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12.37±9.33PU) and %CVCmax (11.68±5.49% and 11.73±7.04%), or for maximal SkBF (118.36±73.46PU and 111.29±40.29PU) and CVCmax (1.50±0.91PU/mmHg and 1.42±0.48PU/mmHg) respectively. Discussion These findings suggest that in a population of healthy, elite, trained adolescent males, KT is not associated with increased forearm SkBF either at the taped site or collateral area. It is therefore, unlikely, that any therapeutic effects of KT are mediated through an upregulation of the cutaneous circulation. Further investigation is warranted into the effects of KT on alternative vascular beds and the mechanisms by which such effects, if any, are achieved.


Okita, K., Takada, S., Suga, T., Kadoguchi, T., Sato, T., Morita, N., Taniura, T., Horiuchi, M., Kinugawa, S., Tsuitsui, H.

Hokusho University Background/aim: In recent years it has been reported that increases in muscle size and strength equivalent to those with high intensity load can be achieved even with low intensity loads (20–40% of 1 repetition maximum, RM) using blood flow restriction (BFR) together with resistance training (Abe T. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging 2012). However, there is a possibility that continuous BFR will markedly increase blood pressure and induce the development of blood clots (Manini TM. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2009, Nakajima T. Int J KAATSU 2006). There are also reports showing a high rating of perceived exertion (Wernbom M. J Strength Cond Res 2006). Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate the efficacy and timing of intermittent BFR procedures during low-intensity resistance exercise. Methods: Seven healthy men performed 3 sets of 1-min unilateral plantar flexion (30 repetitions) with 1-min intervals under 4 different conditions: low intensity resistance exercise (L, 20 % 1-RM) without BFR (L-noBFR), L with BFR during rest periods (L-reBFR), L with BFR during exercise periods (L-exBFR), and L with continuous BFR during both exercise and rest periods (L-conBFR). Based on the results of this experiment, additional moderate intensity resistance exercises (40% 1-RM) with intermittent BFR (M-reBFR and M-exBFR) were performed in four of the seven subjects. Intramuscular metabolic stress, defined as phosphocreatine depletion and intramuscular pH decrease, was evaluated by 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Results: Phosphocreatine depletion and intramuscular pH decrease in L-conBFR were significantly greater than those in L-noBFR, L-reBFR and L-exBFR (p0.05), while those changes in L-reBFR and L-exBFR were equal and tented to be greater than those in L-noBFR. By contrast, those changes in M-reBFR and M-exBFR were similar to those in L-conBFR. Subject’s exertion after BFR during exercise was lower in L-reBFR and L-exBFR than in L-conBFR, and was tended to be lower in L-reBFR than in L-exBFR.

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Conclusion: In low intensity resistance exercise with BFR, continuous BFR can successfully increase muscular metabolic stress and might be the most effective method when the goal is improved muscle strength and size. However, an equivalent metabolic load can also be obtained with intermittent BFR exercises by increasing the exercise load. Regarding subject’s exertion, moderate intensity with rest periods BFR could be useful method and applicable to resistance training.



Vogt, M., Gross, M., Bieri, K., Bellwald, A., Weisskopf, R., Hoppeler, H.

University of Bern Introduction: Competitive alpine skiing is a very high intensity sport which taxes muscular strength and aerobic as well as anaerobic energy supply systems of the athletes to the max. Improvements in high intensity performance, muscle buffer capacity and muscle contractility were shown after beta-alanine supplementation in humans and animals (1, 2). It was hypothesized that beta-alanine supplementation of alpine skiers improves performance and affects their muscle energy metabolism. Methods: 11 male junior alpine skiers agreed to participate in this double blinded study (age: 19.5 ± 1.2 y; height: 179 ± 4.8 cm; body weight: 76.5 ± 5.5 kg). They were randomly assigned to beta-alanine (Bal: 4.8g beta-alanine/day) or placebo group (Pla). Before and after the 5-week supplementation phase, exercise tests were performed to assess jump performance (counter movement jump: CMJ) as well as high intensity exercise performance (90s high-box jump: HB90) and energy metabolism (90s high intensity fixed-load cycling test: CLT). Muscle biopsies were taken from M. vastuls lateralis to determine buffer capacity. Results: Maximal power output during CMJ was improved in Bal (+7 ± 3%, p=0.01) but not in Pla (+1 ± 3%, p=0.57; between group effect: p=0.03). Performance during the last third of HB90 was increased in Bal only (+7 ± 4%, p=0.02) but not in Pla (0 ± 12%, p=1.00; no between group effect: p=0.28). Fatigue-Index was in a tendency improved for Bal from to -7% (p=0.06) and declined non-significantly in Pal from -4% to -11% (p=0.25; between group effect: p=0.03). Spirometric measurements in CLT showed small effects of beta-alanine on high-intensity metabolism.

Namely, developments in the oxygen deficit (Bal:

-2.5 ± 7.5 %; Pla +6.6 ± 2.8 %; p=0.05) and aerobic energy contribution (Bal: +1.3 ± 2.9 %; Pla:

-2.1 ±1.3 %; p=0.06) were in tendency different between the groups. Muscle buffer capacity did not change in either group. Discussion: We show for the first time, that well trained competitive alpine skiers can increase explosive strength of their leg muscles when supplemented with beta-alanine. Together, improved performance during the last third of the HB90 and small metabolic shifts during the CLT indicate, that beta-alanine might positively affect aerobic energy supply during high intensity exercise. Beta-alanine’s effects on intramuscular calcium sensitivity and turnover might possibly explain these results. References: 1. Everaert I, et al. Effect of beta-alanine and carnosine supplementation on muscle contractility in mice. Med Sci Sports Exerc 45, 2013. 2. Harris RC, and Sale C. Beta-alanine supplementation in high-intensity exercise. Med Sport Sci 59, 2012.

14:00 - 15:00 Mini-Orals PP-PM41 Physiology [PH] 8



Murata, H.1, Oshima, S.1, Yoshida, A.1, Torii, S.2, Higuchi, M.2, Taguchi, M.2 1:Graduate School of Sport Sciences, Waseda University (Saitama,Japan), 2: Faculty of Sport Sciences, Waseda University (Saitama,Japan) Introduction It is important to know a total energy expenditure (TEE) for determination of energy requirement. Though REE is needed to know TEE, it is difficult to measure an actual REE. Therefore, some estimation equations of REE have developed. Currently, the equation for athletes published by Japan Institute of Sports Science (JISS equation, REE (kcal/day)=28.5×FFM(kg)) have widely used to estimate REE of athletes in Japan. However, this equation was not established based on the measured REE (REEm) of athletes. In our previous study, it was found that estimated REE (REEe) by JISS equation was significantly differnt from REEm. On the other hand, REEe by Taguchi’s equation (REE (kcal/day)=27.5×FFM (kg)+5) 1) was similar to the REEm of female athletes. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the estimation equation developed for female athletes can be used to predict REE for male athletes. Methods Sixty collegiate male athletes (48 football players and 12 swimmers) were participated in this study (height 174.2 +/- 5.7cm, body weight (BW) 80.3 +/- 11.5kg, and fat free mass (FFM) 67.2 +/- 7.1kg). REE was measured by indirect calorimetry using Dougras bag tequnique,and body composition was estimated by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The REEe was calculated from Taguchi’s equations based on a FFM and JISS equation.

Paired t-test,estimation error, total error and systematic error by Bland?Altman plots were used for analysis. Results REEe by Taguchi’s equation was not significantly different from REEm for male athletes. Whereas REEe based on the JISS equation for male athletes was significantly different from REEm. There is a high correlation between REEm and REEe from Taguchi’s equation (r = 0.76,p 0.001). BlandAltman analysis of Taguchi’s equation did not show any systematic error. Discussion It was found that Taguchi’s equation for Japanese female athletes can be used to male athletes. Most of predicted equations of REE are based on metabolic rate per body weight (BW). In previous studies, it was suggested that REE are more highly correlated with FFM than BW. Sexual difference exists in body composition that male individual generally have larger FFM than female. Metabolic rates per FFM remove the influence by a sexual difference in body composition. Taguchi’s equation uses FFM as variable not BW. Therefore,this study suggested that Taguchi’s equation can be used for male athletes. In conclusion, this study suggested that Taguchi’s equation can be used to predict REE not only for female atheles but also for male athletes. Reference 1)Taguchi M, Ishikawa-Takata K, Ouchi S,Higuchi M. (2011). Jpn J Phys Fitness Sports Med, 60(4), 423-432

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Mitic, N.1, Popovic, Lj.1, Radic, I.1, Miric, D.2, Djokic, T.1 Medical Faculty, Kosovska Mitrovica Introduction Among many physiological adjustments during exercise, respiratory adaptation seems to be one of the most complex. It is well known that aerobic exercise can increase oxygen consumption by 10-20 folds in whole body, and 100-200 folds in working muscles, increasing the demand for gas exchange. The ventilatory response to exercise is well documented but mixed results have been reported for the ’airways response’ (Silverman et al, 2005). Expiratory flow limitation can lead to an inability for increasing alveolar ventilation and together with diaphragmal fatigue are common in endurance trained athletes, resulting in diminished endurance exercise performance.

The aim of this work was to examine the effect of regular training on respiratory function parameters. Methods Experiment included 30 regular trained sportsmen and 30 sedentary students. Spirometry measurements were obtained in both groups at rest and included ventilatory parameters (forced vital capacity-FVC, forced expiratory volume in 1 second-FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio) and air flow parameters (peak expiratory flow-PEF, forced expiratory flow: FEF-25-75, FEF25, FEF50, FEF75). Results Estimated results in sportsmen group were (% of predicted value): FVC=105,9%; FEV1=106,3%; FEV1/FVC=101,2%; PEF=97,2%; FEF-25-75=102,2%; FEF25=90,1%; FEF50=96,4% and FEF75=88,5%. Similary results were obtained among sedentary students: FVC=101,5%; FEV1=101,8%; FEV1/FVC=101,7%; PEF=92,8%; FEFFEF25=90,4%; FEF50=93,7% and FEF75=86,7%. Discussion It is clear that results didn’t show significant difference between any of examined parameters pointing that there were no changes in respiratory function in rest between trained people and sedentary one. Similar results were found by (Boutellier et al, 1992). The efficiency of the respiratory system presents significant limitation factor of the body’s ability to perform exercise. Effect of the increased work of breathing, respiratory muscle fatigue and dyspnea point to the importance of respiratory muscle training. Conclusions Sportsmen under regular training in state of rest showed no significant difference in respiratory function parameters compared to sedentary healthy persons.


Zaicenkoviene, K., Stasiulis, A.

Lithuanian Sports University Introduction Yoga breathing (pranayama) is an important part of health and spiritual practices (Brown R.P, Gerbarg PL.,2009). Yoga induces long-term changes in respiratory function and control (Bernardi L. et al., 2007). Yogic practices are low intensity exercises within lactate threshold and has the potentiality to train the respiratory system in such a way that it helps an individual to cope with the respiratory demand (Ray et al., 2011). Methods Pulmonary function was measured by means of the gas analyzer „Oxycon Mobile“ (Germany) before and after 6 month yoga training in men (YPM) (n=11) (age - 30,8 (7,06), BMI - 25,6 (2,6)) and women (YPW) (n=11) ( age - 28,9 (6,86), BMI - 22,5 (2,3)) practicing yoga and control subjects (n=22) of similar age. Results Pulmonary function measures forced expiratory flow rate (FEF) 75/85 (L/s) (p = 0,036), forced vital capacity inspiration (FVC IN) (L) (p = 0,014), forced inspired volume in one second (FIV1) (L) (p = 0,045) were significantly higher in yoga practicing than in control women group, and vital capacity (VC MAX ) (%) (p = 0,018), forced expiration volume in one second (FEV 1) (%) (p = 0,041), forced expiratory flow rate (FEF) 25% (L/s) (p = 0,017), FVC IN (L) (p = 0,002) in practicing yoga men, than in non practicing yoga men group. They also demonstrated higher values of maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) (L/min) (p = 0,068) and forced vital capacity (FVC) (L) (p = 0,050). After 6 month of yoga practicing we found higher FEF50% (L/s) (p = 0,003), in women group and VCMAX (%) (p = 0,028) in men group. We also found tendency to increase of VCMAX (L) (p = 0,053), peak inspiration flow (PIF) (L/s) (p = 0,051), FVC IN (L) (p=0,061), FIVI (L) (p = 0,064) indexes in men and PIF (L/s) (p = 0,072), FVC IN (L) (p= 0,076) in women.

Conlusions Yoga practise seems, to have minor influence on respiratory function at rest in men and women of middle age. References Bernardi L, Passino C, Spadacini G, Bonfichi M, Arcaini L, Malcovati L, Bandinelli G, Schneider A, Keyl C, Feil P, Greene RE, Bernasconi C.

(2007). Reduced hypoxic ventilatory response with preserved blood oxygenation in yoga trainees and Himalayan Buddhist monks at altitude: evidence of a different adaptive strategy? Eur J Appl Physiol. 99(5). Brown RP, Gerbarg PL. (2009). Yoga breathing, meditation, and longevity. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1172:54-62. Ray US, Pathak A, Tomer OS (2011). Hatha yoga practices: energy expenditure, respiratory changes and intensity of exercise. Evid Based Complement Alternat Medicine.

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