useful in sports involving repeated sprints, where glycogen depletion and acidosis limit performance.

MAXIMAL MEAN POWER OF TRACK AND ROAD SPRINT CYCLISTS DURING WORLD CLASS RACES

Menaspà, P., Martin, D.T., Flyger, N., Quod, M., Beltemacchi, M., Abbiss, C.R.

Edith Cowan University Introduction. Sprint cyclists have the ability to produce very high power outputs for relatively short durations (i.e. 1-30 s). Within track cycling, sprinters are required to produce these high power outputs over short durations (20-60 s), whereas, road race sprint specialists will produce high power outputs at the end of a long ride (up to ~7 hours). As a result, the physiological demands of track and road races are extremely different. However, the peak power (PP) and maximal mean power (MMP) of track and road sprinters has not been extensively reported. Thus, the aim of this study is to describe PP and MMP achieved by these specialists during world class races. Methods. Four world class track sprinters (TRACK) and three successful professional road sprinters (ROAD) participated in this study. Data were collected from flying events at track World Cup or Championship, and during World Tour road races. Anthropometric characteristics, cadence at PP and absolute (W) and relative (W/kg) PP and MMP for 10, 20 and 30 s were determined and compared between TRACK and ROAD using independent sample T-test. Significance was established at P0.05. Results are presented as means ± SD. Results. Age and stature were not statistically different between TRACK (age, 23±3 y; height, 183±9 cm) and ROAD (age, 26±3 y; height, 176±3 cm). TRACK was heavier than ROAD (89.0±3.8 vs. 72.0±1.7 kg). Absolute PP and MMP for 10, 20 and 30 s were higher in TRACK (2027±136, 1592±102, 1336±75 and 1129±86 W, respectively), compared with ROAD (1358±168, 1174±149, 944±80 and 843±63 W). Relative PP and MMP for 10, 20 or 30 s were not different between TRACK (22.8±0.8, 17.9±0.9, 15.0±0.6 and 12.7±0.5 W/kg) and ROAD (18.8±2.1, 16.3±1.8, 13.1±1.1 and 11.7±0.6 W/kg). Cadence at PP was higher in TRACK, compared with ROAD (128±6 vs. 109±6 rpm). Discussion. Despite a similar age and height, TRACK was considerably heavier than ROAD. As expected, the absolute power output of TRACK was significantly higher than ROAD.

Although the physiological demands of track and road sprinting is extremely different, PP and MMP relative to body weight were not different. Further research should compare power relative to coefficient of drag (CdA), which could explain typically observed differences in sprint speed (~72 vs. ~65 km/h, for TRACK and ROAD, respectively). This study presents novel data which will assist sport scientists and coaches in the preparation of athletes by providing a better understanding the demands of world class track and/or road sprint performances.

14:00 - 15:00 Mini-Orals PP-PM55 Rehabilitation [RE] 2

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ILLNESS-SPECIFIC SELF-EFFICACY, DEPRESSION AND THE LEVEL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY OF

COPD- PATIENTS

Müller, K., Brammer, N., Wagner, P.



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