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«Hosted by the: National Institute of Physical Education of Catalonia (INEFC) ISBN 978-84-695-7786-8 European College of Sport Science: Book of ...»

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EXTREMITY MOTION IN THE TENNIS BACKHAND GROUNDSTROKE

Iwamoto, S.1, Fukubayashi, T.2, Hume, P.3 1: Toyo University (Tokyo, Japan), 2: Waseda University (Tokyo, Japan), 3: AUT (Auckland, New Zealand) Introduction When a tennis player steps forward to hit a backhand groundstroke in closed stance, modifying the direction of the front foot relative to the net may reduce the risk of ankle injury and increase performance. This study evaluated the relationship between pelvic rotation and lower extremity movement during the backhand groundstroke when players stepped with toes parallel to the net (Level) or with toes pointed towards the net (Net). Methods Eighteen high school competitive tennis players (16.8 ± 0.8 years, all right-handed) performed tennis court tests comprising of five maximum speed directional runs (Michikami, 2004) to the court intersection line to hit an imaginary ball with forehand or backhand swings. This study analyzed the front stepping foot contact phase (FSFCP) of backhand groundstroke (BHGS). Based on the data collected, researchers classified the participants as either Level or Net. Using data from the FSFCP, positions of the landmarks were manually digitized using a motion analyzer (Frame-DIAS, DKH, Japan) and then three dimensional coordinates were calculated using a direct linear transformation method (Abdel-Aziz and Karara, 1971). Results For both groups, forefoot values increased during the early phase of FSFCP, leveled off during the middle phase, and then decreased during the late phase.

However, those values for the Level group changed less than the Net group and were always negative. The foot values for both groups were initially positive, and became negative at approximately 25% FSFCP. The max rotational velocity of pelvis and the max acceleration of pelvis rotation for the Net group was in the first half of FSFCP. However, max rotational velocity of pelvis for the Level group was in the second half of FSFCP. Discussion Fong et al. (2007) point out that plantar flexion and supination are the injury mechanisms of inversion ankle sprain. This study suggests that the direction of the front stepping foot in BHGS may influence the risk of inversion ankle sprain.

According to the results, after approximately 25% FSFCP for both groups, the foot angle is negative which means that the ankle is in planter flexion. As for the movement of the forefoot, the Net group showed a pattern of supination-pronation-supination during FSFCP, and the Level group, while displaying a similar pattern, was only in supination of various degrees during FSFCP. References Abdel-Aziz and Karara, (1971). In Proceedings A.S.P. Symposium on Photogrammetry 1–19. Fong et al. (2007). Sports Medicine, 37(1), 73-94.

Michikami, (2004). The Journal of Clinical Sports Medicine, 21, 70–73.

12:00 - 13:15 Plenary sessions PS-PL03 The choreography of movement and the brain

WHITHER SPORT SCIENCE? THE CHALLENGE OF UNDERSTANDING LIVING MOVEMENT

Scott Kelso, J.A.

Florida Atlantic University & The University of Ulster, N.Ireland Sport Science is an applied field that draws its concepts, methods and tools from other disciplines that do not have the word ’science’ in their names such as physics, chemistry, biology and so forth. Consider ’Testing Ronaldo’. The focus is primarily on measurement and different ways to capture various aspects of what makes Ronaldo a great footballer. Interesting though it is, lacking is a broad framework of ideas with which to interpret and integrate findings from the many different levels and scales of observation involved in typical sports settings. At each level of complexity, from the cellular to the social who are the players, what are their properties and what are the rules of the game? How do we go about it? A first step is to identify significant units on a chosen level. Due to the tremendous degeneracy of living things, where the same outcome may be produced by different combinations of elements, evidence suggests that the significant units are context-dependent coordinative structures. In such level-independent coordinative structures different elements are ordered in space and time sometimes recruiting new pathways to serve a particular function. Perturbing them in one place may produce a remote effect somewhere else. All the parts of the coordinative structure are weakly interacting, often bidirectionally coupled and interdependent.

Over the last 25 years or so, theory and experiments on a variety of different systems at neural, behavioral and social levels reveal that WICS (Weakly Interacting Coordinative Structures) are truly emergent. They are collective states whose spatiotemporal dynamics prove to be extremely rich, including interesting transient regimes that are neither fully ordered nor disordered in space and time. Collective states and their dynamics can span old ’splits’ and dichotomies that science has created: the separation of animal and environment, sensory and motor, perception and action, structure and function, even mind and matter. It may be that sport science, rather than being viewed as an applied interdisciplinary field of study, is at the core of something physics (the science of inanimate matter and motion) has left virtually untouched, namely animate, living movement. Though in some cases, such as the HKB model and its extensions, it has proved possible to derive collective states at one level from (nonlinear) interactions between component processes at another, evidence suggests an alternative or at least complementary picture: namely that the laws of collective states in living things --coordination dynamics-- are sui generis. That is, coordination dynamics deals with collective behaviors that emerge from and depend on more microscopic levels, but may not be deducible from them. This does not mean that sport science or the life sciences in general should not try to understand the relationships between different levels of observation. Rather, the task is to come up with lawful descriptions that allow us to understand collective, emergent behavior at all levels and to respect the autonomy of each.





CHOREOGRAPHIC THINKING TOOLS

Delahunta, S.

Coventry University How might we develop new ways of augmenting movement creativity in dance? Can we better connect intellect, imagination and the physical body and enrich their relationship? The dance field is already rich in choreographic expertise that is constantly seeking new means of movement related innovation. Can a scientific understanding of the organisation of the mind provide clues and ideas that can be put into practice in this field? This presentation will outline some of the challenges that need to be addressed and specific illustrations

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of current studio practices and tasks. The illustrations will focus on research on the use of multiple forms of imagery in movement creation being explored in R-Research (the research arm of Wayne McGregor | Random Dance).

14:00 - 15:00 Mini-Orals PP-PM29 Nutrition [NU] 3

A COMPARISON OF TECHNIQUES TO INDICATE ACUTE HYDRATION STATUS AND THE EFFECT OF SAMPLE STORAGE

ON MEASUREMENTS

Carter, J.M., Rollo, I., Randell, R.K., Jeukendrup, A.E.

Gatorade Sports Science Institute Introduction The importance of adequate hydration for physical and cognitive performance is well known (Sawka et al., 2007). There is a need for assessing hydration status non-invasively, but many techniques using urine analysis, although in widespread use, are not always supported by appropriate validation studies (Carter et al., 2012). Therefore, the present study compared two non-validated methods (Osmocheck, Vitech Scientific Ltd, UK; Urine Reagent Strips, IND Diagnostic Inc, Canada) with a criterion measure and other commonly used techniques. In addition, the stability of urine samples at different storage temperatures was determined. Methods Three sequential daily midmorning urine and saliva samples were provided by 13 male athletes (age: 25 ± 4 yr) and analysed for: urine specific gravity (Usg); urine colour (Ucol); urine reagent strip (Urs); saliva osmolality (Sosmo); urine osmolality determined by a handheld refractometer (Uochek). All were compared using regression analysis against the criterion measure of urine osmolality determined by freezing point depression osmometry (Uosmo – Advanced Osmometer 2020; Advanced Instruments, USA). Urine samples were subsequently stored at a range of temperatures (20 °C; 3 °C; -20 °C; -80 °C) for 10 days before being re-analysed and compared to baseline values using a repeated measures ANOVA. Results All measures, apart from Sosmo (p=0.10), correlated well with Uosmo (p0.0001): Uochek R2=0.94;

Usg R2=0.94; Ucol R2=0.75; Urs R2=0.46; Sosmo; R2=0.07. The proportion of samples correctly identified as mildly-to-significantly dehydrated (700 mOsmol/kg; ≥1.020 Usg; Sawka et al., 2007) was as follows: 100% (Uochek); 96% (Usg); 93% (Ucol); 82% (Urs); 68% (Sosmo).

Samples remained stable regardless of storage conditions, with no significant difference from baseline values (p0.05). Discussion Urine analysis is a common method to assess body water status in young adult male athletes. The results of the present study confirm that the Osmocheck handheld refractometer and Atago Master-Sur refractometer (Japan) are both strongly associated with urine osmolality, as measured by freezing point depression osmometry. Urine colour remains an adequate and easy-to-use field technique, while urine reagent strips may be used as a marker of hydration when more sensitive methods are unavailable. Finally, if immediate analysis is not possible, urine samples remain stable for at least 10 days at a range of ambient temperatures. References Carter, JM, Loney, T, Blacker, SD, Nicholson, GF, Wilkinson, DM. (2012). Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 22, 257-266. Sawka, MN, Burke, LM, Eichner, ER, Maughan, RJ, Montain, SJ, Stachenfeld, NS. (2007). Med Sci Sport Exerc, 39, 377-390.

EFFECTS OF PREVIOUS INGESTION OF COCONUT WATER ON FLUID BALANCE AND PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE IN THE

HEAT Laitano, O., Menezes, E.S., Marins, D.M., Reis, G.S.

Federal University of Vale do Sao Francisco, Petrolina Introduction: It is well established in the literature that exercise in the heat impairs physical performance largely due to dehydration.

Therefore, drinking strategies that may counteract this impairment on performance are warranted. Coconut water (CW) is a natural drink found in the coconut and due to its composition may improve performance. However, CW is usually hypertonic which may cause gastrointestinal distress if consumed during exercise. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess the effects of previous ingestion of CW on fluid balance and aerobic performance in the heat. Methods: To achieve this, eight physically active men were recruited (age 23 ± 3 years, height 176 ± 6 cm, body mass 78 ± 7 kg) and performed three time to exhaustion trials on a cycle ergometer in the heat (34 ± 1°C) ingesting either of the three drinks in a randomized fashion: a) plain water (PW), b) flavored drink (FD), and c) CW. Results: There was a greater time to exhaustion in the CW session ( PW = 1121 s; FD = 1141 CW = 1366 s; ; p=0.029). Likewise, participants had a higher maximal heart rate in the CW session when compared to the other trials (PW = 183 ± 5 bpm, FD = 184 ± 8 bpm, and CW = 189 ± 8 bpm;

p0.05) followed by a reduced urine output after the CW ingestion (PW 214 ± 85 ml, FD 267 ± 90 ml, and CW 161 ± 73 ml, p0.05). Discussion: The greater time to exhaustion observed with the CW ingestion might be related to the greater hydration capacity, as observed by the reduced urine output. Also, this might have an impact in the cardiovascular limit achieved during the CW trial as shown by the greater maximal HR when compared to plain water and favored drink. Conclusion: In conclusion, the results demonstrated that previous ingestion of coconut water improved physical performance in the heat and provided a higher hydration capacity in comparison to plain water and flavored drink.

INTAKE OF MACRONUTRIENTS AND FLUIDS DURING AN ULTRA-ENDURANCE BICYCLE RACE: AN OBSERVATIONAL

FIELD STUDY

Konrad, M., Karner-Rezek, K., Wallner, D., Simi, H., Knechtle, B.

FH JOANNEUM

Introduction Ultra-endurance bicycle events are becoming increasingly popular but offer various physiological challenges. The competitors can expect to face extreme nutrient demands and a variety of practical challenges to achieve their fluid and fuel replacement goals.

In particular the ingestion of the right amounts and the recommended mix of multiple transportable carbohydrates (CHO) during ultraendurance bicycle events leads to higher oxidation rates of exogenous CHOs and thus to a higher rate of total CHO-oxidation. The performance in ultra-endurance events is associated with the ingestion of the right mix of CHOs during the race in a dose-dependent manner (1). The aim of this study was to compare the subject ´s carbohydrate intake during an ultra- endurance race with the recommenda

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