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PEAK VO2 IN YOUNG SWIMMERS DURING A TREADMILL INCREMENTAL TEST UNTIL EXHAUSTIONRodrigues Ferreira, M.A.1,2, Mendes, J.1,2, Fernandes, R.2, Fernando, C.1, VencesBrito, A.M.2 1: University of Madeira (Funchal, Portugal); 2: Sport Sciences School of Rio Maior, Polytechnic Institute of Santarém (Rio Maior, Portugal) Introduction Children’s participation in competitive sports often begins at an earlier age, undergoing through training and competition process (Armstrong & McManus, 2011). Therefore, it’s important to understand the physiological responses to exercise and training in young athletes. The aim of this study was to analyze the Peak VO2 in pubertal swimmers and compare it with participants not involved in any regular sport practice. Methods In the study 20 young male were evaluated: 10 young swimmers (age, 14.0 ± 1.33 yr.; height, 169.91 ± 7.71 cm; weight, 55.83 ± 9.09 kg; tanner’s stage, 3.9 ± 0.32), with an average of 4.3 ± 1.77 years of training practice and competition;
and 10 participants not involved in any regular sport practice (age, 14.0 ± 1.25 yr.; height, 165.32 ± 6.22 cm; weight, 64.87 ± 16.35 kg;
tanner’s stage, 3.9 ± 0.32). Peak VO2 was measured directly (Cosmed K4b2, Rome, Italy), during a continuous progressive treadmill protocol (Modified Balke) where the participants ran until exhaustion (volitional fatigue or maximum criterion was achieved). Normality (Shapiro-Wilks test) and homogeneity (Levene’s test) were satisfied for a significance level of.05. To compare the groups, the Student’s t test (two-tailed) was used (Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 17.0), with a significance level of p 0.05. Results Young swimmers shown higher relative Peak VO2 (75.91 ± 7.75 vs. 55.45 ± 10.03 ml • kg-1 • min-1) compared with the group of young boys not involved in any regular sport practice (p = 0.000). Discussion It was observed a significantly higher relative Peak VO2 in young swimmers and that may be due to the differences in sport practice between the groups. A high Peak VO2 is essential for elite performance in many sports (Armstrong, Tomkinson, & Ekelund, 2011), and the results of the present study were in agreement with improvement of aerobic performance following a period of training in young swimmers (e.g., Faude et al., 2008). Peak VO2 is an important variable for coaches and is also required to access this parameter from sport specific tests. Surely it will be useful for young people to practice regular sport or physical activity in order to achieve a healthier lifestyle. References Armstrong N, McManus AM (2011). Med Sport Sci, 56, 1-22. Armstrong N, Tomkinson G, Ekelund U (2011). Br J Sports Med, 45, 849-58. Faude O, Meyer T, Scharhag J, Weins F, Urhausen A, Kindermann W (2008). Int J Sports Med, 29, 906-912. Tanner JM (1962). Growth at adolescence, 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell.
PEAK VO2 AND PEAK POWER OUTPUT IN YOUNG SOCCER PLAYERSRodrigues Ferreira, M.A.1,2, Mendes, J.1,2, Rebelo-Gonçalves, R.3, Fernandes, R.2, Fernando, C.1, VencesBrito, A.M.2 1: UMa (Funchal, Portugal); 2: ESDRM-IPS (Rio Maior, Portugal), 3: FCDEF-UC (Coimbra, Portugal) Introduction Children’s morphological and functional specialization has concerned the investigators for the past years (Malina, Bouchard, & Bar-Or, 2004). Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the evidence of the metabolic specialization in pubertal soccer players.
Methods Ten young male soccer players (age, 14.1 ± 0.88 yr.; height, 171.37 ± 9.02 cm; weight, 60.77 ± 9.84 kg; tanner’s stage, 3.7 ± 0.48) participated in the study, with an average of 6.7 ± 2.7 years of experience. An incremental treadmill test to exhaustion (Modified Balke) was used to assess Peak VO2, with direct gas analysis, breath-by-breath (Cosmed K4b2, Rome, Italy). To assess Peak Power Output, participants performed the Wingate Anaerobic Test (Monark 894E), with a resistance of 75 g/kg (7.5% of body weight). Statistical analysis was carried out with Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 17.0. The data was presented as means and standard deviation, and correlations were made (Pearson Correlations) in order to determine the relationships between the Peak VO2 and Peak Power Output. Results The absolute and relative Peak VO2 was 3748.57 ± 659.02 ml • min-1 and 61.66 ± 3.93 ml • kg-1 • min-1, respectively.
The absolute and relative Peak Power Output was 517.4 ± 83.02 W and 8.56 ± 0.89 W • kg-1, respectively. Results showed a strong correlation between absolute Peak VO2 and Peak Power Output (p =.778), but no correlation between relative Peak VO2 and relative Peak Power Output (p = -.346). Discussion It was observed that the players who achieved the best results in absolute Peak VO2 also achieved better performance in absolute Peak Power Output, although no relationship was found in relative to body mass. Those results were in agreement with results of non-athletes (Falk & Bar-Or, 1993) and shown that these young soccer players were not metabolic specialized. The issue of metabolic specialization in young athletes is still unclear, but the results may suggest that the metabolic specialization begins in late puberty. Further studies should take into account allometric scaling to evaluate the physiological performance of young soccer players. References Falk B, Bar-Or O (1993). Pediatr Exerc Sci, 5, 318-331. Malina R, Bouchard C, Bar-Or O (2004). Growth, maturation and physical activity, 2nd ed. Champaign: Human Kinetics. Tanner JM 1962. Growth at adolescence, 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell.
DIVING RESPONSE IN ELITE DIVERS AFTER A ONE-WEEK DIET AND OVERNIGHT FASTINGMarongiu, E., Tocco, F.1, Migliaccio, G.M.2, Olla, S.1, Palazzolo, G.1, Sanna, I.1, Roberto, S.1, Ghiani, G.1, Pusceddu, M.1, Crisafulli, A.1 University of Cagliari Introduction. It is well known that the nutritional status may affect performance. In competitive apnoea it is important to limit metabolism to minimise oxygen consumption and improve apnoea duration. Hence, many elite divers fast before performing apnoea. Lipid metabolism exerts two different effects during apnoea: by one hand it may increase oxygen consumption, on the other hand it may improve performance because it reduces splanchnic filling and the relative amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) produced. Therefore, fasting can delay respiratory contractions and prolong the total duration of the breath hold (Lindholm P et al., 2007). Thus, in our opinion, an overnight fasting after a short dietary period could reduce splanchnic filling without inducing an excessive increment in metabolism, thereby improving the diving response. Methods. We studied 8 healthy elite divers on two separate trials: (A) three dived to 10-20-30 meters deep, three hours after the normal breakfast, and (B) three dived at the same depth, but after following a specific diet and overnight fasting. Measurements have been performed through an impedance cardiograph contained inside an underwater torch, to assess hemodynamic parameters such trans-thoracic fluid index (TFI), stroke volume (SV), heart rate (HR) and cardiac output (CO), during static and dynamic apnoea (Tocco F et al.,2013). Before and at end of each test we collected blood pressure (MBP), arterial O2 saturation (SaO2), blood glucose (Glu) and blood lactate (Bla) data. Results. Preliminary results show that overnight fasting causes an improvement in time of static apnoea at 10-20-30 meters with respect to the same trials after breakfast, probably because of an ameliorated cardiovascular response. In detail, a significant increment in static apnoea duration at 10 meters was found (mean time was 57.7±22.8 sec after fasting and 40.0±25 sec after breakfast, p0.05). Besides, during dives at 30 meters, mean SV values after fasting were higher than after breakfast (+64.6±61% and -1.1±21.7% respectively, p0.05). Conclusion. Data seem to indicate that diet followed by overnight fasting improves the diving response, and that dietary manoeuvres may have an important application in improving diving response via SV and CO changes during static and dynamic apnoea. References Lindholm P, Conniff M, Gennser M, Pendergast, D, Lundgren C. (2007). Eur J Appl Physiol, 100(4), 417-425. Tocco F, Marongiu E, Pinna M, Roberto S, Pusceddu M, Angius L, Migliaccio G, Milia R, Concu A, Crisafulli A.
(2013). Acta Physiol (Oxf). 207 (2), 290-298.
CARDIORESPIRATORY RESPONSES IN EXHAUSTIVE TANDEM-BICYCLE ERGOMETER EXERCISEOnodera, S.1, Katayama, K.2, Ogita, F.3, Saito, T.1, Yoshioka, A.4, Nishimura, K.5, Kawano, H.6, Hayashi, S.1, Wada, T.1, Murata, M.1, Takagi, Y.1, Furumoto, K.1, Iida, T.7, Seki, K.8, Yamaguchi, H.9 1KUMW, 2Nagoya Univ, 3NIFS, 4Kagawa Univ, 5HIT, 6Waseda Univ, 7Kurashiki Univ of Science and the Arts, 8Univ of Marketing and Distribution Sciences, 9Kibi International Univ, 10Shujitsu Junior College Purpose: We developed a tandem-bicycle ergometer. Two subjects can share for one load with one braking pist type using the tandembicycle ergometer. We have reported that the tandem-bicycle ergometer is suitable to give an equal load to two subjects during submaximal exercise (Onodera S. et al., ECSS 2012). Thus time, we performed a maximal incremental test, and we tested whether the tandem –bicycle ergometer can give equal load to two subjects to exhaustion. Methods: The subjects were sixteen males. Their age, height and body mass were 25±7 years, 173±7 cm, and 71±10 kg (mean ± SD). All subjects signed the informed consent forms prior to participation in this study. First, the subjects performed incremental exercise until exhaustion using a single-bicycle ergometer (SIN). Cardiorespiratory variables [peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) and peak heart rate (HR peak)] were recorded during exercise. Next, the incremental exercise using a tandem-bicycle ergometer was carried out in two different conditions: former saddle (FOR) and rear saddle (REA). The subjects, who have almost the same peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak), were selected for the exercise using a tandem ergometer. The coefficient of variations (CV) for each variable at exhaustion was calculated between trials, e.g., SIN vs. FOR and SIN vs. REA. Results: VO2 peak and HR peak in the SIN trial were 43.8±8.7 ml/kg/min and 189±7 bpm. In the FOR and REA trials, VO2 peak and HR peak were
44.7±7.4 ml/kg/min and 192±12 bpm (FOR), and 44.1±9.3 ml/kg/min and 191±8 bpm (REA), respectively. There were no significant differences among the trials. The CV for VO2 peak was 6.1± 4.6% (SIN vs. FOR) and 5.5 ± 3.6% (SIN vs. REA). The CV for HR peak was 2.7± 2.7% (SIN vs. FOR) and 2.5 ± 1.8% (SIN vs. REA). Discussion: It was reported that circadian change in VO2 peak is 3-10%, and that changes in intra-individual difference are 5.5%. These data in the previous studies are quite comparable for the results in the present study. In con
clusion, it is suggested that the tandem-bicycle ergometer is suitable to give an equal load to exhaustion from the viewpoint of cardiorespiratory responses of two subjects. [The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (24500686)]
THE COMPARISON OF ACUTE RESPONSE OF LUNG FUNCTION INDICES TO AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC EXERCISES IN
AIR POLLUTIONAlibakhshi, E.1,2, Aminian Jazi, A.1, Sobhani, V.2, Parastesh, M.3 1: UB (Barcelona, Spain), 2: BMSU (Tehran, Iran), 3: AU (Arak, Iran) Introduction While aerobic activity is one of the keys to a healthy lifestyle, air pollution and exercise can be an unhealthy combination. This is especially true if you have asthma, diabetes, heart or lung conditions, or lower respiratory disease. Even when you’re not exercising, exposure to air pollution can cause health problems. But with the combination of air pollution and exercise, the potential health problems are increased. This thesis project aims at studying the effect of aerobic and anaerobic exercises on lung function in polluted weather.
Methods In this study 20 healthy men with the age range of 22.4,.4 were randomly divided into the experiment group (10 participants) and the control group. Initially, the experiment group had one session of aerobic exercised (lasing for 20 minutes with the intensity of 50 revolves in a minute and power of 100 watt). Then after a three- week break,in polluted air, these participants did the anaerobic exercise (lasting for 21 minutes with the intensity of 70 revolves in a minute and with the power of 285 watt for one minute and a two- minute break for 7 times) on the ergometer bicycle. The same kind of exercise was done by the control group but in healthy clean air. The experimental and control groups were successively exposed to healthy (PSI=60) and unhealthy (PSI=150) weather. Lung function tests were run before the exercises, right after the exercises (the first post-test) and 24 hours after the exercises (the second post-test). Results The findings of this study showed that aerobic exercise in unhealthy polluted air resulted in the reduction of FEV1, FVC and FEF25-75% indexes in the first and second post-tests significantly (P0.05). Following anaerobic exercises in polluted air, a significant decrease was observed in FVC and FEF25-75% indexes in both the first and second post-tests (P0.05). Yet, in comparison to anaerobic exercises, FEV1 and FEF25indexes in the first and second post-tests and FEV1 and FVC indexes in the second post-tests underwent a greater reduction (P0.05). Discussion While physical exercise in polluted weather caused a reduction in the lung function indicators (FEV1, FVC and FEF25in the first and second post-tests, it seemed that anaerobic exercises in polluted weather reduced (FEV1 and FEF25-75% in the first and second post tests and FEV1/FVC in the second post test to a far lesser extent. References 1. Abedi A.Sezavar S H,Mohamadi naghde M (2005). ’ The comparison of test lung function in melders aged 70 27 years with non melders in Ardebil province. Medical secience magazine of Tabriz. 36 (46). 61 57. 2. A Carlisle and N Sharp (2001). ’ Exercise and outdoor ambient air pollution’. Br J Sports Med. August;
35, 214–222. 3. Ashish R. shah, david gozal, and thomas G. keens (1998). “Determinants of Aerobic and Anaerobic Exercise Performance in Cystic Fibrosis”. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 157, 1145–1150. 4. Bascom R, Bromberg PA (1996). ’Health effect of outdoor air pollution’. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 50 153:3.